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Volume 11, Number 12—December 2005

Volume 11, Number 12—December 2005   PDF Version [PDF - 8.42 MB - 187 pages]

Perspective

  • Role of Multisector Partnerships in Controlling Emerging Zoonotic Diseases PDF Version [PDF - 34 KB - 2 pages]
    N. Marano et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Marano N, Arguin P, Pappaioanou M, King L. Role of Multisector Partnerships in Controlling Emerging Zoonotic Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1813-1814. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.051322
    AMA Marano N, Arguin P, Pappaioanou M, et al. Role of Multisector Partnerships in Controlling Emerging Zoonotic Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1813-1814. doi:10.3201/eid1112.051322.
    APA Marano, N., Arguin, P., Pappaioanou, M., & King, L. (2005). Role of Multisector Partnerships in Controlling Emerging Zoonotic Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1813-1814. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.051322.
  • Community Epidemiology Framework for Classifying Disease Threats PDF Version [PDF - 248 KB - 7 pages]
    A. Fenton and A. B. Pedersen
    View Summary

    Ecologic and evolutionary features of multihost pathogens determine the likelihood of emerging infectious diseases.

        View Abstract

    Recent evidence suggests that most parasites can infect multiple host species and that these are primarily responsible for emerging infectious disease outbreaks in humans and wildlife. However, the ecologic and evolutionary factors that constrain or facilitate such emergences are poorly understood. We propose a conceptual framework based on the pathogen's between- and within-species transmission rates to describe possible configurations of a multihost-pathogen community that may lead to disease emergence. We establish 3 dynamic thresholds separating 4 classes of disease outcomes, spillover, apparent multihost, true multihost, and potential emerging infectious disease; describe possible disease emergence scenarios; outline the population dynamics of each case; and clarify existing terminology. We highlight the utility of this framework with examples of disease threats in human and wildlife populations, showing how it allows us to understand which ecologic factors affect disease emergence and predict the impact of host shifts in a range of disease systems.

        Cite This Article
    EID Fenton A, Pedersen AB. Community Epidemiology Framework for Classifying Disease Threats. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1815-1821. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050306
    AMA Fenton A, Pedersen AB. Community Epidemiology Framework for Classifying Disease Threats. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1815-1821. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050306.
    APA Fenton, A., & Pedersen, A. B. (2005). Community Epidemiology Framework for Classifying Disease Threats. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1815-1821. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050306.
  • Bushmeat Hunting, Deforestation, and Prediction of Zoonotic Disease PDF Version [PDF - 122 KB - 6 pages]
    N. D. Wolfe et al.
    View Summary

    Integrating virology, ecology, and other disciplines enhances prediction of new emerging zoonoses.

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    Understanding the emergence of new zoonotic agents requires knowledge of pathogen biodiversity in wildlife, human-wildlife interactions, anthropogenic pressures on wildlife populations, and changes in society and human behavior. We discuss an interdisciplinary approach combining virology, wildlife biology, disease ecology, and anthropology that enables better understanding of how deforestation and associated hunting leads to the emergence of novel zoonotic pathogens.

        Cite This Article
    EID Wolfe ND, Daszak P, Kilpatrick A, Burke DS. Bushmeat Hunting, Deforestation, and Prediction of Zoonotic Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1822-1827. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.040789
    AMA Wolfe ND, Daszak P, Kilpatrick A, et al. Bushmeat Hunting, Deforestation, and Prediction of Zoonotic Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1822-1827. doi:10.3201/eid1112.040789.
    APA Wolfe, N. D., Daszak, P., Kilpatrick, A., & Burke, D. S. (2005). Bushmeat Hunting, Deforestation, and Prediction of Zoonotic Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1822-1827. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.040789.
  • Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum PDF Version [PDF - 214 KB - 7 pages]
    J. Dumler et al.
    View Summary

    Understanding how Anaplasma phagocytophilum alters neutrophils will improve diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this severe illness.

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    Human granulocytic anaplasmosis is a tickborne rickettsial infection of neutrophils caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The human disease was first identified in 1990, although the pathogen was defined as a veterinary agent in 1932. Since 1990, US cases have markedly increased, and infections are now recognized in Europe. A high international seroprevalence suggests infection is widespread but unrecognized. The niche for A. phagocytophilum, the neutrophil, indicates that the pathogen has unique adaptations and pathogenetic mechanisms. Intensive study has demonstrated interactions with host-cell signal transduction and possibly eukaryotic transcription. This interaction leads to permutations of neutrophil function and could permit immunopathologic changes, severe disease, and opportunistic infections. More study is needed to define the immunology and pathogenetic mechanisms and to understand why severe disease develops in some persons and why some animals become long-term permissive reservoir hosts.

        Cite This Article
    EID Dumler J, Choi K, Garcia-Garcia J, Barat NS, Scorpio DG, Garyu JW, et al. Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1828-1834. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050898
    AMA Dumler J, Choi K, Garcia-Garcia J, et al. Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1828-1834. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050898.
    APA Dumler, J., Choi, K., Garcia-Garcia, J., Barat, N. S., Scorpio, D. G., Garyu, J. W....Bakken, J. S. (2005). Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1828-1834. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050898.

Synopses

  • Francisella tularensis in the United States PDF Version [PDF - 547 KB - 7 pages]
    J. Farlow et al.
    View Summary

    Subpopulations A.I and A.II. of Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis are associated with unique biotic and abiotic factors that maintain disease foci.

        View Abstract

    The causative agent of tularemia, Francisella tularensis, is a formidable biologic agent that occurs naturally throughout North America. We examined genetic and spatial diversity patterns among 161 US F. tularensis isolates by using a 24-marker multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) system. MLVA identified 126 unique genotypes. Phylogenetic analyses showed patterns similar to recently reported global-scale analyses. We observed clustering by subspecies, low genetic diversity within F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, and division of F. tularensis subsp. tularensis into 2 distinct subpopulations: A.I. and A.II. The 2 F. tularensis subsp. tularensis subpopulations also represent geographically distinct groups; A.I. occurs primarily in the central United States, and A.II. occurs primarily in the western United States. These spatial distributions are correlated with geographic ranges of particular vectors, hosts of tularemia, and abiotic factors. These correlates provide testable hypotheses regarding ecologic factors associated with maintaining tularemia foci.

