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Volume 9, Number 3—March 2003

Research

Experimental Infection of North American Birds with the New York 1999 Strain of West Nile Virus

Nicholas Komar*Comments to Author , Stanley Langevin*, Steven Hinten*, Nicole Nemeth*†, Eric Edwards*†, Danielle L. Hettler*†, Brent S. Davis*, Richard A. Bowen†, and Michel L. Bunning*‡
Author affiliations: *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA; †Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA; ‡Office of the Surgeon General, United States Air Force, Bolling Air Force Base, Washington, D.C., USA

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Table 2

Mean West Nile virus viremias (shown as log10 PFU/mL serum, with ranges) for each of 7 days postinoculation by mosquito bite, and mean duration of detectable viremia (days, with ranges)a,b

Species Day postinoculation
Duration of
viremia
n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Canada Goose
3
2.8 (<1.7–3.0)
5.3 (3.2–5.8)
4.5 (3.5–4.8)
3.4 (<1.7–3.8)
1.9 (<1.7–2.0)
<1.7
<1.7
4.0 (3–5)
Mallard
2
6.1 (<1.7–6.4)
5.7 (5.5–5.9)
6.7 (3.4–7.0)
5.1 (1.7–5.4)
4.7 (<1.7–5.0)
<1.7
<1.7
4.0 (4–4)
American Kestrel
2
6.2 (5.5–6.4)
8.4 (5.8–8.7)
6.6 (6.1–6.8)
3.8 (3.6–4.0)
2 (<1.7–2.3)
<1.7
<1.7
4.5 (4–5)
Northern Bobwhite
3
2.8 (1.7–3.1)
2.9 (2.3–3.3)
2.0 (1.7–2.2)
1.9 (<1.7–2.4)
1.2 (<1.7–1.7)
<1.7
<1.7
4.0 (3–5)
Japanese Quail
3
<1.7
<1.7
2.8 (<1.7–3.3)
3.4 (<1.7–3.9)
3.1 (<1.7–3.6)
2.2 (<1.7-2.7)
<1.7
1.3 (0–4)
Ring-necked Pheasant
3
2.1 (<1.7–2.3)
2.8 (<1.7–3.2)
2.6 (1.7–3.0)
1.8 (1.7–2.0)
1.2 (<1.7–1.7)
<1.7
<1.7
3.7 (3–4)
American Coot
1
<1.7
3.4
4.5
4.6
2.8
<1.7
<1.7
4.0
Killdeer
2
6.2 (5.9–6.4)
7.5 (6.5–7.8)
8.1 (4.3–8.4)
4.9 (2.1–5.2)
2.6 (<1.7–2.9)
<1.7
<1.7
4.5 (4–5)
Ring-billed Gull
2
5.4 (5.4–5.4)
7.8 (6.5–8.1)
8.0 (5.4–8.3)
7.4 (2.9–7.7)
7.2
5.3
4.1
5.5 (4–7)
Mourning Dove
3
4.8 (3.0–5.3)
5.9 (3.9–6.3)
5.6 (3.4–5.9)
3.3 (<1.7–3.6)
<1.7
<1.7
<1.7
3.7 (3–4)
Rock Dove
6
3.5 (<1.7–4.0)
4.3 (3.5–4.8)
4.2 (3.5–4.5)
2.9 (<1.7–3.7)
NT
NT
NT
3.2 (3–4)
Monk Parakeet
3
2.8 (<1.7–3.0)
3.6 (<1.7–4.0)
3.5 (<1.7–3.9)
1.7 (<1.7–2.0)
<1.7
<1.7
<1.7
2.7 (0–4)
Budgerigar
3
2.3 (<1.7–2.8)
1.9 (<1.7–2.4)
2.8 (<1.7–3.3)
2.9 (<1.7–3.4)
2.1 (<1.7–2.6)
<1.7
<1.7
1.7 (0–4)
Great Horned Owl
1
3.9
6.2
7.6
6.0
5.6
3.5
<1.7
6.0
Northern Flicker
1
3.9
4.9
5.4
3.9
<1.7
<1.7
<1.7
4.0
Blue Jay
4
8.5 (5.6–8.8)
11.1 (7.8–11.6)
12.1 (7.5–12.6)
10.5 (5.0–11.0)
2.2
<1.7
<1.7
4.0 (3–5)
Black-billed Magpie
3
5.3 (3.7–5.7)
8.3 (7.7–8.6)
8.8 (8.4–9.1)
4.9 (4.8–5.0)
4.0 (3.9–4.0)


5.0 (5–5)
American Crow
8
5.8 (<1.7–6.6)
8.7 (<1.7–9.6)
9.9 (6.7–10.6)
10.2 (9.2–10.8)
10.0 (8.2–10.4)


3.8 (3–5)
Fish Crow
9
5.4 (3.0–6.2)
6.8 (5.6–7.4)
7.8 (5.5–8.7)
8.9 (<1.7–9.9)
8.5 (<1.7–9.5)
4.0 (0-4.9)
1.3 (<1.7-2.0)
5.0 (4–7)
American Robin
2
5.8 (5.6–5.9)
8.9 (7.8–9.2)
7.3 (6.8–7.5)
4.6 (3.7–4.9)
2.0 (<1.7–2.3)
<1.7
<1.7
4.5 (4–5)
European Starling
6
5.3 (3.5–6.0)
6.1 (5.3–6.5)
4.9 (2.0–5.4)
2.3 (<1.7–3.1)
<1.7
<1.7
<1.7
3.2 (3–4)
Red-winged Blackbird
3
5.9 (5.5–6.1)
8.6 (7.5–9.0)
6.0 (5.5–6.3)
<1.7
<1.7
<1.7
<1.7
3.0 (3–3)
Common Grackle
6
6.1 (3.3–6.8)
10.2 (5.4–11.0)
11.8 (4.7–12.5)
11.8 (<1.7–12.5)
<1.7
<1.7
<1.7
3.3 (3–4)
House Finch
2
5.4 (2.3–5.7)
5.8 (5.6–6.0)
8.8 (8.6–8.9)
6.6 (6.0–6.8)
6.0 (5.9–6.1)
6.2
6.3
6.0 (5–7)
House Sparrow 6 7.8 (3.9–8.6) 9.8 (7.6–10.5) 10.3 (4.8–11.0) 10.3 (2.4–11.0) 8.4 (<1.7–9.0) 1.8 (<1.7-2.1) <1.7 4.5 (2–6)

aNT, not tested; –, no birds survived to be sampled.
bLog10-transformed mean peak viremias ranged from 3.0 for Ring-necked Pheasants (range 2.0–3.2) and Budgerigars (range <1.7–3.4) to 12.1 for Blue Jays (range 7.8–12.6). Mean duration (in days) of detectable viremias ranged from 1.3 in Japanese Quail to 6.0 in House Finches and a Great Horned Owl.

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