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Volume 20, Number 3—March 2014

Volume 20, Number 3—March 2014   PDF Version [PDF - 10.61 MB - 183 pages]

Synopses

  • Medscape CME Activity
    Invasive Fungal Infections after Natural Disasters PDF Version [PDF - 539 KB - 7 pages]
    K. Benedict and B. J. Park
    View Summary

    Fungal infections in persons affected by natural disasters are a potentially overlooked public health problem.

        View Abstract

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed.

    Length: 1:04
        Cite This Article
    EID Benedict K, Park BJ. Invasive Fungal Infections after Natural Disasters. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):349-355. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131230
    AMA Benedict K, Park BJ. Invasive Fungal Infections after Natural Disasters. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):349-355. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131230.
    APA Benedict, K., & Park, B. J. (2014). Invasive Fungal Infections after Natural Disasters. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 349-355. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131230.

Research

  • High-level Relatedness among Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense Strains from Widely Separated Outbreaks PDF Version [PDF - 460 KB - 8 pages]
    H. Tettelin et al.
    View Summary

    Identifying M. abscessus to the subspecies level will help delineate clusters with higher transmissibility.

        View Abstract

    Three recently sequenced strains isolated from patients during an outbreak of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense infections at a cystic fibrosis center in the United States were compared with 6 strains from an outbreak at a cystic fibrosis center in the United Kingdom and worldwide strains. Strains from the 2 cystic fibrosis outbreaks showed high-level relatedness with each other and major-level relatedness with strains that caused soft tissue infections during an epidemic in Brazil. We identified unique single-nucleotide polymorphisms in cystic fibrosis and soft tissue outbreak strains, separate single-nucleotide polymorphisms only in cystic fibrosis outbreak strains, and unique genomic traits for each subset of isolates. Our findings highlight the necessity of identifying M. abscessus to the subspecies level and screening all cystic fibrosis isolates for relatedness to these outbreak strains. We propose 2 diagnostic strategies that use partial sequencing of rpoB and secA1 genes and a multilocus sequence typing protocol.

    Length: 1:26
        Cite This Article
    EID Tettelin H, Davidson RM, Agrawal S, Aitken ML, Shallom S, Hasan NA, et al. High-level Relatedness among Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense Strains from Widely Separated Outbreaks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):364-371. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131106
    AMA Tettelin H, Davidson RM, Agrawal S, et al. High-level Relatedness among Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense Strains from Widely Separated Outbreaks. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):364-371. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131106.
    APA Tettelin, H., Davidson, R. M., Agrawal, S., Aitken, M. L., Shallom, S., Hasan, N. A....Zelazny, A. M. (2014). High-level Relatedness among Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense Strains from Widely Separated Outbreaks. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 364-371. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131106.
  • Comparison of Imported Plasmodium ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri Infections among Patients in Spain, 2005–2011 PDF Version [PDF - 480 KB - 8 pages]
    G. Rojo-Marcos et al.
    View Summary

    P. ovale wallikeri infection caused more severe thrombocytopenia than did P. ovale curtisi infection.

        View Abstract

    Sequencing data from Plasmodium ovale genotypes co-circulating in multiple countries support the hypothesis that P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri are 2 separate species. We conducted a multicenter, retrospective, comparative study in Spain of 21 patients who had imported P. ovale curtisi infections and 14 who had imported P. ovale wallikeri infections confirmed by PCR and gene sequencing during June 2005–December 2011. The only significant finding was more severe thrombocytopenia among patients with P. ovale wallikeri infection than among those with P. ovale curtisi infection (p = 0.031). However, we also found nonsignificant trends showing that patients with P. ovale wallikeri infection had shorter time from arrival in Spain to onset of symptoms, lower level of albumin, higher median maximum core temperature, and more markers of hemolysis than did those with P. ovale curtisi infection. Larger, prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

    Length: 1:27
        Cite This Article
    EID Rojo-Marcos G, Rubio-Muñoz J, Ramírez-Olivencia G, García-Bujalance S, Elcuaz-Romano R, Díaz-Menéndez M, et al. Comparison of Imported Plasmodium ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri Infections among Patients in Spain, 2005–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):417-424. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130745
    AMA Rojo-Marcos G, Rubio-Muñoz J, Ramírez-Olivencia G, et al. Comparison of Imported Plasmodium ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri Infections among Patients in Spain, 2005–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):417-424. doi:10.3201/eid2003.130745.
    APA Rojo-Marcos, G., Rubio-Muñoz, J., Ramírez-Olivencia, G., García-Bujalance, S., Elcuaz-Romano, R., Díaz-Menéndez, M....Cuadros-González, J. (2014). Comparison of Imported Plasmodium ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri Infections among Patients in Spain, 2005–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 417-424. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130745.
  • Medscape CME Activity
    Use of Drug-Susceptibility Testing for Management of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Thailand, 2004–2008 PDF Version [PDF - 522 KB - 9 pages]
    E. Lam et al.
    View Summary

    In selected areas, test results were rarely used for management of MDR TB.

        View Abstract

    In 2004, routine use of culture and drug-susceptibility testing (DST) was implemented for persons in 5 Thailand provinces with a diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). To determine if DST results were being used to guide treatment, we conducted a retrospective chart review for patients with rifampin-resistant or multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB during 2004–2008. A total of 208 patients were identified. Median time from clinical sample collection to physician review of DST results was 114 days. Only 5.8% of patients with MDR TB were empirically prescribed an appropriate regimen; an additional 31.3% received an appropriate regimen after DST results were reviewed. Most patients with rifampin -resistant or MDR TB had successful treatment outcomes. Patients with HIV co-infection and patients who were unmarried or had received category II treatment before DST results were reviewed had less successful outcomes. Overall, review of available DST results was delayed, and results were rarely used to improve treatment.

