Volume 11, Number 12—December 2005
Volume 11, Number 12—December 2005 PDF Version [PDF - 8.42 MB - 187 pages]
Role of Multisector Partnerships in Controlling Emerging Zoonotic Diseases
PDF Version [PDF - 34 KB - 2 pages]
N. Marano et al.
Community Epidemiology Framework for Classifying Disease Threats
PDF Version [PDF - 248 KB - 7 pages]
A. Fenton and A. B. PedersenView SummaryView Abstract
Ecologic and evolutionary features of multihost pathogens determine the likelihood of emerging infectious diseases.
Recent evidence suggests that most parasites can infect multiple host species and that these are primarily responsible for emerging infectious disease outbreaks in humans and wildlife. However, the ecologic and evolutionary factors that constrain or facilitate such emergences are poorly understood. We propose a conceptual framework based on the pathogen's between- and within-species transmission rates to describe possible configurations of a multihost-pathogen community that may lead to disease emergence. We establish 3 dynamic thresholds separating 4 classes of disease outcomes, spillover, apparent multihost, true multihost, and potential emerging infectious disease; describe possible disease emergence scenarios; outline the population dynamics of each case; and clarify existing terminology. We highlight the utility of this framework with examples of disease threats in human and wildlife populations, showing how it allows us to understand which ecologic factors affect disease emergence and predict the impact of host shifts in a range of disease systems.
Bushmeat Hunting, Deforestation, and Prediction of Zoonotic Disease
PDF Version [PDF - 122 KB - 6 pages]
N. D. Wolfe et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Integrating virology, ecology, and other disciplines enhances prediction of new emerging zoonoses.
Understanding the emergence of new zoonotic agents requires knowledge of pathogen biodiversity in wildlife, human-wildlife interactions, anthropogenic pressures on wildlife populations, and changes in society and human behavior. We discuss an interdisciplinary approach combining virology, wildlife biology, disease ecology, and anthropology that enables better understanding of how deforestation and associated hunting leads to the emergence of novel zoonotic pathogens.
Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum
PDF Version [PDF - 214 KB - 7 pages]
J. Dumler et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Understanding how Anaplasma phagocytophilum alters neutrophils will improve diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this severe illness.
Human granulocytic anaplasmosis is a tickborne rickettsial infection of neutrophils caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The human disease was first identified in 1990, although the pathogen was defined as a veterinary agent in 1932. Since 1990, US cases have markedly increased, and infections are now recognized in Europe. A high international seroprevalence suggests infection is widespread but unrecognized. The niche for A. phagocytophilum, the neutrophil, indicates that the pathogen has unique adaptations and pathogenetic mechanisms. Intensive study has demonstrated interactions with host-cell signal transduction and possibly eukaryotic transcription. This interaction leads to permutations of neutrophil function and could permit immunopathologic changes, severe disease, and opportunistic infections. More study is needed to define the immunology and pathogenetic mechanisms and to understand why severe disease develops in some persons and why some animals become long-term permissive reservoir hosts.
Francisella tularensis in the United States
PDF Version [PDF - 547 KB - 7 pages]
J. Farlow et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Subpopulations A.I and A.II. of Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis are associated with unique biotic and abiotic factors that maintain disease foci.
The causative agent of tularemia, Francisella tularensis, is a formidable biologic agent that occurs naturally throughout North America. We examined genetic and spatial diversity patterns among 161 US F. tularensis isolates by using a 24-marker multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) system. MLVA identified 126 unique genotypes. Phylogenetic analyses showed patterns similar to recently reported global-scale analyses. We observed clustering by subspecies, low genetic diversity within F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, and division of F. tularensis subsp. tularensis into 2 distinct subpopulations: A.I. and A.II. The 2 F. tularensis subsp. tularensis subpopulations also represent geographically distinct groups; A.I. occurs primarily in the central United States, and A.II. occurs primarily in the western United States. These spatial distributions are correlated with geographic ranges of particular vectors, hosts of tularemia, and abiotic factors. These correlates provide testable hypotheses regarding ecologic factors associated with maintaining tularemia foci.
Host Range and Emerging and Reemerging Pathogens
PDF Version [PDF - 236 KB - 6 pages]
M. Woolhouse and S. Gowtage-SequeriaView SummaryView Abstract
Emerging and reemerging species of human pathogens are associated with a broad range of nonhuman hosts.