        Cite This Article
    EID Farlow J, Wagner DM, Dukerich M, Stanley M, Chu M, Kubota K, et al. Francisella tularensis in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1835-1841. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050728
    AMA Farlow J, Wagner DM, Dukerich M, et al. Francisella tularensis in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1835-1841. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050728.
    APA Farlow, J., Wagner, D. M., Dukerich, M., Stanley, M., Chu, M., Kubota, K....Keim, P. (2005). Francisella tularensis in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1835-1841. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050728.

Research

  • Host Range and Emerging and Reemerging Pathogens PDF Version [PDF - 236 KB - 6 pages]
    M. Woolhouse and S. Gowtage-Sequeria
    View Summary

    Emerging and reemerging species of human pathogens are associated with a broad range of nonhuman hosts.

        View Abstract

    An updated literature survey identified 1,407 recognized species of human pathogen, 58% of which are zoonotic. Of the total, 177 are regarded as emerging or reemerging. Zoonotic pathogens are twice as likely to be in this category as are nonzoonotic pathogens. Emerging and reemerging pathogens are not strongly associated with particular types of nonhuman hosts, but they are most likely to have the broadest host ranges. Emerging and reemerging zoonoses are associated with a wide range of drivers, but changes in land use and agriculture and demographic and societal changes are most commonly cited. However, although zoonotic pathogens do represent the most likely source of emerging and reemerging infectious disease, only a small minority have proved capable of causing major epidemics in the human population.

        Cite This Article
    EID Woolhouse M, Gowtage-Sequeria S. Host Range and Emerging and Reemerging Pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1842-1847. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050997
    AMA Woolhouse M, Gowtage-Sequeria S. Host Range and Emerging and Reemerging Pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1842-1847. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050997.
    APA Woolhouse, M., & Gowtage-Sequeria, S. (2005). Host Range and Emerging and Reemerging Pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1842-1847. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050997.
  • Person-to-Person Transmission of Andes Virus PDF Version [PDF - 168 KB - 6 pages]
    V. P. Martinez et al.
    View Summary

    Epidemiologic and genetic data show that person-to-person spread likely took place during the prodromal phase or shortly after it ended.

        View Abstract

    Despite the fact that rodents are considered to be the infectious source of hantavirus for humans, another route of transmission was demonstrated. Andes virus (ANDV) has been responsible for most of the cases recorded in Argentina. Person-to-person transmission of ANDV Sout lineage was described during an outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southwest Argentina. In this study, we analyzed 4 clusters that occurred in 2 disease-endemic areas for different ANDV lineages. We found new evidence of interhuman transmission for ANDV Sout lineage and described the first event in which another lineage, ANDV Cent BsAs, was implicated in this mechanism of transmission. On the basis of epidemiologic and genetic data, we concluded that person-to-person spread of the virus likely took place during the prodromal phase or shortly after it ended, since close and prolonged contact occurred in the events analyzed here, and the incubation period was 15–24 days.

        Cite This Article
    EID Martinez VP, Bellomo C, San Juan J, Pinna D, Forlenza R, Elder M, et al. Person-to-Person Transmission of Andes Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1848-1853. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050501
    AMA Martinez VP, Bellomo C, San Juan J, et al. Person-to-Person Transmission of Andes Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1848-1853. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050501.
    APA Martinez, V. P., Bellomo, C., San Juan, J., Pinna, D., Forlenza, R., Elder, M....Padula, P. J. (2005). Person-to-Person Transmission of Andes Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1848-1853. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050501.
  • European Bat Lyssaviruses, the Netherlands PDF Version [PDF - 308 KB - 6 pages]
    W. Van der Poel et al.
    View Summary

    Genotype 5 lyssaviruses are endemic in the Netherlands, and can cause fatal infections in humans.

        View Abstract

    To study European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) in bat reservoirs in the Netherlands, native bats have been tested for rabies since 1984. For all collected bats, data including species, age, sex, and date and location found were recorded. A total of 1,219 serotine bats, Eptesicus serotinus, were tested, and 251 (21%) were positive for lyssavirus antigen. Five (4%) of 129 specimens from the pond bat, Myotis dasycneme, were positive. Recently detected EBLV RNA segments encoding the nucleoprotein were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically (45 specimens). All recent serotine bat specimens clustered with genotype 5 (EBLV1) sequences, and homologies within subgenotypes EBLV1a and EBLV1b were 99.0%–100% and 99.2%–100%, respectively. Our findings indicate that EBLVs of genotype 5 are endemic in the serotine bat in the Netherlands. Since EBLVs can cause fatal infections in humans, all serotine and pond bats involved in contact incidents should be tested to determine whether the victim was exposed to EBLVs.

        Cite This Article
    EID Van der Poel W, Van der Heide R, Verstraten E, Takumi K, Lina P, Kramps JA, et al. European Bat Lyssaviruses, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1854-1859. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.041200
    AMA Van der Poel W, Van der Heide R, Verstraten E, et al. European Bat Lyssaviruses, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1854-1859. doi:10.3201/eid1112.041200.
    APA Van der Poel, W., Van der Heide, R., Verstraten, E., Takumi, K., Lina, P., & Kramps, J. A. (2005). European Bat Lyssaviruses, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1854-1859. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.041200.
  • SARS-CoV Infection in a Restaurant from Palm Civet PDF Version [PDF - 189 KB - 6 pages]
    M. Wang et al.
    View Summary

    Contact with food animals was associated with SARS-CoV infection in the People’s Republic of China.

        View Abstract

    Epidemiologic investigations showed that 2 of 4 patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) identified in the winter of 2003–2004 were a waitress at a restaurant in Guangzhou, China, that served palm civets as food and a customer who ate in the restaurant a short distance from animal cages. All 6 palm civets at the restaurant were positive for SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Partial spike (S) gene sequences of SARS-CoV from the 2 patients were identical to 4 of 5 S gene viral sequences from palm civets. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SARS-CoV from palm civets in the restaurant was most closely related to animal isolates. SARS cases at the restaurant were the result of recent interspecies transfer from the putative palm civet reservoir, and not the result of continued circulation of SARS-CoV in the human population.

