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Volume 20, Number 3—March 2014

Research

Possible Role of Songbirds and Parakeets in Transmission of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus to Humans

Jeremy C. Jones, Stephanie Sonnberg, Zeynep A. Koçer, Karthik Shanmuganatham, Patrick Seiler, Yuelong Shu, Huachen Zhu, Yi Guan, Malik Peiris, Richard J. Webby, and Robert G. WebsterComments to Author 
Author affiliations: St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA (J.C. Jones, S. Sonnberg, Z.A. Kocer, K. Shanmuganatham, P. Seiler, R.J. Webby, R.G. Webster); Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China (Y. Shu); Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China (H. Zhu, Y. Guan); State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital, Shenzhen, China (H. Zhu, Y. Guan, M. Peiris); The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China (H. Zhu, Y. Guan, M. Peiris)

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Table 4

Seroconversion of birds to influenza A(H7N9)*

Species, exposure HI titer†
Baseline‡ Homologous virus Heterologous virus§
Zebra finch
Inoculated < 5.3 ± 1.0 (3/4) <
Contact < 4.3 ± 0.0 (3/3) <
Society finch
Inoculated < 6.9 ± 0.9 (5/5) <
Contact < 6.3 ± 0.0 (1/3) <
Sparrow
Inoculated ND 5.8 ± 0.6 (4/4) <
Contact ND 4.3 ± 0.0 (2/3) <
Parakeet
Inoculated < 4.8 ± 0.6 (4/5) <
Contact < < (0/2) <

*HI, hemagglutination inhibition; <, below the limit of detection (serum dilution<1:20); homologous virus: A/Anhui/1/2013(H7N9); heterologous viruses: A/Songbird/Hong Kong/SB102/2001 (H3N8) and A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1); ND, not determined because of limited number of available birds; HA, hemagglutinin.
†Reciprocal value (log2/50 μL) of the highest titer that inhibited 4 HA units of virus (no. seropositive animals/total no. sampled). Data are the mean ± SD of positive samples.
‡Baseline HI titers (3 birds/group) were obtained before virus challenge.
§HI titers to heterologous viruses were determined in the serum (16 dpi) from the same number of birds used to determine the HI titers to the homologous virus.

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