An updated literature survey identified 1,407 recognized species of human pathogen, 58% of which are zoonotic. Of the total, 177 are regarded as emerging or reemerging. Zoonotic pathogens are twice as likely to be in this category as are nonzoonotic pathogens. Emerging and reemerging pathogens are not strongly associated with particular types of nonhuman hosts, but they are most likely to have the broadest host ranges. Emerging and reemerging zoonoses are associated with a wide range of drivers, but changes in land use and agriculture and demographic and societal changes are most commonly cited. However, although zoonotic pathogens do represent the most likely source of emerging and reemerging infectious disease, only a small minority have proved capable of causing major epidemics in the human population.
Person-to-Person Transmission of Andes Virus
PDF Version [PDF - 168 KB - 6 pages]
V. P. Martinez et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Epidemiologic and genetic data show that person-to-person spread likely took place during the prodromal phase or shortly after it ended.
Despite the fact that rodents are considered to be the infectious source of hantavirus for humans, another route of transmission was demonstrated. Andes virus (ANDV) has been responsible for most of the cases recorded in Argentina. Person-to-person transmission of ANDV Sout lineage was described during an outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southwest Argentina. In this study, we analyzed 4 clusters that occurred in 2 disease-endemic areas for different ANDV lineages. We found new evidence of interhuman transmission for ANDV Sout lineage and described the first event in which another lineage, ANDV Cent BsAs, was implicated in this mechanism of transmission. On the basis of epidemiologic and genetic data, we concluded that person-to-person spread of the virus likely took place during the prodromal phase or shortly after it ended, since close and prolonged contact occurred in the events analyzed here, and the incubation period was 15–24 days.
European Bat Lyssaviruses, the Netherlands
PDF Version [PDF - 308 KB - 6 pages]
W. Van der Poel et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Genotype 5 lyssaviruses are endemic in the Netherlands, and can cause fatal infections in humans.
To study European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) in bat reservoirs in the Netherlands, native bats have been tested for rabies since 1984. For all collected bats, data including species, age, sex, and date and location found were recorded. A total of 1,219 serotine bats, Eptesicus serotinus, were tested, and 251 (21%) were positive for lyssavirus antigen. Five (4%) of 129 specimens from the pond bat, Myotis dasycneme, were positive. Recently detected EBLV RNA segments encoding the nucleoprotein were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically (45 specimens). All recent serotine bat specimens clustered with genotype 5 (EBLV1) sequences, and homologies within subgenotypes EBLV1a and EBLV1b were 99.0%–100% and 99.2%–100%, respectively. Our findings indicate that EBLVs of genotype 5 are endemic in the serotine bat in the Netherlands. Since EBLVs can cause fatal infections in humans, all serotine and pond bats involved in contact incidents should be tested to determine whether the victim was exposed to EBLVs.
SARS-CoV Infection in a Restaurant from Palm Civet
PDF Version [PDF - 189 KB - 6 pages]
M. Wang et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Contact with food animals was associated with SARS-CoV infection in the People’s Republic of China.
Epidemiologic investigations showed that 2 of 4 patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) identified in the winter of 2003–2004 were a waitress at a restaurant in Guangzhou, China, that served palm civets as food and a customer who ate in the restaurant a short distance from animal cages. All 6 palm civets at the restaurant were positive for SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Partial spike (S) gene sequences of SARS-CoV from the 2 patients were identical to 4 of 5 S gene viral sequences from palm civets. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SARS-CoV from palm civets in the restaurant was most closely related to animal isolates. SARS cases at the restaurant were the result of recent interspecies transfer from the putative palm civet reservoir, and not the result of continued circulation of SARS-CoV in the human population.
Echinococcosis in Tibetan Populations, Western Sichuan Province, China
PDF Version [PDF - 310 KB - 8 pages]
L. Tiaoying et al.View SummaryView Abstract
This area has the highest prevalences of both forms of this disease in the world.
We screened 3,199 people from Shiqu County, Sichuan Province, China, for abdominal echinococcosis (hydatid disease) by portable ultrasound combined with specific serodiagnostic tests. Both cystic echinococcosis (CE) (Echinococcus granulosus infection) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) (E. multilocularis) were co-endemic in this area at the highest village prevalence values recorded anywhere in the world: 12.9% were infected with one or the other form (6.8% CE and 6.2% AE). Prevalences of both CE and AE were significantly higher in female than male patients and increased with the age of the person screened. Pastoral herdsmen were at highest risk for infection (prevalence 19.0%). Prevalence of CE varied in 5 townships from 0% to 12.1%, whereas AE prevalence ranged from 0% to 14.3%. Risk factors associated with both infections included the number of owned dogs, frequency of contact with dogs, and sources of drinking water.
