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Volume 7, Number 1—February 2001

Synopsis

Quinolone and Macrolide Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli: Resistance Mechanisms and Trends in Human Isolates

Jørgen Engberg*Comments to Author , Frank M. Aarestrup†, Diane E. Taylor‡, Peter Gerner-Smidt*, and Irving Nachamkin§
Author affiliations: *Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark; †Frank Aarestrup, Danish Veterinary Laboratory, Copenhagen, Denmark; ‡Diane E. Taylor, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; §Irving Nachamkin, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Main Article

Table 1

Veterinary licensing of fluoroquinolones in selected countries

Country Substance Licensing year Animal species
Austria (22) Enrofloxacin
Danofloxacin
Difloxacin 1992
1996
1998 Cattle, pigs, poultry
Poultry
Poultry
Canadaa Enrofloxacin 1987 (with-drawn in 1997) Turkey (egg dip)
Denmark (22) Enrofloxacin
Danofloxacin
Difloxacin
Marbofloxacin 1991
1993
1998
1998 Cattle, pigs, poultry
Poultry
Poultry, turkey
Cattle, pigs, dogs, cats
Finland (22) Enrofloxacin 1992 (oral use Pigs
with-drawn in 1999)
Difloxacin 1998 Poultry
France (22) Enrofloxacin
Danofloxacin
Marbofloxacin
Difloxacin 1991
1996
1993
1998 Cattle, poultry
Cattle
Cattle
Poultry
Italy (22) Enrofloxacin
Difloxacin 1989
1998 Cattle, pigs, poultry
Poultry
Japanb Enrofloxacin
Danofloxacin 
Ofloxacin
Orbifloxacin
Difloxacin
Norfloxacin 1991
1992
1992
1993
1992
1993
1996
1998 Cattle, poultry
Pigs
Poultry
Cattle, pigs
Poultry
Cattle, pigs
Pigs
Poultry
Netherlands (22) Enrofloxacin
Difloxacin 1987
1998 Cattle, pigs, poultry
Poultry
Spain (22) Enrofloxacin
Difloxacin 1986
1998 Cattle, pigs, poultry
Poultry
United Kingdom (22) Enrofloxacin
Danofloxacin
Marbofloxacin
Difloxacin 1993
1993
1995
1998 Cattle, pigs, poultry
Poultry
Cattle
Poultry
USAc Enrofloxacin
Sarafloxacin Approx 1987-88
1996
1999
1995 Dogs, cats
Poultry
Cattle
Poultry

aRJ Irwin, Health Canada, 1999. pers. comm.
bY Tamura, National Veterinary Assay Laboratory, Japan, 1999. pers. comm.
cJL Watts. Pharmacia/Upjohn, Kalamazoo, Michigan, 1999. pers. comm.

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