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Volume 9, Number 11—November 2003

Research

Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Transmission and Risk Factors of Contacts, Uganda1

Paolo Francesconi*, Zabulon Yoti†, Silvia Declich*Comments to Author , Paul Awil Onek‡, Massimo Fabiani*, Joseph Olango‡, Roberta Andraghetti*, Pierre E. Rollin§, Cyprian Opira†, Donato Greco*, and Stefania Salmaso*
Author affiliations: *Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy; †St. Mary’s Hospital Lacor, Gulu, Uganda; ‡Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda; §Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Main Article

Table 4

Multivariate analyses on risk factors for Ebola hemorrhagic fever related to direct and indirect transmission among 83 contacts, Gulu, Uganda, 2000

Risk factors Adjusted PPRa 95% CIb p value
Model 1: Direct transmission



Touching patient during illness
1.56
0.19 to 13.04
0.679
Touching dead body
1.84
0.95 to 3.55
0.069
Contact with patient fluid
4.61
1.73 to 12.29
0.002
Model 2: Indirect transmissionc



Sharing meals
1.69
1.00 to 2.85
0.050
Washing clothes
1.02
0.47 to 2.22
0.957
Sleeping in the same hut/on the same mat



Sharing only the hut
2.34
1.13 to 4.84
0.022
Sharing also the mat
2.93
1.16 to 7.38
0.023
Ritual handwashing during funeral
1.16
0.54 to 2.49
0.706
Communal meal during funeral 1.50 0.98 to 2.28 0.060

aPPRs, prevalence proportion ratios adjusted for all the variables included in the model.
bCI, confidence intervals.
cModel 2 has been run controlling for the potential confounding effect due to the intensity of direct contacts with a case-patient (less than two types of direct contacts versus two or more types of direct contacts).

Main Article

1This paper is dedicated to Dr. Matthew Lukwiya, Medical Superintendent of St. Mary’s Hospital Lacor, and the other health staff who contracted and died of Ebola while taking care of hospital patients.

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