Porcine Noroviruses Related to Human Noroviruses
PDF Version [PDF - 390 KB - 8 pages]
Q. Wang et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Pigs may be reservoirs for human noroviruses, and porcine/human genogroup II recombinants could emerge.
Detection of genogroup II (GII) norovirus (NoV) RNA from adult pigs in Japan and Europe and GII NoV antibodies in US swine raises public health concerns about zoonotic transmission of porcine NoVs to humans, although no NoVs have been detected in US swine. To detect porcine NoVs and to investigate their genetic diversity and relatedness to human NoVs, 275 fecal samples from normal US adult swine were screened by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction with calicivirus universal primers. Six samples were positive for NoV. Based on sequence analysis of 3 kb on the 3´ end of 5 porcine NoVs, 3 genotypes in GII and a potential recombinant were identified. One genotype of porcine NoVs was genetically and antigenically related to human NoVs and replicated in gnotobiotic pigs. These results raise concerns of whether subclinically infected adult swine may be reservoirs of new human NoVs or if porcine/human GII recombinants could emerge.
Viral Load Distribution in SARS Outbreak
PDF Version [PDF - 126 KB - 5 pages]
C. Chu et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Airborne transmission may have resulted in an outbreak of SARS in Hong Kong.
An unprecedented community outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred in the Amoy Gardens, a high-rise residential complex in Hong Kong. Droplet, air, contaminated fomites, and rodent pests have been proposed to be mechanisms for transmitting SARS in a short period. We studied nasopharyngeal viral load of SARS patients on admission and their geographic distribution. Higher nasopharyngeal viral load was found in patients living in adjacent units of the same block inhabited by the index patient, while a lower but detectable nasopharyngeal viral load was found in patients living further away from the index patient. This pattern of nasopharyngeal viral load suggested that airborne transmission played an important part in this outbreak in Hong Kong. Contaminated fomites and rodent pests may have also played a role.
Pandemic Strain of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O
PDF Version [PDF - 262 KB - 7 pages]
N. J. Knowles et al.View SummaryView Abstract
The PanAsia strain is spreading explosively in Asia and extending to parts of Africa and Europe.
A particular genetic lineage of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O, which we have named the PanAsia strain, was responsible for an explosive pandemic in Asia and extended to parts of Africa and Europe from 1998 to 2001. In 2000 and 2001, this virus strain caused outbreaks in the Republic of Korea, Japan, Russia, Mongolia, South Africa, the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, France, and the Netherlands, countries which last experienced FMD outbreaks decades before (ranging from 1934 for Korea to 1984 for the Netherlands). Although the virus has been controlled in all of these normally FMD-free or sporadically infected countries, it appears to be established throughout much of southern Asia, with geographically separated lineages evolving independently. A pandemic such as this is a rare phenomenon but demonstrates the ability of newly emerging FMDV strains to spread rapidly throughout a wide region and invade countries previously free from the disease.
Bartonella henselae in Porpoise Blood
PDF Version [PDF - 48 KB - 5 pages]
R. G. Maggi et al.View SummaryView Abstract
DNA in porpoises suggests an emerging infectious disease in marine mammals.
We report detection of Bartonella henselae DNA in blood samples from 2 harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). By using real-time polymerase chain reaction, we directly amplified Bartonella species DNA from blood of a harbor porpoise stranded along the northern North Carolina coast and from a preenrichment blood culture from a second harbor porpoise. The second porpoise was captured out of habitat (in a low-salinity canal along the northern North Carolina coast) and relocated back into the ocean. Subsequently, DNA was amplified by conventional polymerase chain reaction for DNA sequencing. The 16S–23S intergenic transcribed spacer region obtained from each porpoise was 99.8% similar to that of B. henselae strain San Antonio 2 (SA2), whereas both heme-binding phage-associated pap31 gene sequences were 100% homologous to that of B. henselae SA2. Currently, the geographic distribution, mode of transmission, reservoir potential, and pathogenicity of bloodborne Bartonella species in porpoises have not been determined.
Antimicrobial-drug Susceptibility of Human and Animal Salmonella Typhimurium, Minnesota, 1997–2003
PDF Version [PDF - 205 KB - 8 pages]
S. D. Wedel et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Food animals are likely the primary reservoir of resistant S. Typhimurium.
