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Volume 9, Number 9—September 2003

Research

Reemergence of Epidemic Vibrio cholerae O139, Bangladesh

Shah M. Faruque*, Nityananda Chowdhury*, M. Kamruzzaman*, Q. Shafi Ahmad*, A.S.G. Faruque*, M. Abdus Salam*, T. Ramamurthy†, G. Balakrish Nair*, Andrej Weintraub‡, and David A. Sack*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh; †National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Beliaghata, Calcutta, India; ‡Karolinska Instute, Huddinge, Sweden

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Table

Comparative analysis of 63 Vibrio cholerae O139 strains isolated from recent epidemic in Bangladesh versus O139 strains isolated between 1993 and 1998 in different countries

Y of isolation Country No. of isolates Ribotypea Presence of genesb
STX genotypea Antibiogramc
rstRET rstRClas rstRCal rstC
1993
Bangladesh
5
B-I
+
-
-
+
A
SR, SXTR
1993
Bangladesh
1
B-II
+
-
-
+
B
SR, SXTR
1993–1995
Bangladesh
5
B-II
+
-
-
+
A
SR, SXTR
1997
Bangladesh
3
B-II
+
-
-
+
C
Susceptibleb
1997
Bangladesh
3
B-III
+
-
-
+
C
Susceptibleb
1992
India
3
B-I
+
-
-
+
A
SR, SXTR
1993
India
1
B-V
+
-
-
+
A
AR, SR, SXTR
1994
India
1
B-IV
+
-
-
+
A
SR, SXTR
1996
India
2
B-II
+
-
-
+
A
AR, FzR, SR, SXTR
1998
Thailand
2
B-I
+
-
-
+
A
SR, SXTR
2002 Bangladesh 63 B-II + - + + C NalR

a Ribotypes and SXT genotypes are based on BglI restriction patterns of the respective genes and their flanking chromosomal sequence.
bAll strains were positive for tcpA, tcpI, acfB, toxT, ctxA, zot, and ToxR genes as well as for the O139-specific genomic DNA in DNA probe or polymerase chain reaction assays.
cAll strains were susceptible to tetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole.

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