        Cite This Article
    EID Wang M, Yan M, Xu H, Liang W, Kan B, Zheng B, et al. SARS-CoV Infection in a Restaurant from Palm Civet. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1860-1865. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.041293
    AMA Wang M, Yan M, Xu H, et al. SARS-CoV Infection in a Restaurant from Palm Civet. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1860-1865. doi:10.3201/eid1112.041293.
    APA Wang, M., Yan, M., Xu, H., Liang, W., Kan, B., Zheng, B....Xu, J. (2005). SARS-CoV Infection in a Restaurant from Palm Civet. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1860-1865. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.041293.
  • Echinococcosis in Tibetan Populations, Western Sichuan Province, China PDF Version [PDF - 310 KB - 8 pages]
    L. Tiaoying et al.
    View Summary

    This area has the highest prevalences of both forms of this disease in the world.

        View Abstract

    We screened 3,199 people from Shiqu County, Sichuan Province, China, for abdominal echinococcosis (hydatid disease) by portable ultrasound combined with specific serodiagnostic tests. Both cystic echinococcosis (CE) (Echinococcus granulosus infection) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) (E. multilocularis) were co-endemic in this area at the highest village prevalence values recorded anywhere in the world: 12.9% were infected with one or the other form (6.8% CE and 6.2% AE). Prevalences of both CE and AE were significantly higher in female than male patients and increased with the age of the person screened. Pastoral herdsmen were at highest risk for infection (prevalence 19.0%). Prevalence of CE varied in 5 townships from 0% to 12.1%, whereas AE prevalence ranged from 0% to 14.3%. Risk factors associated with both infections included the number of owned dogs, frequency of contact with dogs, and sources of drinking water.

        Cite This Article
    EID Tiaoying L, Jiamin Q, Wen Y, Craig PS, Xingwang C, Ning X, et al. Echinococcosis in Tibetan Populations, Western Sichuan Province, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1866-1873. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050079
    AMA Tiaoying L, Jiamin Q, Wen Y, et al. Echinococcosis in Tibetan Populations, Western Sichuan Province, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1866-1873. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050079.
    APA Tiaoying, L., Jiamin, Q., Wen, Y., Craig, P. S., Xingwang, C., Ning, X....Schantz, P. M. (2005). Echinococcosis in Tibetan Populations, Western Sichuan Province, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1866-1873. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050079.
  • Porcine Noroviruses Related to Human Noroviruses PDF Version [PDF - 390 KB - 8 pages]
    Q. Wang et al.
    View Summary

    Pigs may be reservoirs for human noroviruses, and porcine/human genogroup II recombinants could emerge.

        View Abstract

    Detection of genogroup II (GII) norovirus (NoV) RNA from adult pigs in Japan and Europe and GII NoV antibodies in US swine raises public health concerns about zoonotic transmission of porcine NoVs to humans, although no NoVs have been detected in US swine. To detect porcine NoVs and to investigate their genetic diversity and relatedness to human NoVs, 275 fecal samples from normal US adult swine were screened by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction with calicivirus universal primers. Six samples were positive for NoV. Based on sequence analysis of 3 kb on the 3´ end of 5 porcine NoVs, 3 genotypes in GII and a potential recombinant were identified. One genotype of porcine NoVs was genetically and antigenically related to human NoVs and replicated in gnotobiotic pigs. These results raise concerns of whether subclinically infected adult swine may be reservoirs of new human NoVs or if porcine/human GII recombinants could emerge.

        Cite This Article
    EID Wang Q, Han M, Cheetham S, Souza M, Funk JA, Jung K, et al. Porcine Noroviruses Related to Human Noroviruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1874-1881. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050485
    AMA Wang Q, Han M, Cheetham S, et al. Porcine Noroviruses Related to Human Noroviruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1874-1881. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050485.
    APA Wang, Q., Han, M., Cheetham, S., Souza, M., Funk, J. A., & Jung, K. (2005). Porcine Noroviruses Related to Human Noroviruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1874-1881. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050485.
  • Viral Load Distribution in SARS Outbreak PDF Version [PDF - 126 KB - 5 pages]
    C. Chu et al.
    View Summary

    Airborne transmission may have resulted in an outbreak of SARS in Hong Kong.

        View Abstract

    An unprecedented community outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred in the Amoy Gardens, a high-rise residential complex in Hong Kong. Droplet, air, contaminated fomites, and rodent pests have been proposed to be mechanisms for transmitting SARS in a short period. We studied nasopharyngeal viral load of SARS patients on admission and their geographic distribution. Higher nasopharyngeal viral load was found in patients living in adjacent units of the same block inhabited by the index patient, while a lower but detectable nasopharyngeal viral load was found in patients living further away from the index patient. This pattern of nasopharyngeal viral load suggested that airborne transmission played an important part in this outbreak in Hong Kong. Contaminated fomites and rodent pests may have also played a role.

        Cite This Article
    EID Chu C, Cheng V, Hung I, Chan K, Tang B, Tsang T, et al. Viral Load Distribution in SARS Outbreak. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1882-1886. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.040949
    AMA Chu C, Cheng V, Hung I, et al. Viral Load Distribution in SARS Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1882-1886. doi:10.3201/eid1112.040949.
    APA Chu, C., Cheng, V., Hung, I., Chan, K., Tang, B., Tsang, T....Yuen, K. (2005). Viral Load Distribution in SARS Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1882-1886. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.040949.
  • Pandemic Strain of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O PDF Version [PDF - 262 KB - 7 pages]
    N. J. Knowles et al.
    View Summary

    The PanAsia strain is spreading explosively in Asia and extending to parts of Africa and Europe.

        View Abstract

    A particular genetic lineage of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O, which we have named the PanAsia strain, was responsible for an explosive pandemic in Asia and extended to parts of Africa and Europe from 1998 to 2001. In 2000 and 2001, this virus strain caused outbreaks in the Republic of Korea, Japan, Russia, Mongolia, South Africa, the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, France, and the Netherlands, countries which last experienced FMD outbreaks decades before (ranging from 1934 for Korea to 1984 for the Netherlands). Although the virus has been controlled in all of these normally FMD-free or sporadically infected countries, it appears to be established throughout much of southern Asia, with geographically separated lineages evolving independently. A pandemic such as this is a rare phenomenon but demonstrates the ability of newly emerging FMDV strains to spread rapidly throughout a wide region and invade countries previously free from the disease.