    Length: 1:33
        Cite This Article
    EID Lam E, Nateniyom S, Whitehead S, Anuwatnonthakate A, Monkongdee P, Kanphukiew A, et al. Use of Drug-Susceptibility Testing for Management of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Thailand, 2004–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):408-416. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130951
    AMA Lam E, Nateniyom S, Whitehead S, et al. Use of Drug-Susceptibility Testing for Management of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Thailand, 2004–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):408-416. doi:10.3201/eid2003.130951.
    APA Lam, E., Nateniyom, S., Whitehead, S., Anuwatnonthakate, A., Monkongdee, P., Kanphukiew, A....Podewils, L. (2014). Use of Drug-Susceptibility Testing for Management of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Thailand, 2004–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 408-416. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130951.
  • Hendra Virus Vaccine, a One Health Approach to Protecting Horse, Human, and Environmental Health PDF Version [PDF - 416 KB - 8 pages]
    D. Middleton et al.
    View Summary

    This vaccine for horses could also protect veterinarians who treat horses.

        View Abstract

    In recent years, the emergence of several highly pathogenic zoonotic diseases in humans has led to a renewed emphasis on the interconnectedness of human, animal, and environmental health, otherwise known as One Health. For example, Hendra virus (HeV), a zoonotic paramyxovirus, was discovered in 1994, and since then, infections have occurred in 7 humans, each of whom had a strong epidemiologic link to similarly affected horses. As a consequence of these outbreaks, eradication of bat populations was discussed, despite their crucial environmental roles in pollination and reduction of the insect population. We describe the development and evaluation of a vaccine for horses with the potential for breaking the chain of HeV transmission from bats to horses to humans, thereby protecting horse, human, and environmental health. The HeV vaccine for horses is a key example of a One Health approach to the control of human disease.

    Length: 1:13
        Cite This Article
    EID Middleton D, Pallister J, Klein R, Feng Y, Haining J, Arkinstall R, et al. Hendra Virus Vaccine, a One Health Approach to Protecting Horse, Human, and Environmental Health. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):379. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131159
    AMA Middleton D, Pallister J, Klein R, et al. Hendra Virus Vaccine, a One Health Approach to Protecting Horse, Human, and Environmental Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):379. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131159.
    APA Middleton, D., Pallister, J., Klein, R., Feng, Y., Haining, J., Arkinstall, R....Wang, L. (2014). Hendra Virus Vaccine, a One Health Approach to Protecting Horse, Human, and Environmental Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 379. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131159.
  • Possible Role of Songbirds and Parakeets in Transmission of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus to Humans PDF Version [PDF - 405 KB - 6 pages]
    J. C. Jones et al.
    View Summary

    These birds may be intermediate hosts and facilitate transmission and dissemination of subtype H7N9.

        View Abstract

    Avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) recently emerged in China, causing severe human disease. Several subtype H7N9 isolates contain influenza genes previously identified in viruses from finch-like birds. Because wild and domestic songbirds interact with humans and poultry, we investigated the susceptibility and transmissibility of subtype H7N9 in these species. Finches, sparrows, and parakeets supported replication of a human subtype H7N9 isolate, shed high titers through the oropharyngeal route, and showed few disease signs. Virus was shed into water troughs, and several contact animals seroconverted, although they shed little virus. Our study demonstrates that a human isolate can replicate in and be shed by such songbirds and parakeets into their environment. This finding has implications for these birds’ potential as intermediate hosts with the ability to facilitate transmission and dissemination of A(H7N9) virus.

    Length: 1:21
        Cite This Article
    EID Jones JC, Sonnberg S, Koçer ZA, Shanmuganatham K, Seiler P, Shu Y, et al. Possible Role of Songbirds and Parakeets in Transmission of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus to Humans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):385. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131271
    AMA Jones JC, Sonnberg S, Koçer ZA, et al. Possible Role of Songbirds and Parakeets in Transmission of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus to Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):385. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131271.
    APA Jones, J. C., Sonnberg, S., Koçer, Z. A., Shanmuganatham, K., Seiler, P., Shu, Y....Webster, R. G. (2014). Possible Role of Songbirds and Parakeets in Transmission of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus to Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 385. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131271.
  • Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W, Burkina Faso, 2012 PDF Version [PDF - 576 KB - 6 pages]
    J. R. MacNeil et al.
    View Summary

    Reported increases raised questions about whether these cases were a natural increase in disease or the result of serogroup replacement after meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine introduction.

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    In 2010, Burkina Faso became the first country to introduce meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT). During 2012, Burkina Faso reported increases in Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W, raising questions about whether these cases were a natural increase in disease or resulted from serogroup replacement after PsA-TT introduction. We analyzed national surveillance data to describe the epidemiology of serogroup W and genotyped 61 serogroup W isolates. In 2012, a total of 5,807 meningitis cases were reported through enhanced surveillance, of which 2,353 (41%) were laboratory confirmed. The predominant organism identified was N. meningitidis serogroup W (62%), and all serogroup W isolates characterized belonged to clonal complex 11. Although additional years of data are needed before we can understand the epidemiology of serogroup W after PsA–TT introduction, these data suggest that serogroup W will remain a major cause of sporadic disease and has epidemic potential, underscoring the need to maintain high-quality case-based meningitis surveillance after PsA–TT introduction.

