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Volume 9, Number 8—August 2003

Research

Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Carrying Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Genes: Worldwide Emergence

François Vandenesch*, Timothy Naimi†, Mark C. Enright‡, Gerard Lina*, Graeme R. Nimmo§, Helen Heffernan¶, Nadia Liassine#, Michèle Bes*, Timothy Greenland**, Marie-Elisabeth Reverdy*, and Jerome Etienne*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *INSERM E0230, Lyon, France; †Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; ‡University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom; §Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Australia; ¶Antibiotic Reference Laboratory, 12 Wellington, New Zealand; #Laboratoire Bioanalytique-Riotton, Geneva, Switzerland; **UMR754, Lyon, France

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Table 1

Distribution of virulence and resistance determinants in 117 CA-MRSA isolates from three continentsa

Genesb CA-MRSA isolates from
France- Switzerlandc
n=67 (%) USA
n=29 (%) USA
n=4 (%) Oceaniad
Southwest Pacific clone n=13 (%) Australia
Queensland clone
n=4 (%) Total
n=117 (%)
Sequence type 80 1 59 or 8 30 93
PFGE pattern A1-7 B1-5 D1 & F1 C1-3 E1
agr type 3 3 1 3 3
SCCmec type IVa 67 (100) 29 (100) 4 (100) 13 (100) 4 (100) 117 (100)
Leukocidins PVL genes 67 (100) 29 (100) 4 (100) 13 (100) 4 (100) 117 (100)
lukE-lukD 67 (100) 29 (100) 3 (75) 13 (100) 0 (0) 116 (99)
Hemolysinse
hlg 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 13 (100) 0 (0) 13 (11)
hlg-v 67 (100) 29 (100) 4 (100) 0 (0) 0 (0) 100 (85)
hlb 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (25) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (1)
Enterotoxins sea 0 (0) 23 (79) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 23 (20)
seb 0 (0) 8 (28) 1 (25) 0 (0) 0 (0) 9 (8)
sec 0 (0) 20 (69) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 20 (17)
sed-sej 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (75) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (3)
she 0 (0) 29 (100) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 29 (25)
sek 0 (0) 24 (83) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 24 (21)
egcf 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 13 (100) 0 (0) 13 (11)

aPFGE, Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; PVL, Panton-Valentine leukocidin.
bResults for toxin genes absent from all community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) isolates (see, tst, eta, etb, lukM, and edinA) are not presented.
cIsolates from France (61) and Switzerland (6).
dIsolates from Australia (8), New Zealand (4) and Western Samoa (1).
ehlg, γhaemolysin gene; hlg-v, γ-haemolysin variant gene; hlb, β-haemolysin gene.
fegc: enterotoxin gene cluster, which includes the seg, sei, sem, sen, and seo gene

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