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Volume 9, Number 3—March 2003

Research

Experimental Infection of North American Birds with the New York 1999 Strain of West Nile Virus

Nicholas Komar*Comments to Author , Stanley Langevin*, Steven Hinten*, Nicole Nemeth*†, Eric Edwards*†, Danielle L. Hettler*†, Brent S. Davis*, Richard A. Bowen†, and Michel L. Bunning*‡
Author affiliations: *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA; †Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA; ‡Office of the Surgeon General, United States Air Force, Bolling Air Force Base, Washington, D.C., USA

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Table 7

West Nile virus shedding in living birds, as determined by plaque assay of oral swabs collected daily from 14 species of birds exposed by mosquito bitea,b

Species n Day postinoculation
No. birds
shedding (%)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
American Kestrelc
2
1.2 (1.0–1.3)
1.9 (1.6–2.1)
3.9 (3.0–4.2)
4.1 (2.8–4.4)
4.9 (4.6–5.1)
5.1 (4.6–5.3)
3.3 (3.1–3.4)
2 (100)
Northern Bobwhite
3
<–0.2
<–0.2
0.2 (<0.4–0.3)
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
1 (33)
Japanese Quail
3
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
2.5 (<0.4–3.0)
1.9 (<0.4–2.4)
1 (33)
Killdeer
2
NT
<0.1
0.4 (<0.4–0.7)
0.1 (<0.4–0.4)
0.8 (<0.4–1.1)
0.1 (<0.4–0.4)
0.4 (<0.4–0.7)
1 (50)
Ring-billed Gulld
2
NT
3.1 (2.0–3.3)
2.8 (1.8–3.0)
3.3 (2.6–3.6)
3.5
3.5
3.4
2 (100)
Mourning Dove
3
NT
<–0.2
0.8 (<0.4–1.2)
0.5 (<0.4–0.8)
0.5 (<0.4–0.8)
<–0.2
<–0.2
2 (67)
Monk Parakeet
3
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
0 (0)
Budgerigar
3
NT
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
<–0.2
0 (0)
Great Horned Owl
1
<0.4
1.3
3.1
<0.4
5.8
4.9
2.8
1 (100)
Northern Flicker
1
<0.4
<0.4
<0.4
<0.4
<0.4
<0.4
<0.4
0 (0)
Blue Jaye
2
0.9 (<0.4–1.2)
4.0 (1.4–4.3)
3.9 (2.5–4.2)
3.6
3.7
2.2
1.2
2 (100)
Black-billed Magpie
3
<–0.2
0.8 (<0.4–1.0)
2.1 (1.4–2.5)
3.1 (2.5–3.3)
4.0 (<0.4–4.4)


3 (100)
American Crow
6
<–0.5
2.3 (<0.4–2.5)
5.0 (1.6–5.5)
4.3 (3.1–4.7)
5.7


6 (100)
Fish Crowf 8 <–0.6 1.0 (<0.4–1.7) 3.4 (1.3–4.2) 3.6 (<0.4–4.1) 3.8 (1.8–4.4) 3.8 (1.6–4.6) 3.5 (1.9–4.1) 8 (100)

aPresented as mean log10 PFU/swab, with ranges.
bNT, not tested; –, no birds survived the infection to be sampled.
cAmerican Kestrels were tested at 9, 10,and 11 days postinoculation, with the following results for days 9 and10, respectively: 2.3 (1.8–2.5); 1.8 (<0.4–2.1). WNV was not isolated from oral swabs collected on day 11.
dThis Ring-billed Gull developed signs of illness after 7 days postinoculation and was euthanized at 13 days postinoculation, at which time an oral swab contained 10 PFU WNV.
eThis Blue Jay was sampled at 8 and 9 days postinoculation. No virus was isolated from oral swabs.
fSurviving Fish Crows were tested at 8 and 9 days postinoculation with the following results for days 8 and 9, respectively: 3.6 (2.0–4.3); 2.1 (<–0.5–2.5).

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