    Length: 1:40
        Cite This Article
    EID MacNeil JR, Medah I, Koussoubé D, Novak RT, Cohn AC, Diomandé F, et al. Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W, Burkina Faso, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):402-407. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131407
    AMA MacNeil JR, Medah I, Koussoubé D, et al. Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W, Burkina Faso, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):402-407. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131407.
    APA MacNeil, J. R., Medah, I., Koussoubé, D., Novak, R. T., Cohn, A. C., Diomandé, F....Messonnier, N. E. (2014). Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W, Burkina Faso, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 402-407. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131407.
  • Monitoring Water Sources for Environmental Reservoirs of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1, Haiti PDF Version [PDF - 620 KB - 8 pages]
    M. T. Alam et al.
    View Summary

    The presence of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 in environmental reservoirs are confirmed in Haiti

        View Abstract

    An epidemic of cholera infections was documented in Haiti for the first time in more than 100 years during October 2010. Cases have continued to occur, raising the question of whether the microorganism has established environmental reservoirs in Haiti. We monitored 14 environmental sites near the towns of Gressier and Leogane during April 2012–March 2013. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype strains were isolated from 3 (1.7%) of 179 water samples; nontoxigenic O1 V. cholerae was isolated from an additional 3 samples. All samples containing V. cholerae O1 also contained non-O1 V. cholerae. V. cholerae O1 was isolated only when water temperatures were ≥31°C. Our data substantiate the presence of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 in the aquatic environment in Haiti. These isolations may reflect establishment of long-term environmental reservoirs in Haiti, which may complicate eradication of cholera from this coastal country.

    Length: 1:33
        Cite This Article
    EID Alam MT, Weppelmann TA, Weber CD, Johnson JA, Rashid MH, Birch CS, et al. Monitoring Water Sources for Environmental Reservoirs of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1, Haiti. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):363. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131293
    AMA Alam MT, Weppelmann TA, Weber CD, et al. Monitoring Water Sources for Environmental Reservoirs of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1, Haiti. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):363. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131293.
    APA Alam, M. T., Weppelmann, T. A., Weber, C. D., Johnson, J. A., Rashid, M. H., Birch, C. S....Ali, A. (2014). Monitoring Water Sources for Environmental Reservoirs of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1, Haiti. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 363. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131293.
  • Hantavirus Infections among Overnight Visitors to Yosemite National Park, California, USA, 2012 PDF Version [PDF - 516 KB - 8 pages]
    J. J. Núñez et al.
    View Summary

    A rare hantavirus outbreak reaffirms the need for control of deer mice and public awareness of the risks posed by contact with them.

        View Abstract

    In summer 2012, an outbreak of hantavirus infections occurred among overnight visitors to Yosemite National Park in California, USA. An investigation encompassing clinical, epidemiologic, laboratory, and environmental factors identified 10 cases among residents of 3 states. Eight case-patients experienced hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, of whom 5 required intensive care with ventilatory support and 3 died. Staying overnight in a signature tent cabin (9 case-patients) was significantly associated with becoming infected with hantavirus (p<0.001). Rodent nests and tunnels were observed in the foam insulation of the cabin walls. Rodent trapping in the implicated area resulted in high trap success rate (51%), and antibodies reactive to Sin Nombre virus were detected in 10 (14%) of 73 captured deer mice. All signature tent cabins were closed and subsequently dismantled. Continuous public awareness and rodent control and exclusion are key measures in minimizing the risk for hantavirus infection in areas inhabited by deer mice.

    Length: 1:31
        Cite This Article
    EID Núñez JJ, Fritz CL, Knust B, Buttke D, Enge B, Novak MG, et al. Hantavirus Infections among Overnight Visitors to Yosemite National Park, California, USA, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):386-393. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131581
    AMA Núñez JJ, Fritz CL, Knust B, et al. Hantavirus Infections among Overnight Visitors to Yosemite National Park, California, USA, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):386-393. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131581.
    APA Núñez, J. J., Fritz, C. L., Knust, B., Buttke, D., Enge, B., Novak, M. G....Vugia, D. J. (2014). Hantavirus Infections among Overnight Visitors to Yosemite National Park, California, USA, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 386-393. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131581.
  • Coxiella burnetii Seroprevalence and Risk for Humans on Dairy Cattle Farms, the Netherlands, 2010–2011 PDF Version [PDF - 445 KB - 9 pages]
    B. Schimmer et al.
    View Summary

    Transmission to humans can be reduced by using protective clothing and eliminating birds and vermin from stables.

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    Q fever, caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a recognized occupational infection in persons who have regular contact with ruminants. We determined C. burnetii seroprevalence in residents living or working on dairy cattle farms with >50 adult cows and identified risk factors for seropositivity. Serum samples from farm residents, including employees, were tested for C. burnetii IgG and IgM; seroprevalence was 72.1% overall and 87.2%, 54.5%, and 44.2% among farmers, spouses, and children, respectively. Risk factors included farm location in southern region, larger herd size, farm employment, birds in stable, contact with pigs, and indirect contact with rats or mice. Protective factors included automatic milking of cows and fully compliant use of gloves during and around calving. We recommend strengthening general biosecurity measures, such as consistent use of personal protective equipment (e.g., boots, clothing, gloves) by farm staff and avoidance of birds and vermin in stables.