        Cite This Article
    EID Knowles NJ, Samuel AR, Davies PR, Midgley RJ, Valarcher J. Pandemic Strain of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1887-1893. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050908
    AMA Knowles NJ, Samuel AR, Davies PR, et al. Pandemic Strain of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1887-1893. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050908.
    APA Knowles, N. J., Samuel, A. R., Davies, P. R., Midgley, R. J., & Valarcher, J. (2005). Pandemic Strain of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1887-1893. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050908.
  • Bartonella henselae in Porpoise Blood PDF Version [PDF - 48 KB - 5 pages]
    R. G. Maggi et al.
    View Summary

    DNA in porpoises suggests an emerging infectious disease in marine mammals.

        View Abstract

    We report detection of Bartonella henselae DNA in blood samples from 2 harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). By using real-time polymerase chain reaction, we directly amplified Bartonella species DNA from blood of a harbor porpoise stranded along the northern North Carolina coast and from a preenrichment blood culture from a second harbor porpoise. The second porpoise was captured out of habitat (in a low-salinity canal along the northern North Carolina coast) and relocated back into the ocean. Subsequently, DNA was amplified by conventional polymerase chain reaction for DNA sequencing. The 16S–23S intergenic transcribed spacer region obtained from each porpoise was 99.8% similar to that of B. henselae strain San Antonio 2 (SA2), whereas both heme-binding phage-associated pap31 gene sequences were 100% homologous to that of B. henselae SA2. Currently, the geographic distribution, mode of transmission, reservoir potential, and pathogenicity of bloodborne Bartonella species in porpoises have not been determined.

        Cite This Article
    EID Maggi RG, Harms CA, Hohn AA, Pabst D, McLellan WA, Walton WJ, et al. Bartonella henselae in Porpoise Blood. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1894-1898. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050969
    AMA Maggi RG, Harms CA, Hohn AA, et al. Bartonella henselae in Porpoise Blood. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1894-1898. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050969.
    APA Maggi, R. G., Harms, C. A., Hohn, A. A., Pabst, D., McLellan, W. A., Walton, W. J....Breitschwerdt, E. B. (2005). Bartonella henselae in Porpoise Blood. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1894-1898. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050969.
  • Antimicrobial-drug Susceptibility of Human and Animal Salmonella Typhimurium, Minnesota, 1997–2003 PDF Version [PDF - 205 KB - 8 pages]
    S. D. Wedel et al.
    View Summary

    Food animals are likely the primary reservoir of resistant S. Typhimurium.

        View Abstract

    We compared antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) subtypes of 1,028 human and 716 animal Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium isolates from Minnesota from 1997 to 2003. Overall, 29% of human isolates were multidrug resistant. Predominant phenotypes included resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol or kanamycin, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline (ACSSuT or AKSSuT). Most human multidrug-resistant isolates belonged to PFGE clonal group A, characterized by ACSSuT resistance (64%), or clonal group B, characterized by AKSSuT resistance (19%). Most animal isolates were from cattle (n = 358) or swine (n = 251). Eighty-one percent were multidrug resistant; of these, 54% were at least resistance phenotype ACSSuT, and 43% were at least AKSSuT. More than 80% of multidrug-resistant isolates had a clonal group A or B subtype. Resistance to ceftriaxone and nalidixic acid increased, primarily among clonal group A/ACSSuT isolates. Clonal group B/AKSSuT isolates decreased over time. These data support the hypothesis that food animals are the primary reservoir of multidrug-resistant S. Typhimurium.

        Cite This Article
    EID Wedel SD, Bender JB, Leano FT, Boxrud DJ, Hedberg C, Smith KE, et al. Antimicrobial-drug Susceptibility of Human and Animal Salmonella Typhimurium, Minnesota, 1997–2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1899-1906. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050158
    AMA Wedel SD, Bender JB, Leano FT, et al. Antimicrobial-drug Susceptibility of Human and Animal Salmonella Typhimurium, Minnesota, 1997–2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1899-1906. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050158.
    APA Wedel, S. D., Bender, J. B., Leano, F. T., Boxrud, D. J., Hedberg, C., & Smith, K. E. (2005). Antimicrobial-drug Susceptibility of Human and Animal Salmonella Typhimurium, Minnesota, 1997–2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1899-1906. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050158.
  • Postepizootic Persistence of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Venezuela PDF Version [PDF - 218 KB - 9 pages]
    J. Navarro et al.
    View Summary

    Etiologic subtype IC of virus persists, 5 years after the major 1995 epidemic.

        View Abstract

    Five years after the apparent end of the major 1995 Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) epizootic/epidemic, focal outbreaks of equine encephalitis occurred in Carabobo and Barinas States of western Venezuela. Virus isolates from horses in each location were nearly identical in sequence to 1995 isolates, which suggests natural persistence of subtype IC VEE virus (VEEV) strains in a genetically stable mode. Serologic evidence indicated that additional outbreaks occurred in Barinas State in 2003. Field studies identified known Culex (Melanoconion) spp. vectors and reservoir hosts of enzootic VEEV but a dearth of typical epidemic vectors. Cattle serosurveys indicated the recent circulation of enzootic VEEV strains, and possibly of epizootic strains. Persistence of VEEV subtype IC strains and infection of horses at the end of the rainy season suggest the possibility of an alternative, cryptic transmission cycle involving survival through the dry season of infected vectors or persistently infected vertebrates.

        Cite This Article
    EID Navarro J, Medina G, Vasquez C, Coffey LL, Wang E, Suárez A, et al. Postepizootic Persistence of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Venezuela. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1907-1915. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050533
    AMA Navarro J, Medina G, Vasquez C, et al. Postepizootic Persistence of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Venezuela. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1907-1915. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050533.
    APA Navarro, J., Medina, G., Vasquez, C., Coffey, L. L., Wang, E., Suárez, A....Weaver, S. C. (2005). Postepizootic Persistence of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Venezuela. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1907-1915. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050533.
  • Intergenogroup Recombination in Sapoviruses PDF Version [PDF - 386 KB - 7 pages]
    G. S. Hansman et al.
    View Summary

    This first report of intergenogroup recombination for any calicivirus highlights a possible route of zoonoses.

