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Volume 3, Number 4—December 1997

Special Issue

Infectious Disease as an Evolutionary Paradigm

Joshua Lederberg
Author affiliation: Sackler Foundation Scholar, Rockefeller University, New York, New York, USA

Main Article

Table 1

Examples of pathogenic microbes and infectious diseases recognized since 1973 (2)

Year Microbe Type Disease
1973 Rotavirus Virus Major cause of infantile diarrhea worldwide
1975 Parvovirus B19 Virus Aplastic crisis in chronic hemolytic anemia
1976 Cryptosporidium Parasite Acute and chronic diarrhea parvum
1977 Ebola virus Virus Ebola hemorrhagic fever
1977 Legionella Bacteria Legionnaires' disease pneumophila
1977 Hantaan virus Virus Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HRFS)
1977 Campylobacter jejuni Bacteria Enteric pathogens distributed globally
1980 Human T-lymphotropic virus I (HTLV-1) Virus T-cell lymphoma-leukemia
1981 Toxic producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteria Toxic shock syndrome(tampon use)
1982 Escherichia coli O157:H7 Bacteria Hemorrhagic colitis; hemolytic uremic syndrome
1982 HTLV-II Virus Hairy cell leukemia
1982 Borrelia burgdorferi Bacteria Lyme disease
1983 Human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) Virus Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
1983 Helicobacter pylori Bacteria Peptic ulcer disease
1985 Enterocytozoon bieneusi Parasite Persistent diarrhea
1986 Cyclospora cayetanensis Parasite Persistent diarrhea
1988 Human herpes-virus-6 (HHV-6) Virus Roseola subitum
1988 Hepatitis E Virus Enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis
1989 Ehrlichia chafeensis Bacteria Human ehrlichiosis
1989 Hepatitis C Virus Parenterally transmitted non-A, non-B liver infection
1991 Guanarito virus Virus Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever
1991 Encephalitozoon hellem Parasite Conjunctivitis, disseminated disease
1991 New species of Babesia Parasite Atypical babesiosis
1992 Vibrio cholerae O139 Bacteria New strain associated with epidemic cholera
1992 Bartonella henselae Bacteria Cat-scratch disease; bacillary angiomatosis
1993 Sin Nombre virus Virus Adult respiratory distress syndrome
1993 Encephalitozoon cuniculi Parasite Disseminated disease
1994 Sabia virus Virus Brazilian hemorrhagic fever
1995 HHV-8 Virus Associated with Kaposi sarcoma in AIDS patients

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