    Length: 1:34
        Cite This Article
    EID Schimmer B, Schotten N, van Engelen E, Hautvast J, Schneeberger P, van Duijnhoven Y, et al. Coxiella burnetii Seroprevalence and Risk for Humans on Dairy Cattle Farms, the Netherlands, 2010–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):433. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131111
    AMA Schimmer B, Schotten N, van Engelen E, et al. Coxiella burnetii Seroprevalence and Risk for Humans on Dairy Cattle Farms, the Netherlands, 2010–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):433. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131111.
    APA Schimmer, B., Schotten, N., van Engelen, E., Hautvast, J., Schneeberger, P., & van Duijnhoven, Y. (2014). Coxiella burnetii Seroprevalence and Risk for Humans on Dairy Cattle Farms, the Netherlands, 2010–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 433. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131111.
  • Minimal Diversity of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains, South Africa PDF Version [PDF - 455 KB - 8 pages]
    N. R. Gandhi et al.
    View Summary

    Although diverse strains are present in South Africa, only a few strains cause most drug-resistant TB.

        View Abstract

    Multidrug- (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB) are commonly associated with Beijing strains. However, in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, which has among the highest incidence and mortality for MDR and XDR TB, data suggest that non-Beijing strains are driving the epidemic. We conducted a retrospective study to characterize the strain prevalence among drug-susceptible, MDR, and XDR TB cases and determine associations between strain type and survival. Among 297 isolates from 2005–2006, 49 spoligotype patterns were found. Predominant strains were Beijing (ST1) among drug-susceptible isolates (27%), S/Quebec (ST34) in MDR TB (34%) and LAM4/KZN (ST60) in XDR TB (89%). More than 90% of patients were HIV co-infected. MDR TB and XDR TB were independently associated with mortality, but TB strain type was not. We conclude that, although Beijing strain was common among drug-susceptible TB, other strains predominated among MDR TB and XDR TB cases. Drug-resistance was a stronger predictor of survival than strain type.

    Length: 1:50
        Cite This Article
    EID Gandhi NR, Brust J, Moodley P, Weissman D, Heo M, Ning Y, et al. Minimal Diversity of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):394-401. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131083
    AMA Gandhi NR, Brust J, Moodley P, et al. Minimal Diversity of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):394-401. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131083.
    APA Gandhi, N. R., Brust, J., Moodley, P., Weissman, D., Heo, M., Ning, Y....Shah, N. (2014). Minimal Diversity of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 394-401. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131083.

Historical Review

  • Drought and Epidemic Typhus, Central Mexico, 1655–1918 PDF Version [PDF - 606 KB - 6 pages]
    J. N. Burns et al.
    View Summary

    Climate data suggest that drought was a factor in several major typhus epidemics.

        View Abstract

    Epidemic typhus is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Rickettsia prowazekii and transmitted by body lice (Pediculus humanus corporis). This disease occurs where conditions are crowded and unsanitary. This disease accompanied war, famine, and poverty for centuries. Historical and proxy climate data indicate that drought was a major factor in the development of typhus epidemics in Mexico during 1655–1918. Evidence was found for 22 large typhus epidemics in central Mexico, and tree-ring chronologies were used to reconstruct moisture levels over central Mexico for the past 500 years. Below-average tree growth, reconstructed drought, and low crop yields occurred during 19 of these 22 typhus epidemics. Historical documents describe how drought created large numbers of environmental refugees that fled the famine-stricken countryside for food relief in towns. These refugees often ended up in improvised shelters in which crowding encouraged conditions necessary for spread of typhus.

        Cite This Article
    EID Burns JN, Acuna-Soto R, Stahle DW. Drought and Epidemic Typhus, Central Mexico, 1655–1918. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):442-447. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131366
    AMA Burns JN, Acuna-Soto R, Stahle DW. Drought and Epidemic Typhus, Central Mexico, 1655–1918. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):442-447. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131366.
    APA Burns, J. N., Acuna-Soto, R., & Stahle, D. W. (2014). Drought and Epidemic Typhus, Central Mexico, 1655–1918. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 442-447. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131366.

Policy Review

  • Surveillance for Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Under-Resourced Countries PDF Version [PDF - 469 KB - 8 pages]
    G. Vernet et al.
    View Summary

    New programs can be improved by drawing on lessons from previous successful efforts.

        View Abstract

    Antimicrobial drug resistance is usually not monitored in under-resourced countries because they lack surveillance networks, laboratory capacity, and appropriate diagnostics. This accelerating problem accounts for substantial number of excess deaths, especially among infants. Infections particularly affected by antimicrobial drug resistance include tuberculosis, malaria, severe acute respiratory infections, and sepsis caused by gram-negative bacteria. Nonetheless, mapping antimicrobial drug resistance is feasible in under-resourced countries, and lessons can be learned from previous successful efforts. Specimen shipping conditions, data standardization, absence of contamination, and adequate diagnostics must be ensured. As a first step toward solving this problem, we propose that a road map be created at the international level to strengthen antimicrobial resistance surveillance in under-resourced countries. This effort should include a research agenda; a map of existing networks and recommendations to unite them; and a communication plan for national, regional, and international organizations and funding agencies.

    Length: 1:26
        Cite This Article
    EID Vernet G, Mary C, Altmann DM, Doumbo O, Morpeth S, Bhutta ZA, et al. Surveillance for Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Under-Resourced Countries. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):434-441. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.121157
    AMA Vernet G, Mary C, Altmann DM, et al. Surveillance for Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Under-Resourced Countries. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):434-441. doi:10.3201/eid2003.121157.
    APA Vernet, G., Mary, C., Altmann, D. M., Doumbo, O., Morpeth, S., Bhutta, Z. A....Klugman, K. P. (2014). Surveillance for Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Under-Resourced Countries. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 434-441. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.121157.

Dispatches

  • Role of Waddlia chondrophila Placental Infection in Miscarriage PDF Version [PDF - 522 KB - 5 pages]
    D. Baud et al.
        View Abstract

    Waddlia chondrophila is an intracellular bacterium suspected to cause human and bovine abortion. We confirmed an association between antibodies against W. chondrophila and human miscarriage and identified this organism in placenta or genital tract of women who had had miscarriages. These results suggest a possible role of W. chondrophila infection in miscarriage.