        View Abstract

    Sapovirus, a member of the family Caliciviridae, is an etiologic agent of gastroenteritis in humans and pigs. Analyses of the complete genome sequences led us to identify the first sapovirus intergenogroup recombinant strain. Phylogenetic analysis of the nonstructural region (i.e., genome start to capsid start) grouped this strain into genogroup II, whereas the structural region (i.e., capsid start to genome end) grouped this strain into genogroup IV. We found that a recombination event occurred at the polymerase and capsid junction. This is the first report of intergenogroup recombination for any calicivirus and highlights a possible route of zoonoses because sapovirus strains that infect pig species belong to genogroup III.

        Cite This Article
    EID Hansman GS, Takeda N, Oka T, Oseto M, Hedlund K, Katayama K, et al. Intergenogroup Recombination in Sapoviruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1914-1920. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050722
    AMA Hansman GS, Takeda N, Oka T, et al. Intergenogroup Recombination in Sapoviruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1914-1920. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050722.
    APA Hansman, G. S., Takeda, N., Oka, T., Oseto, M., Hedlund, K., & Katayama, K. (2005). Intergenogroup Recombination in Sapoviruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1914-1920. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050722.
  • Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis, New York, 1995–2000 PDF Version [PDF - 205 KB - 7 pages]
    J. D. Blanton et al.
    View Summary

    Bats are now the leading source of rabies postexposure prophylaxis.

        View Abstract

    The epidemiology of human rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) in 4 upstate New York counties was described from data obtained from 2,216 incidences of PEP recorded by local health departments from 1995 to 2000. Overall annual incidence for the study period was 27 cases per 100,000 persons. Mean annual PEP incidence rates were highest in rural counties and during the summer months. PEP incidence was highest among patients 5–9 and 30–34 years of age. Bites accounted for most PEP (51%) and were primarily associated with cats and dogs. Bats accounted for 30% of exposures, more than any other group of animals; consequently, bats have replaced raccoons as the leading rabies exposure source to humans in this area.

        Cite This Article
    EID Blanton JD, Bowden NY, Eidson M, Wyatt JD, Hanlon CA. Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis, New York, 1995–2000. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1921-1927. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.041278
    AMA Blanton JD, Bowden NY, Eidson M, et al. Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis, New York, 1995–2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1921-1927. doi:10.3201/eid1112.041278.
    APA Blanton, J. D., Bowden, N. Y., Eidson, M., Wyatt, J. D., & Hanlon, C. A. (2005). Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis, New York, 1995–2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1921-1927. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.041278.

Dispatches

  • Central African Hunters Exposed to Simian Immunodeficiency Virus PDF Version [PDF - 138 KB - 3 pages]
    M. L. Kalish et al.
        View Abstract

    HIV-seronegative Cameroonians with exposure to nonhuman primates were tested for simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. Seroreactivity was correlated with exposure risk (p<0.001). One person had strong humoral and weak cellular immune reactivity to SIVcol peptides. Humans are exposed to and possibly infected with SIV, which has major public health implications.

        Cite This Article
    EID Kalish ML, Wolfe ND, Ndongmo CB, McNicholl J, Robbins KE, Aidoo M, et al. Central African Hunters Exposed to Simian Immunodeficiency Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1928-1930. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050394
    AMA Kalish ML, Wolfe ND, Ndongmo CB, et al. Central African Hunters Exposed to Simian Immunodeficiency Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1928-1930. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050394.
    APA Kalish, M. L., Wolfe, N. D., Ndongmo, C. B., McNicholl, J., Robbins, K. E., Aidoo, M....Folks, T. M. (2005). Central African Hunters Exposed to Simian Immunodeficiency Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1928-1930. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050394.
  • Bartonella quintana in Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis) PDF Version [PDF - 190 KB - 4 pages]
    L. G. O'Rourke et al.
        View Abstract

    We identified a Bartonella quintana strain by polymerase chain reaction amplification, cloning, and sequencing of DNA extracted from lysed erythrocytes and cultured colonies grown from peripheral blood collected from a captive-bred cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). This report describes naturally acquired B. quintana infection in a nonhuman primate.

        Cite This Article
    EID O'Rourke LG, Pitulle C, Hegarty BC, Kraycirik S, Killary KA, Grosenstein P, et al. Bartonella quintana in Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1931-1934. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.030045
    AMA O'Rourke LG, Pitulle C, Hegarty BC, et al. Bartonella quintana in Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1931-1934. doi:10.3201/eid1112.030045.
    APA O'Rourke, L. G., Pitulle, C., Hegarty, B. C., Kraycirik, S., Killary, K. A., Grosenstein, P....Breitschwerdt, E. B. (2005). Bartonella quintana in Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1931-1934. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.030045.
  • Passatempo Virus, a Vaccinia Virus Strain, Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 217 KB - 7 pages]
    J. A. Leite et al.
        View Abstract

    Passatempo virus was isolated during a zoonotic outbreak. Biologic features and molecular characterization of hemagglutinin, thymidine kinase, and vaccinia growth factor genes suggested a vaccinia virus infection, which strengthens the idea of the reemergence and circulation of vaccinia virus in Brazil. Molecular polymorphisms indicated that Passatempo virus is a different isolate.

        Cite This Article
    EID Leite JA, Drumond BP, Trindade GS, Lobato Z, da Fonseca FG, dos Santos JR, et al. Passatempo Virus, a Vaccinia Virus Strain, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1935-1941. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050773
    AMA Leite JA, Drumond BP, Trindade GS, et al. Passatempo Virus, a Vaccinia Virus Strain, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1935-1941. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050773.
    APA Leite, J. A., Drumond, B. P., Trindade, G. S., Lobato, Z., da Fonseca, F. G., dos Santos, J. R....Kroon, E. G. (2005). Passatempo Virus, a Vaccinia Virus Strain, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1935-1941. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050773.
  • Anthrax in Eastern Turkey, 1992–2004 PDF Version [PDF - 335 KB - 3 pages]
    Z. Özkurt et al.
        View Abstract

    We investigated animal and human anthrax cases during a 13-year period in eastern Turkey. From 1992 to 2004, a total of 464 animal and 503 human anthrax cases were detected. Most cases occurred in summer. Anthrax remains a health problem in eastern Turkey, and preventive measures should be taken.

