Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to site content
CDC Home

Volume 9, Number 3—March 2003

Research

Experimental Infection of North American Birds with the New York 1999 Strain of West Nile Virus

Nicholas Komar*Comments to Author , Stanley Langevin*, Steven Hinten*, Nicole Nemeth*†, Eric Edwards*†, Danielle L. Hettler*†, Brent S. Davis*, Richard A. Bowen†, and Michel L. Bunning*‡
Author affiliations: *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA; †Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA; ‡Office of the Surgeon General, United States Air Force, Bolling Air Force Base, Washington, D.C., USA

Main Article

Table 6

West Nile virus shedding in living birds, as determined by daily cloacal swabbing of four species of birds exposed by mosquito bitea,b

Species n Day postinoculation
No. birds
shedding (%)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Canada Goose
3
<0.2
<0.2
<0.2
<0.2
2.3 (<0.7–2.7)
0.6 (<0.7–1.0)
2.1 (<0.7–2.6)
2 (67)
Mallard
2
<0.4
<0.4
<0.4
<0.4
<0.4
<0.4
<0.4
0
American Kestrelc
2
1.6 (1.6–1.6)
2.8 (2.0–3.1)
4.2 (1.9–4.5)
4.9 (4.0–5.2)
4.2 (3.6–4.4)
2.3 (2.2–2.4)
3.1 (<0.4–3.4)
2 (100)
Northern Bobwhite
3
<–0.2
<–0.2
0.2 (<0.4–0.7)
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
1 (33)
Japanese Quail
3
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
0
Ring-necked Pheasant
3
<0.2
<0.2
<0.2
<0.2
<0.2
<0.2
<0.2
0
American Coot
1
<0.7
<0.7
<0.7
<0.7
2.7
<0.7
NT
1 (100)
Killdeer
2
<0.1
0.5 (<0.4–0.8)
<0.1
1.5 (<0.4–1.8)
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
1 (50)
Ring-billed Gull
2
<0.1
<0.1
2.4 (0.4–2.7)
2.3 (2.2–2.5)
<0.4
1.8
<0.4
2 (100)
Mourning Dove
3
<–0.2
1.1 (0.8–1.5)
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
2 (67)
Rock Dove
6
<–0.5
<–0.5
<–0.5
<–0.5
1.2 (<0.4–1.7)
NT
NT
4 (67)
Monk Parakeet
3
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
0
Budgerigar
3
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
0
Great Horned Owlc
1
<0.4
2.3
2.1
3.1
2.1
3.3
2.0c
1 (100)
Northern Flicker
1
<0.4
<0.4
<0.4
<0.4
<0.4
<0.4
<0.4
0
Blue Jay
4
<–0.3
3.0 (<0.4–3.6)
4.3 (2.1–4.8)
6.0 (2.0–6.4)
2.0
1.0
<0.4
4 (100)
Black-billed Magpie
3
<–0.2
1.8 (<0.4–2.3)
2.4 (2.1–2.5)
1.9 (<0.4–2.3)
2.9 (<0.4–3.4)


3 (100)
American Crow
6
0.8 (<0.4–1.5)
3.3 (<0.4–4.0)
5.2 (2.7–5.8)
5.0 (3.8–5.5)
5.7


6 (100)
Fish Crowd
8
–0.2 (<0.4–0.7)
1.5 (<0.4–2.1)
3.0 (1.0–3.8)
2.5 (<0.4–3.0)
3.3 (<0.4–4.1)
3.9 (<0.4–4.8)
3.6 (<0.4–4.4)
8 (100)
American Robin
2
<0.4
0.8 (<0.7–1.1)
2.2 (<0.7–2.5)
<0.4
<0.4
<0.4
<0.4
1 (50)
European Starling
6
<–0.5
<-0.5
-0.5 (<0.4–0.4)
<–0.5
–0.5 (<0.4–0.4)
0.8 (<0.4–1.5)
<–0.5
3 (50)
Red-winged blackbird
3
–0.2
0.4 (<–0.4–0.8)
<–0.2
–0.2 (<0.4–0.7)
<-0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
1 (33)
Common Grackle
6
<–0.5
>2.0 (<0.4–>2.7)
4.5 (0.7–5.3)
5.6 (<0.4–6.4)
5.2 (<0.4–5.9)
0.8 (<0.4–1.4)
0.1 (<0.4–0.7)
6 (100)
House Finch
2
<0.4
<0.4
<0.4
<0.4
<0.4
<0.7
<0.7
0
House Sparrowe 6 NT <–0.5 NT >1.9 (<0.4–>2.7) 1.3 (<0.4–2.1) NT NT 2 (33)

aPresented as mean log10 PFU/swab, with ranges.
bNT, not tested; –, no birds survived the infection to be sampled.
cAmerican Kestrels and the Great Horned Owl were tested at 9–11 days postinoculation, with no detectable virus in swabs.
dSurviving Fish Crows were tested at 8 and 9 days postinoculation with the following results for day 8 and day 9, respectively: 1.2 (<0.4–1.8); 1.5 (<0.4–2.1).
eThese house sparrows were inoculated by needle rather than by mosquito bite.

Main Article

Top of Page

USA.gov: The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention   1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 - Contact CDC–INFO