Volume 7, Number 1—February 2001
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Background, Evolution, and Current Concerns
|Precautions||Great Britaina||European Uniona||United States|
|Compulsory slaughter of BSE-affected cattle||Aug 1988|
|Destroy milk from affected cattle (except for milk fed to cows' own calves)||Dec 1988|
|Ban on import of UK cattle born after July 1988 feed ban||Jul 1989|
|Ban on SBOb for domestic consumption||Nov 1989|
|Ban on export to EUc of SBO and certain other tissues, including lymph nodes, pituitaries, and serum||Apr 1990||Apr 1990|
|Ban on export of live UK cattle (except calves <6 months old)||Jun 1990||June 1990|
|Ban on use of head meat after skull opened||Mar 1992|
|FDA recommends use of BSE/scrapie-free sources for materials used in dietary supplements; request for safety plans||Nov 1992|
|Cell lines used for biologicals should be BSE agent-free||May 1993|
|FDA requests that bovine source materials (except gelatin) used in manufacture of regulated products be restricted to BSE-free countries||Dec 1993|
|Bone-in beef only from farms with no BSE for 6 years; if not BSE-free, must be deboned with visible nervous and lymphatic tissue removed||July 1994|
|FDA requests that bovine-derived materials for animal use or for cosmetics and dietary supplements not be sourced from BSE countries||Aug 1994|
|Thymus and intestines from calves <6 months old made SBO||Nov 1994|
|Import of beef only from UK cattle 1) >30 months, or 2) from herds BSE-free for 6 years, or 3) if not BSE-free, deboned with visible nervous tissue and specified lymph nodes removed||July 1995|
|SBO ban broadened to include whole skull (SBM)||Aug 1995|
|MRMd from bovine vertebral column banned and export prohibited||Dec 1995|
|Removal of lymph nodes and visible nervous tissue from bovine meat >30 months exported to EU||Jan 1996|
|Ban on export of all UK cattle and cattle products except milk||Mar 1996|
|SBMe ban broadened to include entire head (excluding uncontaminated tongue)||Mar 1996|
|Slaughtered cattle >30 months (or certain beef cattle >42 months) ruled unfit for animal or human use (hides excepted)||Mar 1996|
|FDA urges manufacturers of FDA-regulated human products to take steps to assure freedom from BSE agent||May 1996|
|Partial lifting of export ban on tallow and gelatin||June 1996|
|SBM ban broadened to include certain sheep and goat heads, spleens, and spinal cords (SRM)||Sep 1996|
|FDA recommends withdrawal of plasma and plasma products made from pools to which persons who later died of CJD had contributed||Dec 1996|
|CNSf tissues excluded from cosmetic products for use in EU||Jan 1997|
|BSE cohort cattle in UK ordered slaughtered and destroyed||Jan 1997|
|Proposed ban on SRMg in cosmetics for use in EU (effective October 2000)||July 1997|
|SBM controls for cosmetics and medicinal products||Mar 1997|
|FDA request to manufacturers that no bovine gelatin from BSE countries be used in injectable, implantable, or ophthalmic products; and that special precautions be applied to gelatin for oral and topical use||Sep/Dec 1997|
|Ban on marketing cosmetic products containing SRM prepared before April 1, 1998||Mar 1998|
|Allow export of beef and beef products from cattle >30 months in certified BSE-free herds from Northern Ireland||Mar 1998|
|Importation of all plasma and plasma products for use in UK||Aug 1998|
|FDA limits plasma product withdrawals to pools at risk for contamination by vCJD donors||Sep 1998|
|Slaughter and destruction of offspring born to BSE-affected cattle after July 1996||Jan 1999|
|FDA guidance to defer blood donors with >6 months cumulative residence in UK during 1980-1996||Nov 1999|
|Leukodepletion of whole blood donations from UK residents||Jul/Nov 1999|
|Public FDA discussion about possible risk associated with vaccines produced with bovine-derived materials from BSE countries||Jul 2000|
|Withdrawal and destruction of a potentially tainted 1989 lot of polio vaccine from one manufacturer||Oct 2000|
|SRM ban implemented (effective October 2000)||Jul 2000|
|Ban on slaughter techniques that could contaminate cattle carcasses with brain emboli (e.g., pithing or pneumatic stun guns), effective Jan 2001||Jul 2000|
|All cattle >30 months old must have brain examinations for proteinase-resistant protein (PrP) before entering the food chain (effective Jan-June 2001)||Dec 2000|
aIn Northern Ireland and Scotland, dates of implementation sometimes differed from those shown for England and Wales; in addition, individual European Union countries often adopted different measures on different dates.
bSBO = Specified bovine offals (brain, spinal cord, thymus, tonsils, spleen, and intestines from cattle >6 months old).
cEU = European Union.
dMRM = mechanically recovered meat.
eSBM = Specified bovine materials (SBO plus entire head, including eyes but excluding tongue).
fCNS = central nervous system.
gSRM = specified risk materials (SBM plus sheep and goat heads and spleens from animals of any age, and spinal cords from animals >1 year old).