        Cite This Article
    EID Özkurt Z, Parlak M, Tastan R, Dinler U, Saglam YS, Ozyurek SF, et al. Anthrax in Eastern Turkey, 1992–2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1939-1941. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050779
    AMA Özkurt Z, Parlak M, Tastan R, et al. Anthrax in Eastern Turkey, 1992–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1939-1941. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050779.
    APA Özkurt, Z., Parlak, M., Tastan, R., Dinler, U., Saglam, Y. S., & Ozyurek, S. F. (2005). Anthrax in Eastern Turkey, 1992–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1939-1941. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050779.
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococci in Companion Animals PDF Version [PDF - 67 KB - 3 pages]
    K. E. Baptiste et al.
        View Abstract

    We determined the molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant staphylococci from animals and staff at a small animal and equine hospital. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) identical to human EMRSA-15 was found in dogs and hospital staff. In contrast, 5 distinct MRSA strains were isolated from horses but not from hospital staff.

        Cite This Article
    EID Baptiste KE, Williams K, Willams NJ, Wattret A, Clegg PD, Dawson S, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococci in Companion Animals. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1942-1944. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050241
    AMA Baptiste KE, Williams K, Willams NJ, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococci in Companion Animals. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1942-1944. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050241.
    APA Baptiste, K. E., Williams, K., Willams, N. J., Wattret, A., Clegg, P. D., Dawson, S....Hart, C. (2005). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococci in Companion Animals. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1942-1944. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050241.
  • Phocine Distemper Outbreak, the Netherlands, 2002 PDF Version [PDF - 139 KB - 4 pages]
    J. M. Rijks et al.
        View Abstract

    During the 2002 phocine distemper epidemic, 2,284 seals, primarily harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), were found stranded along the Dutch coast. Stranding pattern varied with age, sex, state of decomposition, wind, and location. Cumulative proportion of deaths (54%) was comparable to that in the first reported epidemic in 1988.

        Cite This Article
    EID Rijks JM, Van de Bildt M, Jensen TH, Philippa J, Osterhaus A, Kuiken T, et al. Phocine Distemper Outbreak, the Netherlands, 2002. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1945-1948. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050596
    AMA Rijks JM, Van de Bildt M, Jensen TH, et al. Phocine Distemper Outbreak, the Netherlands, 2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1945-1948. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050596.
    APA Rijks, J. M., Van de Bildt, M., Jensen, T. H., Philippa, J., Osterhaus, A., & Kuiken, T. (2005). Phocine Distemper Outbreak, the Netherlands, 2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1945-1948. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050596.
  • Bat Nipah Virus, Thailand PDF Version [PDF - 84 KB - 3 pages]
    S. Wacharapluesadee et al.
        View Abstract

    Surveillance for Nipah virus (NV) was conducted in Thailand's bat population. Immunoglobulin G antibodies to NV were detected with enzyme immunoassay in 82 of 1,304 bats. NV RNA was found in bat saliva and urine. These data suggest the persistence of NV infection in Thai bats.

        Cite This Article
    EID Wacharapluesadee S, Lumlertdacha B, Boongird K, Wanghongsa S, Chanhome L, Rollin P, et al. Bat Nipah Virus, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1949-1951. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050613
    AMA Wacharapluesadee S, Lumlertdacha B, Boongird K, et al. Bat Nipah Virus, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1949-1951. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050613.
    APA Wacharapluesadee, S., Lumlertdacha, B., Boongird, K., Wanghongsa, S., Chanhome, L., Rollin, P....Hemachudha, T. (2005). Bat Nipah Virus, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1949-1951. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050613.
  • Cat-transmitted Sporotrichosis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 135 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Schubach et al.
        View Abstract

    Sporotrichosis is an emerging zoonosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From 1998 to 2003, 497 humans and 1,056 cats with culture-proven sporotrichosis were studied. A total of 421 patients, 67.4% with a history of a scratch or bite, reported contact with cats that had sporotrichosis.

        Cite This Article
    EID Schubach A, Schubach T, Barros M, Wanke B. Cat-transmitted Sporotrichosis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1952-1954. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.040891
    AMA Schubach A, Schubach T, Barros M, et al. Cat-transmitted Sporotrichosis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1952-1954. doi:10.3201/eid1112.040891.
    APA Schubach, A., Schubach, T., Barros, M., & Wanke, B. (2005). Cat-transmitted Sporotrichosis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1952-1954. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.040891.
  • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Risk and Escherichia coli O157:H7 PDF Version [PDF - 64 KB - 3 pages]
    B. Tserenpuntsag et al.
        View Abstract

    We reviewed medical records of 238 hospitalized patients with Escherichia coli O157:H7 diarrhea to identify risk factors for progression to diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Data indicated that young age, long duration of diarrhea, elevated leukocyte count, and proteinuria were associated with HUS.

        Cite This Article
    EID Tserenpuntsag B, Chang H, Smith PF, Morse DL. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Risk and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1955-1957. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050607
    AMA Tserenpuntsag B, Chang H, Smith PF, et al. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Risk and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1955-1957. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050607.
    APA Tserenpuntsag, B., Chang, H., Smith, P. F., & Morse, D. L. (2005). Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Risk and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1955-1957. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050607.
  • Hepatitis E Virus Transmission from Wild Boar Meat PDF Version [PDF - 222 KB - 3 pages]
    T. Li et al.
        View Abstract

    We investigated a case of hepatitis E acquired after persons ate wild boar meat. Genotype 3 hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA was detected in both patient serum and wild boar meat. These findings provided direct evidence of zoonotic foodborne transmission of HEV from a wild boar to a human.

        Cite This Article
    EID Li T, Chijiwa K, Sera N, Ishibashi T, Etoh Y, Shinohara Y, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Transmission from Wild Boar Meat. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1958-1960. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.051041
    AMA Li T, Chijiwa K, Sera N, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Transmission from Wild Boar Meat. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1958-1960. doi:10.3201/eid1112.051041.
    APA Li, T., Chijiwa, K., Sera, N., Ishibashi, T., Etoh, Y., Shinohara, Y....Miyamura, T. (2005). Hepatitis E Virus Transmission from Wild Boar Meat. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1958-1960. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.051041.
  • Human Rickettsia felis Infection, Canary Islands, Spain PDF Version [PDF - 205 KB - 4 pages]
    J. Pérez-Arellano et al.
        View Abstract

    We report the first cases of human infection by Rickettsia felis in the Canary Islands. Antibodies against R. felis were found in 5 adsorbed serum samples from 44 patients with clinically suspected rickettsiosis by Western blot serology. Fleas from 1 patient's dog were positive for R. felis by polymerase chain reaction.

