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Volume 9, Number 1—January 2003


Two Epidemiologic Patterns of Norovirus Outbreaks: Surveillance in England and Wales, 1992–2000

Ben Lopman*Comments to Author , Goutam K Adak*, Mark Reacher*, and David W.G. Brown*
Author affiliations: *Public Health Laboratory Service, London, United Kingdom

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Figure 1

Seasonality of all outbreaks and confirmed Norovirus outbreaks, England and Wales, 1992–2000.

Figure 1. Seasonality of all outbreaks and confirmed Norovirus outbreaks, England and Wales, 1992–2000.

Main Article

Appendix: Surveillance and analysis definitions

Outbreak: an incident in which two or more people, thought to have a common exposure, experience a similar illness or proven infection, at least one of them being ill (22).
General outbreak: an outbreak that affects members of more than one household, or residents of an institution (36).
General outbreak of Norovirus: a general outbreak in which Norovirus is determined to be the causative agent by electron microscopy, RT-PCR, or enzyme immunoassay in one or more affected persons.
Residential facilities: includes residential homes, which provide some assistance in day-to-day living, and nursing homes, which provide care for persons whose infirmity or illness requires nursing care on a regular basis.
Food outlets: commercial food retailers including restaurants, pubs, bars, cafeterias, mobile food vendors, and caterers.

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