We compared antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) subtypes of 1,028 human and 716 animal Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium isolates from Minnesota from 1997 to 2003. Overall, 29% of human isolates were multidrug resistant. Predominant phenotypes included resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol or kanamycin, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline (ACSSuT or AKSSuT). Most human multidrug-resistant isolates belonged to PFGE clonal group A, characterized by ACSSuT resistance (64%), or clonal group B, characterized by AKSSuT resistance (19%). Most animal isolates were from cattle (n = 358) or swine (n = 251). Eighty-one percent were multidrug resistant; of these, 54% were at least resistance phenotype ACSSuT, and 43% were at least AKSSuT. More than 80% of multidrug-resistant isolates had a clonal group A or B subtype. Resistance to ceftriaxone and nalidixic acid increased, primarily among clonal group A/ACSSuT isolates. Clonal group B/AKSSuT isolates decreased over time. These data support the hypothesis that food animals are the primary reservoir of multidrug-resistant S. Typhimurium.
Postepizootic Persistence of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Venezuela
PDF Version [PDF - 218 KB - 9 pages]
J. Navarro et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Etiologic subtype IC of virus persists, 5 years after the major 1995 epidemic.
Five years after the apparent end of the major 1995 Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) epizootic/epidemic, focal outbreaks of equine encephalitis occurred in Carabobo and Barinas States of western Venezuela. Virus isolates from horses in each location were nearly identical in sequence to 1995 isolates, which suggests natural persistence of subtype IC VEE virus (VEEV) strains in a genetically stable mode. Serologic evidence indicated that additional outbreaks occurred in Barinas State in 2003. Field studies identified known Culex (Melanoconion) spp. vectors and reservoir hosts of enzootic VEEV but a dearth of typical epidemic vectors. Cattle serosurveys indicated the recent circulation of enzootic VEEV strains, and possibly of epizootic strains. Persistence of VEEV subtype IC strains and infection of horses at the end of the rainy season suggest the possibility of an alternative, cryptic transmission cycle involving survival through the dry season of infected vectors or persistently infected vertebrates.
Intergenogroup Recombination in Sapoviruses
PDF Version [PDF - 386 KB - 7 pages]
G. S. Hansman et al.View SummaryView Abstract
This first report of intergenogroup recombination for any calicivirus highlights a possible route of zoonoses.
Sapovirus, a member of the family Caliciviridae, is an etiologic agent of gastroenteritis in humans and pigs. Analyses of the complete genome sequences led us to identify the first sapovirus intergenogroup recombinant strain. Phylogenetic analysis of the nonstructural region (i.e., genome start to capsid start) grouped this strain into genogroup II, whereas the structural region (i.e., capsid start to genome end) grouped this strain into genogroup IV. We found that a recombination event occurred at the polymerase and capsid junction. This is the first report of intergenogroup recombination for any calicivirus and highlights a possible route of zoonoses because sapovirus strains that infect pig species belong to genogroup III.
Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis, New York, 1995–2000
PDF Version [PDF - 205 KB - 7 pages]
J. D. Blanton et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Bats are now the leading source of rabies postexposure prophylaxis.
The epidemiology of human rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) in 4 upstate New York counties was described from data obtained from 2,216 incidences of PEP recorded by local health departments from 1995 to 2000. Overall annual incidence for the study period was 27 cases per 100,000 persons. Mean annual PEP incidence rates were highest in rural counties and during the summer months. PEP incidence was highest among patients 5–9 and 30–34 years of age. Bites accounted for most PEP (51%) and were primarily associated with cats and dogs. Bats accounted for 30% of exposures, more than any other group of animals; consequently, bats have replaced raccoons as the leading rabies exposure source to humans in this area.
Central African Hunters Exposed to Simian Immunodeficiency Virus
PDF Version [PDF - 138 KB - 3 pages]
M. L. Kalish et al.View Abstract
HIV-seronegative Cameroonians with exposure to nonhuman primates were tested for simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. Seroreactivity was correlated with exposure risk (p<0.001). One person had strong humoral and weak cellular immune reactivity to SIVcol peptides. Humans are exposed to and possibly infected with SIV, which has major public health implications.
Bartonella quintana in Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis)
PDF Version [PDF - 190 KB - 4 pages]
L. G. O'Rourke et al.View Abstract
We identified a Bartonella quintana strain by polymerase chain reaction amplification, cloning, and sequencing of DNA extracted from lysed erythrocytes and cultured colonies grown from peripheral blood collected from a captive-bred cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). This report describes naturally acquired B. quintana infection in a nonhuman primate.
Passatempo Virus, a Vaccinia Virus Strain, Brazil
PDF Version [PDF - 217 KB - 7 pages]
J. A. Leite et al.View Abstract
Passatempo virus was isolated during a zoonotic outbreak. Biologic features and molecular characterization of hemagglutinin, thymidine kinase, and vaccinia growth factor genes suggested a vaccinia virus infection, which strengthens the idea of the reemergence and circulation of vaccinia virus in Brazil. Molecular polymorphisms indicated that Passatempo virus is a different isolate.