        Cite This Article
    EID Pérez-Arellano J, Fenollar F, Angel-Moreno A, Bolaños M, Hernández M, Santana E, et al. Human Rickettsia felis Infection, Canary Islands, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1961-1964. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050711
    AMA Pérez-Arellano J, Fenollar F, Angel-Moreno A, et al. Human Rickettsia felis Infection, Canary Islands, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1961-1964. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050711.
    APA Pérez-Arellano, J., Fenollar, F., Angel-Moreno, A., Bolaños, M., Hernández, M., Santana, E....Raoult, D. (2005). Human Rickettsia felis Infection, Canary Islands, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1961-1964. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050711.
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Pig Farming PDF Version [PDF - 37 KB - 2 pages]
    A. Voss et al.
        View Abstract

    We conducted a study among a group of 26 regional pig farmers to determine the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevalence rate and found it was >760 times greater than the rate of patients admitted to Dutch hospitals. While spa-type t108 is apparently a more widespread clone among pig farmers and their environment, we did find other spa-types.

        Cite This Article
    EID Voss A, Loeffen F, Bakker J, Klaassen C, Wulf M. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Pig Farming. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1965-1966. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050428
    AMA Voss A, Loeffen F, Bakker J, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Pig Farming. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1965-1966. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050428.
    APA Voss, A., Loeffen, F., Bakker, J., Klaassen, C., & Wulf, M. (2005). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Pig Farming. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1965-1966. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050428.
  • Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in Northern Elephant Seals, California PDF Version [PDF - 98 KB - 3 pages]
    R. A. Stoddard et al.
        View Abstract

    Campylobacter and Salmonella spp. prevalence and antimicrobial drug sensitivity were determined in northern elephant seals that had not entered the water and seals that were stranded on the California coast. Stranded seals had a higher prevalence of pathogenic bacteria, possibly from terrestrial sources, which were more likely to be resistant.

        Cite This Article
    EID Stoddard RA, Gulland F, Atwill E, Lawrence J, Jang S, Conrad PA, et al. Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in Northern Elephant Seals, California. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1967-1969. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050752
    AMA Stoddard RA, Gulland F, Atwill E, et al. Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in Northern Elephant Seals, California. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1967-1969. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050752.
    APA Stoddard, R. A., Gulland, F., Atwill, E., Lawrence, J., Jang, S., & Conrad, P. A. (2005). Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in Northern Elephant Seals, California. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1967-1969. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050752.
  • Pivotal Role of Dogs in Rabies Transmission, China PDF Version [PDF - 159 KB - 3 pages]
    X. Tang et al.
        View Abstract

    The number of dog-mediated rabies cases in China has increased exponentially; the number of human deaths has been high, primarily in poor, rural communities. We review the incidence of rabies in China based on data from 1950 and 2004, obtained mainly from epidemiologic bulletins published by the Chinese Ministry of Health.

        Cite This Article
    EID Tang X, Luo M, Zhang S, Fooks AR, Hu R, Tu C, et al. Pivotal Role of Dogs in Rabies Transmission, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1970-1972. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050271
    AMA Tang X, Luo M, Zhang S, et al. Pivotal Role of Dogs in Rabies Transmission, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1970-1972. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050271.
    APA Tang, X., Luo, M., Zhang, S., Fooks, A. R., Hu, R., & Tu, C. (2005). Pivotal Role of Dogs in Rabies Transmission, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1970-1972. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050271.

Another Dimension

  • The Enigma We Answer by Living PDF Version [PDF - 12 KB - 1 page]
    A. Deming
            Cite This Article
    EID Deming A. The Enigma We Answer by Living. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1927. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.AD1112
    AMA Deming A. The Enigma We Answer by Living. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1927. doi:10.3201/eid1112.AD1112.
    APA Deming, A. (2005). The Enigma We Answer by Living. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1927. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.AD1112.