        Cite This Article
    EID Baud D, Goy G, Osterheld M, Croxatto A, Borel N, Vial Y, et al. Role of Waddlia chondrophila Placental Infection in Miscarriage. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):460-464. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131019
    AMA Baud D, Goy G, Osterheld M, et al. Role of Waddlia chondrophila Placental Infection in Miscarriage. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):460-464. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131019.
    APA Baud, D., Goy, G., Osterheld, M., Croxatto, A., Borel, N., Vial, Y....Greub, G. (2014). Role of Waddlia chondrophila Placental Infection in Miscarriage. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 460-464. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131019.
  • Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection in Giant Pandas, China PDF Version [PDF - 886 KB - 4 pages]
    D. Li et al.
        View Abstract

    We confirmed infection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in giant pandas in China during 2009 by using virus isolation and serologic analysis methods. This finding extends the host range of influenza viruses and indicates a need for increased surveillance for and control of influenza viruses among giant pandas.

        Cite This Article
    EID Li D, Zhu L, Cui H, Ling S, Fan S, Yu Z, et al. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection in Giant Pandas, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):480-483. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131531
    AMA Li D, Zhu L, Cui H, et al. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection in Giant Pandas, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):480-483. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131531.
    APA Li, D., Zhu, L., Cui, H., Ling, S., Fan, S., Yu, Z....Wang, C. (2014). Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection in Giant Pandas, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 480-483. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131531.
  • Infective Endocarditis in Northeastern Thailand PDF Version [PDF - 366 KB - 4 pages]
    G. Watt et al.
        View Abstract

    Despite rigorous diagnostic testing, the cause of infective endocarditis was identified for just 60 (45.5%) of 132 patients admitted to hospitals in Khon Kaen, Thailand, during January 2010–July 2012. Most pathogens identified were Viridans streptococci and zoonotic bacteria species, as found in other resource-limited countries where underlying rheumatic heart disease is common.

        Cite This Article
    EID Watt G, Pachirat O, Baggett HC, Maloney SA, Lulitanond V, Raoult D, et al. Infective Endocarditis in Northeastern Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):473-476. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131059
    AMA Watt G, Pachirat O, Baggett HC, et al. Infective Endocarditis in Northeastern Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):473-476. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131059.
    APA Watt, G., Pachirat, O., Baggett, H. C., Maloney, S. A., Lulitanond, V., Raoult, D....Fournier, P. (2014). Infective Endocarditis in Northeastern Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 473-476. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131059.
  • Nontoxigenic tox-bearing Corynebacterium ulcerans Infection among Game Animals, Germany PDF Version [PDF - 469 KB - 5 pages]
    T. Eisenberg et al.
        View Abstract

    Corynebacterium ulcerans may cause diphtheria in humans and caseous lymphadenitis in animals. We isolated nontoxigenic tox-bearing C. ulcerans from 13 game animals in Germany. Our results indicate a role for game animals as reservoirs for zoonotic C. ulcerans.

        Cite This Article
    EID Eisenberg T, Kutzer P, Peters M, Sing A, Contzen M, Rau J, et al. Nontoxigenic tox-bearing Corynebacterium ulcerans Infection among Game Animals, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):448-452. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130423
    AMA Eisenberg T, Kutzer P, Peters M, et al. Nontoxigenic tox-bearing Corynebacterium ulcerans Infection among Game Animals, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):448-452. doi:10.3201/eid2003.130423.
    APA Eisenberg, T., Kutzer, P., Peters, M., Sing, A., Contzen, M., & Rau, J. (2014). Nontoxigenic tox-bearing Corynebacterium ulcerans Infection among Game Animals, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 448-452. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130423.
  • Postmortem Diagnosis of Invasive Meningococcal Disease PDF Version [PDF - 361 KB - 3 pages]
    A. D. Ridpath et al.
        View Abstract

    We diagnosed invasive meningococcal disease by using immunohistochemical staining of embalmed tissue and PCR of vitreous humor from 2 men in New York City. Because vitreous humor is less subject than other body fluids to putrefaction, it is a good material for postmortem analysis.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ridpath AD, Halse TA, Musser KA, Wroblewski D, Paddock CD, Shieh W, et al. Postmortem Diagnosis of Invasive Meningococcal Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):453-455. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131245
    AMA Ridpath AD, Halse TA, Musser KA, et al. Postmortem Diagnosis of Invasive Meningococcal Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):453-455. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131245.
    APA Ridpath, A. D., Halse, T. A., Musser, K. A., Wroblewski, D., Paddock, C. D., Shieh, W....Weiss, D. (2014). Postmortem Diagnosis of Invasive Meningococcal Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 453-455. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131245.
  • Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever among Health Care Workers, Turkey PDF Version [PDF - 309 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Celikbas et al.
        View Abstract

    We investigated 9 cases of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (1 fatal, 2 asymptomatic) among health care workers in Turkey. Needlestick injuries were reported for 4 workers. Eight received ribavirin. In addition to standard precautions, airborne infection isolation precautions are essential during aerosol-generating procedures. For postexposure prophylaxis and therapy, ribavirin should be given.

