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Volume 4, Number 4—December 1998


Paratyphoid Fever

Suggested citation for this article

To the Editor: The letter on paratyphoid fever by Kapil et al. (1) stated that an outbreak of enteric fever due to Salmonella paratyphi A has never been reported. A large (227 cases) outbreak of enteric fever secondary to S. paratyphi A occurred in the Arabian Gulf nation of Bahrain in 1987. The clinical and epidemiologic details of the outbreak were reported in a local medical society journal (2). Like the outbreak described by Kapil et al., the Bahraini outbreak was associated with sewage leaking into the water supply.

Mark R. Wallace

Author affiliation: Naval Medical Center San Diego, San Diego, California, USA


  1. Kapil A, Sood S, Reddaiah VP, Das B, Seth P. Paratyphoid fever due to Salmonella enterica serotype paratyphi A. [Lett]. Emerg Infect Dis. 1997;3:407. DOIPubMed
  2. Al-Madani R. Paratyphoid Outbreak in children. J Bahrain Med Soc. 1989;1:603.

Suggested citation: Wallace MR. Paratyphoid Fever [letter]. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 1998, Dec [date cited]. Available from

DOI: 10.3201/eid0404.980433

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Table of Contents – Volume 4, Number 4—December 1998