Letters

  • Echinococcus multilocularis in Estonia PDF Version [PDF - 42 KB - 2 pages]
    E. Moks et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Moks E, Saarma U, Valdmann H. Echinococcus multilocularis in Estonia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1973-1974. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050339
    AMA Moks E, Saarma U, Valdmann H. Echinococcus multilocularis in Estonia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1973-1974. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050339.
    APA Moks, E., Saarma, U., & Valdmann, H. (2005). Echinococcus multilocularis in Estonia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1973-1974. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050339.
  • Influenza Virus Infection in Racing Greyhounds PDF Version [PDF - 50 KB - 3 pages]
    K. Yoon et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Yoon K, Cooper VL, Schwartz KJ, Harmon KM, Kim W, Janke BH, et al. Influenza Virus Infection in Racing Greyhounds. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1974-1976. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050810
    AMA Yoon K, Cooper VL, Schwartz KJ, et al. Influenza Virus Infection in Racing Greyhounds. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1974-1976. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050810.
    APA Yoon, K., Cooper, V. L., Schwartz, K. J., Harmon, K. M., Kim, W., Janke, B. H....Troutman, J. (2005). Influenza Virus Infection in Racing Greyhounds. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1974-1976. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050810.
  • Syngamoniasis in Tourist PDF Version [PDF - 45 KB - 2 pages]
    J. C. da Costa et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID da Costa JC, Delgado M, Vieira P, Afonso A, Conde B, Cross JH, et al. Syngamoniasis in Tourist. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1976-1977. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050713
    AMA da Costa JC, Delgado M, Vieira P, et al. Syngamoniasis in Tourist. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1976-1977. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050713.
    APA da Costa, J. C., Delgado, M., Vieira, P., Afonso, A., Conde, B., & Cross, J. H. (2005). Syngamoniasis in Tourist. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1976-1977. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050713.
  • Human Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Jamaica PDF Version [PDF - 23 KB - 2 pages]
    C. A. Waugh et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Waugh CA, Shafir S, Wise M, Robinson RD, Eberhard ML, Lindo JF, et al. Human Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Jamaica. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1977-1978. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050217
    AMA Waugh CA, Shafir S, Wise M, et al. Human Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Jamaica. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1977-1978. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050217.
    APA Waugh, C. A., Shafir, S., Wise, M., Robinson, R. D., Eberhard, M. L., & Lindo, J. F. (2005). Human Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Jamaica. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1977-1978. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050217.
  • Nipah Virus Strain Variation PDF Version [PDF - 22 KB - 2 pages]
    J. Pulliam et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Pulliam J, Field HE, Olival KJ. Nipah Virus Strain Variation. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1978-1979. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050220
    AMA Pulliam J, Field HE, Olival KJ. Nipah Virus Strain Variation. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1978-1979. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050220.
    APA Pulliam, J., Field, H. E., & Olival, K. J. (2005). Nipah Virus Strain Variation. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1978-1979. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050220.
  • Trichinellosis Outbreak PDF Version [PDF - 77 KB - 3 pages]
    E. Marva et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Marva E, Markovics A, Gdalevich M, Asor N, Sadik C, Leventhal A, et al. Trichinellosis Outbreak. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1979-1981. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050461
    AMA Marva E, Markovics A, Gdalevich M, et al. Trichinellosis Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1979-1981. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050461.
    APA Marva, E., Markovics, A., Gdalevich, M., Asor, N., Sadik, C., & Leventhal, A. (2005). Trichinellosis Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1979-1981. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050461.
  • Ciguatera Fish Poisoning, Canary Islands PDF Version [PDF - 74 KB - 2 pages]
    J. Pérez-Arellano et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Pérez-Arellano J, Luzardo OP, Brito A, Cabrera M, Zumbado M, Carranza C, et al. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning, Canary Islands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1981-1982. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050393
    AMA Pérez-Arellano J, Luzardo OP, Brito A, et al. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning, Canary Islands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1981-1982. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050393.
    APA Pérez-Arellano, J., Luzardo, O. P., Brito, A., Cabrera, M., Zumbado, M., Carranza, C....Boada, L. D. (2005). Ciguatera Fish Poisoning, Canary Islands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1981-1982. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050393.
  • Human Rabies in China PDF Version [PDF - 49 KB - 2 pages]
    Y. Zhang et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Zhang Y, Xiong C, Xiao D, Jiang R, Wang Z, Zhang L, et al. Human Rabies in China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1983-1984. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.040775
    AMA Zhang Y, Xiong C, Xiao D, et al. Human Rabies in China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1983-1984. doi:10.3201/eid1112.040775.
    APA Zhang, Y., Xiong, C., Xiao, D., Jiang, R., Wang, Z., Zhang, L....Fu, Z. F. (2005). Human Rabies in China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1983-1984. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.040775.
  • Resistant Salmonella Virchow in Quail Products PDF Version [PDF - 34 KB - 2 pages]
    F. M. Aarestrup et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Aarestrup FM, Hasman H, Jensen L. Resistant Salmonella Virchow in Quail Products. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1984-1985. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050977
    AMA Aarestrup FM, Hasman H, Jensen L. Resistant Salmonella Virchow in Quail Products. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1984-1985. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050977.
    APA Aarestrup, F. M., Hasman, H., & Jensen, L. (2005). Resistant Salmonella Virchow in Quail Products. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1984-1985. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050977.
  • Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium Clone in Swine, Europe PDF Version [PDF - 62 KB - 3 pages]
    C. Novais et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Novais C, Coque TM, Boerlin P, Herrero I, Moreno MA, Dominguez L, et al. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium Clone in Swine, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1985-1987. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050822
    AMA Novais C, Coque TM, Boerlin P, et al. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium Clone in Swine, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1985-1987. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050822.
    APA Novais, C., Coque, T. M., Boerlin, P., Herrero, I., Moreno, M. A., Dominguez, L....Peixe, L. (2005). Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium Clone in Swine, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1985-1987. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050822.
  • Rabies Vaccine Baits, Pennsylvania PDF Version [PDF - 46 KB - 2 pages]
    V. M. Dato and C. Rupprecht
            Cite This Article
    EID Dato VM, Rupprecht C. Rabies Vaccine Baits, Pennsylvania. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1987-1988. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050685
    AMA Dato VM, Rupprecht C. Rabies Vaccine Baits, Pennsylvania. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1987-1988. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050685.
    APA Dato, V. M., & Rupprecht, C. (2005). Rabies Vaccine Baits, Pennsylvania. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1987-1988. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.050685.
  • Salmonella Typhimurium Veterinary Clinic Outbreak PDF Version [PDF - 67 KB - 1 page]
    J. F. Prescott
            Cite This Article
    EID Prescott JF. Salmonella Typhimurium Veterinary Clinic Outbreak. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1989. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.041295
    AMA Prescott JF. Salmonella Typhimurium Veterinary Clinic Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1989. doi:10.3201/eid1112.041295.
    APA Prescott, J. F. (2005). Salmonella Typhimurium Veterinary Clinic Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1989. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.041295.

Books and Media

  • Behind the Mask: How the World Survived SARS, the First Epidemic of the 21st Century PDF Version [PDF - 62 KB - 1 page]
    M. S. Massoudi
            Cite This Article
    EID Massoudi MS. Behind the Mask: How the World Survived SARS, the First Epidemic of the 21st Century. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1990. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.051058
    AMA Massoudi MS. Behind the Mask: How the World Survived SARS, the First Epidemic of the 21st Century. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1990. doi:10.3201/eid1112.051058.
    APA Massoudi, M. S. (2005). Behind the Mask: How the World Survived SARS, the First Epidemic of the 21st Century. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1990. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.051058.

About the Cover

  • Painting from Life Nature's Unpredictable Menagerie PDF Version [PDF - 103 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Potter
            Cite This Article
    EID Potter P. Painting from Life Nature's Unpredictable Menagerie. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(12):1991-1992. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.AC1112
    AMA Potter P. Painting from Life Nature's Unpredictable Menagerie. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(12):1991-1992. doi:10.3201/eid1112.AC1112.
    APA Potter, P. (2005). Painting from Life Nature's Unpredictable Menagerie. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(12), 1991-1992. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1112.AC1112.

Etymologia

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