        Cite This Article
    EID Celikbas A, Dokuzoğuz B, Baykam N, Gok S, Eroğlu M, Midilli K, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever among Health Care Workers, Turkey. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):477-479. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131353
    AMA Celikbas A, Dokuzoğuz B, Baykam N, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever among Health Care Workers, Turkey. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):477-479. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131353.
    APA Celikbas, A., Dokuzoğuz, B., Baykam, N., Gok, S., Eroğlu, M., Midilli, K....Ergonul, O. (2014). Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever among Health Care Workers, Turkey. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 477-479. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131353.
  • Urban Epidemic of Dengue Virus Serotype 3 Infection, Senegal, 2009 PDF Version [PDF - 538 KB - 4 pages]
    O. Faye et al.
        View Abstract

    An urban epidemic of dengue in Senegal during 2009 affected 196 persons and included 5 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever and 1 fatal case of dengue shock syndrome. Dengue virus serotype 3 was identified from all patients, and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were identified as the primary vector of the virus.

        Cite This Article
    EID Faye O, Ba Y, Faye O, Talla C, Diallo D, Chen R, et al. Urban Epidemic of Dengue Virus Serotype 3 Infection, Senegal, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):456-459. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.121885
    AMA Faye O, Ba Y, Faye O, et al. Urban Epidemic of Dengue Virus Serotype 3 Infection, Senegal, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):456-459. doi:10.3201/eid2003.121885.
    APA Faye, O., Ba, Y., Faye, O., Talla, C., Diallo, D., Chen, R....Sall, A. (2014). Urban Epidemic of Dengue Virus Serotype 3 Infection, Senegal, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 456-459. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.121885.
  • Mimivirus Circulation among Wild and Domestic Mammals, Amazon Region, Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 507 KB - 4 pages]
    F. P. Dornas et al.
        View Abstract

    To investigate circulation of mimiviruses in the Amazon Region of Brazil, we surveyed 513 serum samples from domestic and wild mammals. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in 15 sample pools, and mimivirus DNA was detected in 9 pools of serum from capuchin monkeys and in 16 pools of serum from cattle.

        Cite This Article
    EID Dornas FP, Rodrigues FP, Boratto P, Silva L, Ferreira P, Bonjardim CA, et al. Mimivirus Circulation among Wild and Domestic Mammals, Amazon Region, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):469-472. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131050
    AMA Dornas FP, Rodrigues FP, Boratto P, et al. Mimivirus Circulation among Wild and Domestic Mammals, Amazon Region, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):469-472. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131050.
    APA Dornas, F. P., Rodrigues, F. P., Boratto, P., Silva, L., Ferreira, P., Bonjardim, C. A....Abrahão, J. S. (2014). Mimivirus Circulation among Wild and Domestic Mammals, Amazon Region, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 469-472. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131050.
  • IgG Against Dengue Virus in Healthy Blood Donors, Zanzibar, Tanzania PDF Version [PDF - 422 KB - 4 pages]
    F. Vairo et al.
        View Abstract

    We conducted a seroprevalence survey among 500 healthy adult donors at Zanzibar National Blood Transfusion Services. Dengue virus IgG seroprevalence was 50.6% and independently associated with age and urban residence. These data will aid in building a surveillance, preparedness, and response plan for dengue virus infections in the Zanzibar Archipelago.

        Cite This Article
    EID Vairo F, Nicastri E, Yussuf S, Cannas A, Meschi S, Mahmoud M, et al. IgG Against Dengue Virus in Healthy Blood Donors, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):465-468. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130150
    AMA Vairo F, Nicastri E, Yussuf S, et al. IgG Against Dengue Virus in Healthy Blood Donors, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):465-468. doi:10.3201/eid2003.130150.
    APA Vairo, F., Nicastri, E., Yussuf, S., Cannas, A., Meschi, S., Mahmoud, M....Ippolito, G. (2014). IgG Against Dengue Virus in Healthy Blood Donors, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 465-468. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130150.

Letters

  • Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Urban Hedgehogs PDF Version [PDF - 349 KB - 3 pages]
    G. Földvári et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Földvári G, Jahfari S, Rigó K, Jablonszky M, Szekeres S, Majoros G, et al. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Urban Hedgehogs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):496-498. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130935
    AMA Földvári G, Jahfari S, Rigó K, et al. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Urban Hedgehogs. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):496-498. doi:10.3201/eid2003.130935.
    APA Földvári, G., Jahfari, S., Rigó, K., Jablonszky, M., Szekeres, S., Majoros, G....Sprong, H. (2014). Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Urban Hedgehogs. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 496-498. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130935.
  • Septic Arthritis Caused by Streptococcus suis Serotype 5 in Pig Farmer PDF Version [PDF - 361 KB - 3 pages]
    C. Gustavsson and M. Rasmussen
            Cite This Article
    EID Gustavsson C, Rasmussen M. Septic Arthritis Caused by Streptococcus suis Serotype 5 in Pig Farmer. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):489-491. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130535
    AMA Gustavsson C, Rasmussen M. Septic Arthritis Caused by Streptococcus suis Serotype 5 in Pig Farmer. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):489-491. doi:10.3201/eid2003.130535.
    APA Gustavsson, C., & Rasmussen, M. (2014). Septic Arthritis Caused by Streptococcus suis Serotype 5 in Pig Farmer. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 489-491. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130535.
  • Buruli Ulcer in Liberia, 2012 PDF Version [PDF - 381 KB - 3 pages]
    K. Kollie et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Kollie K, Amoako Y, Ake J, Mulbah T, Zaizay F, Abass M, et al. Buruli Ulcer in Liberia, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):496. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130708
    AMA Kollie K, Amoako Y, Ake J, et al. Buruli Ulcer in Liberia, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):496. doi:10.3201/eid2003.130708.
    APA Kollie, K., Amoako, Y., Ake, J., Mulbah, T., Zaizay, F., Abass, M....Asiedu, K. (2014). Buruli Ulcer in Liberia, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 496. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130708.
  • Cyclospora spp. in Drills, Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea PDF Version [PDF - 265 KB - 2 pages]
    M. L. Eberhard et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Eberhard ML, Owens JR, Bishop HS, de Almeida ME, da Silva AJ. Cyclospora spp. in Drills, Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):510-511. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131368
    AMA Eberhard ML, Owens JR, Bishop HS, et al. Cyclospora spp. in Drills, Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):510-511. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131368.
    APA Eberhard, M. L., Owens, J. R., Bishop, H. S., de Almeida, M. E., & da Silva, A. J. (2014). Cyclospora spp. in Drills, Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 510-511. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131368.
  • Rift Valley Fever in Kedougou, Southeastern Senegal, 2012 PDF Version [PDF - 363 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Sow et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Sow A, Faye O, Faye O, Diallo D, Sadio BD, Weaver SC, et al. Rift Valley Fever in Kedougou, Southeastern Senegal, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):504-506. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131174
    AMA Sow A, Faye O, Faye O, et al. Rift Valley Fever in Kedougou, Southeastern Senegal, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):504-506. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131174.
    APA Sow, A., Faye, O., Faye, O., Diallo, D., Sadio, B. D., Weaver, S. C....Sall, A. A. (2014). Rift Valley Fever in Kedougou, Southeastern Senegal, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 504-506. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131174.
  • Atypical Streptococcus suis in Man, Argentina, 2013 PDF Version [PDF - 268 KB - 3 pages]
    R. Callejo et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Callejo R, Prieto M, Salamone F, Auger J, Goyette-Desjardins G, Gottschalk M, et al. Atypical Streptococcus suis in Man, Argentina, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):500-502. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131148
    AMA Callejo R, Prieto M, Salamone F, et al. Atypical Streptococcus suis in Man, Argentina, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):500-502. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131148.
    APA Callejo, R., Prieto, M., Salamone, F., Auger, J., Goyette-Desjardins, G., & Gottschalk, M. (2014). Atypical Streptococcus suis in Man, Argentina, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 500-502. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131148.
  • Mixed Scrub Typhus Genotype, Shandong, China, 2011 PDF Version [PDF - 286 KB - 2 pages]
    M. Zhang et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Zhang M, Zhao Z, Wang X, Li Z, Ding L, Ding S, et al. Mixed Scrub Typhus Genotype, Shandong, China, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):484-485. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.121349
    AMA Zhang M, Zhao Z, Wang X, et al. Mixed Scrub Typhus Genotype, Shandong, China, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):484-485. doi:10.3201/eid2003.121349.
    APA Zhang, M., Zhao, Z., Wang, X., Li, Z., Ding, L., Ding, S....Yang, L. (2014). Mixed Scrub Typhus Genotype, Shandong, China, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 484-485. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.121349.
  • Bartonella henselae and B. koehlerae DNA in Birds PDF Version [PDF - 747 KB - 4 pages]
    P. E. Mascarelli et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Mascarelli PE, McQuillan M, Harms CA, Harms RV, Breitschwerdt EB. Bartonella henselae and B. koehlerae DNA in Birds. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):491-492. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130563
    AMA Mascarelli PE, McQuillan M, Harms CA, et al. Bartonella henselae and B. koehlerae DNA in Birds. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):491-492. doi:10.3201/eid2003.130563.
    APA Mascarelli, P. E., McQuillan, M., Harms, C. A., Harms, R. V., & Breitschwerdt, E. B. (2014). Bartonella henselae and B. koehlerae DNA in Birds. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 491-492. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130563.
  • Tick-borne Pathogens in Northwestern California, USA PDF Version [PDF - 310 KB - 2 pages]
    D. J. Salkeld et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Salkeld DJ, Cinkovich S, Nieto NC. Tick-borne Pathogens in Northwestern California, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):493-494. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130668
    AMA Salkeld DJ, Cinkovich S, Nieto NC. Tick-borne Pathogens in Northwestern California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):493-494. doi:10.3201/eid2003.130668.
    APA Salkeld, D. J., Cinkovich, S., & Nieto, N. C. (2014). Tick-borne Pathogens in Northwestern California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 493-494. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130668.
  • Novel Cetacean Morbillivirus in Guiana Dolphin, Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 417 KB - 3 pages]
    K. R. Groch et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Groch KR, Colosio AC, Marcondes M, Zucca D, Díaz-Delgado J, Niemeyer C, et al. Novel Cetacean Morbillivirus in Guiana Dolphin, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):511-513. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131557
    AMA Groch KR, Colosio AC, Marcondes M, et al. Novel Cetacean Morbillivirus in Guiana Dolphin, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):511-513. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131557.
    APA Groch, K. R., Colosio, A. C., Marcondes, M., Zucca, D., Díaz-Delgado, J., Niemeyer, C....Luiz Catão-Dias, J. (2014). Novel Cetacean Morbillivirus in Guiana Dolphin, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 511-513. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131557.
  • Staphylococcus delphini and Methicillin-Resistant S. pseudintermedius in Horses, Canada PDF Version [PDF - 325 KB - 3 pages]
    J. W. Stull et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Stull JW, Slavić D, Rousseau J, Weese J. Staphylococcus delphini and Methicillin-Resistant S. pseudintermedius in Horses, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):485-487. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130139
    AMA Stull JW, Slavić D, Rousseau J, et al. Staphylococcus delphini and Methicillin-Resistant S. pseudintermedius in Horses, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):485-487. doi:10.3201/eid2003.130139.
    APA Stull, J. W., Slavić, D., Rousseau, J., & Weese, J. (2014). Staphylococcus delphini and Methicillin-Resistant S. pseudintermedius in Horses, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 485-487. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130139.
  • Rickettsia and Vector Biodiversity of Spotted Fever Focus, Atlantic Rain Forest Biome, Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 402 KB - 3 pages]
    N. O. Moura-Martiniano et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Moura-Martiniano NO, Machado-Ferreira E, Cardoso KM, Gehrke FS, Amorim M, Fogaça AC, et al. Rickettsia and Vector Biodiversity of Spotted Fever Focus, Atlantic Rain Forest Biome, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):498-500. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131013
    AMA Moura-Martiniano NO, Machado-Ferreira E, Cardoso KM, et al. Rickettsia and Vector Biodiversity of Spotted Fever Focus, Atlantic Rain Forest Biome, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):498-500. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131013.
    APA Moura-Martiniano, N. O., Machado-Ferreira, E., Cardoso, K. M., Gehrke, F. S., Amorim, M., Fogaça, A. C....Schumaker, T. (2014). Rickettsia and Vector Biodiversity of Spotted Fever Focus, Atlantic Rain Forest Biome, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 498-500. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131013.
  • Concomitant Multidrug-resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Susceptible Tuberculous Meningitis PDF Version [PDF - 311 KB - 2 pages]
    C. Bernard et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Bernard C, Brossier F, Fréchet-Jachym M, Morand PC, Coignard S, Aslangul E, et al. Concomitant Multidrug-resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Susceptible Tuberculous Meningitis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):506-507. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131205
    AMA Bernard C, Brossier F, Fréchet-Jachym M, et al. Concomitant Multidrug-resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Susceptible Tuberculous Meningitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):506-507. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131205.
    APA Bernard, C., Brossier, F., Fréchet-Jachym, M., Morand, P. C., Coignard, S., Aslangul, E....Veziris, N. (2014). Concomitant Multidrug-resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Susceptible Tuberculous Meningitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 506-507. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131205.
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum Antibodies in Humans, Japan, 2010–2011 PDF Version [PDF - 303 KB - 2 pages]
    Y. Yoshikawa et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Yoshikawa Y, Ohashi N, Wu D, Kawamori F, Ikegaya A, Watanabe T, et al. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Antibodies in Humans, Japan, 2010–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):508-509. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131337
    AMA Yoshikawa Y, Ohashi N, Wu D, et al. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Antibodies in Humans, Japan, 2010–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):508-509. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131337.
    APA Yoshikawa, Y., Ohashi, N., Wu, D., Kawamori, F., Ikegaya, A., Watanabe, T....Ando, S. (2014). Anaplasma phagocytophilum Antibodies in Humans, Japan, 2010–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 508-509. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131337.
  • Kala-azar and Post–Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis, Assam, India PDF Version [PDF - 324 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Khan et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Khan A, Dutta P, Khan S, Baruah S, Raja D, Khound K, et al. Kala-azar and Post–Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis, Assam, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):487-489. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130260
    AMA Khan A, Dutta P, Khan S, et al. Kala-azar and Post–Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis, Assam, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):487-489. doi:10.3201/eid2003.130260.
    APA Khan, A., Dutta, P., Khan, S., Baruah, S., Raja, D., Khound, K....Mahanta, J. (2014). Kala-azar and Post–Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis, Assam, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 487-489. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130260.
  • Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania killicki, Algeria PDF Version [PDF - 402 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Izri et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Izri A, Bendjaballah A, Andriantsoanirina V, Durand R. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania killicki, Algeria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):502-504. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131152
    AMA Izri A, Bendjaballah A, Andriantsoanirina V, et al. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania killicki, Algeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):502-504. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131152.
    APA Izri, A., Bendjaballah, A., Andriantsoanirina, V., & Durand, R. (2014). Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania killicki, Algeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 502-504. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131152.

Books and Media

  • Lifting the Impenetrable Veil: From Yellow Fever to Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever and SARS PDF Version [PDF - 598 KB - 1 page]
    S. Bloom
            Cite This Article
    EID Bloom S. Lifting the Impenetrable Veil: From Yellow Fever to Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever and SARS. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):516. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131889
    AMA Bloom S. Lifting the Impenetrable Veil: From Yellow Fever to Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever and SARS. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):516. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131889.
    APA Bloom, S. (2014). Lifting the Impenetrable Veil: From Yellow Fever to Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever and SARS. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 516. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131889.

In Memoriam

About the Cover

  • I Am the Master of My Fate PDF Version [PDF - 307 KB - 2 pages]
            Cite This Article
    EID I Am the Master of My Fate. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):518-519. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.AC2003
    AMA I Am the Master of My Fate. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):518-519. doi:10.3201/eid2003.AC2003.
    APA (2014). I Am the Master of My Fate. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 518-519. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.AC2003.

Etymologia

  • Etymologia: Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii PDF Version [PDF - 228 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID Etymologia: Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):379. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.ET2003
    AMA Etymologia: Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):379. doi:10.3201/eid2003.ET2003.
    APA (2014). Etymologia: Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 379. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.ET2003.

Corrections

  • Correction: Vol. 19, No. 12
            Cite This Article
    EID Correction: Vol. 19, No. 12. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):516. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.C12003
    AMA Correction: Vol. 19, No. 12. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):516. doi:10.3201/eid2003.C12003.
    APA (2014). Correction: Vol. 19, No. 12. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 516. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.C12003.
  • Correction: Vol. 19, No. 7 PDF Version [PDF - 243 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID Correction: Vol. 19, No. 7. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):516. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.C22003
    AMA Correction: Vol. 19, No. 7. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):516. doi:10.3201/eid2003.C22003.
    APA (2014). Correction: Vol. 19, No. 7. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 516. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.C22003.
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