Anthrax in Eastern Turkey, 1992–2004
PDF Version [PDF - 335 KB - 3 pages]
Z. Özkurt et al.View Abstract
We investigated animal and human anthrax cases during a 13-year period in eastern Turkey. From 1992 to 2004, a total of 464 animal and 503 human anthrax cases were detected. Most cases occurred in summer. Anthrax remains a health problem in eastern Turkey, and preventive measures should be taken.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococci in Companion Animals
PDF Version [PDF - 67 KB - 3 pages]
K. E. Baptiste et al.View Abstract
We determined the molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant staphylococci from animals and staff at a small animal and equine hospital. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) identical to human EMRSA-15 was found in dogs and hospital staff. In contrast, 5 distinct MRSA strains were isolated from horses but not from hospital staff.
Phocine Distemper Outbreak, the Netherlands, 2002
PDF Version [PDF - 139 KB - 4 pages]
J. M. Rijks et al.View Abstract
During the 2002 phocine distemper epidemic, 2,284 seals, primarily harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), were found stranded along the Dutch coast. Stranding pattern varied with age, sex, state of decomposition, wind, and location. Cumulative proportion of deaths (54%) was comparable to that in the first reported epidemic in 1988.
Bat Nipah Virus, Thailand
PDF Version [PDF - 84 KB - 3 pages]
S. Wacharapluesadee et al.View Abstract
Surveillance for Nipah virus (NV) was conducted in Thailand's bat population. Immunoglobulin G antibodies to NV were detected with enzyme immunoassay in 82 of 1,304 bats. NV RNA was found in bat saliva and urine. These data suggest the persistence of NV infection in Thai bats.
Cat-transmitted Sporotrichosis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
PDF Version [PDF - 135 KB - 3 pages]
A. Schubach et al.View Abstract
Sporotrichosis is an emerging zoonosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From 1998 to 2003, 497 humans and 1,056 cats with culture-proven sporotrichosis were studied. A total of 421 patients, 67.4% with a history of a scratch or bite, reported contact with cats that had sporotrichosis.
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Risk and Escherichia coli O157:H7
PDF Version [PDF - 64 KB - 3 pages]
B. Tserenpuntsag et al.View Abstract
We reviewed medical records of 238 hospitalized patients with Escherichia coli O157:H7 diarrhea to identify risk factors for progression to diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Data indicated that young age, long duration of diarrhea, elevated leukocyte count, and proteinuria were associated with HUS.
Hepatitis E Virus Transmission from Wild Boar Meat
PDF Version [PDF - 222 KB - 3 pages]
T. Li et al.View Abstract
We investigated a case of hepatitis E acquired after persons ate wild boar meat. Genotype 3 hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA was detected in both patient serum and wild boar meat. These findings provided direct evidence of zoonotic foodborne transmission of HEV from a wild boar to a human.
Human Rickettsia felis Infection, Canary Islands, Spain
PDF Version [PDF - 205 KB - 4 pages]
J. Pérez-Arellano et al.View Abstract
We report the first cases of human infection by Rickettsia felis in the Canary Islands. Antibodies against R. felis were found in 5 adsorbed serum samples from 44 patients with clinically suspected rickettsiosis by Western blot serology. Fleas from 1 patient's dog were positive for R. felis by polymerase chain reaction.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Pig Farming
PDF Version [PDF - 37 KB - 2 pages]
A. Voss et al.View Abstract
We conducted a study among a group of 26 regional pig farmers to determine the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevalence rate and found it was >760 times greater than the rate of patients admitted to Dutch hospitals. While spa-type t108 is apparently a more widespread clone among pig farmers and their environment, we did find other spa-types.
Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in Northern Elephant Seals, California
PDF Version [PDF - 98 KB - 3 pages]
R. A. Stoddard et al.View Abstract
Campylobacter and Salmonella spp. prevalence and antimicrobial drug sensitivity were determined in northern elephant seals that had not entered the water and seals that were stranded on the California coast. Stranded seals had a higher prevalence of pathogenic bacteria, possibly from terrestrial sources, which were more likely to be resistant.
Pivotal Role of Dogs in Rabies Transmission, China
PDF Version [PDF - 159 KB - 3 pages]
X. Tang et al.View Abstract
The number of dog-mediated rabies cases in China has increased exponentially; the number of human deaths has been high, primarily in poor, rural communities. We review the incidence of rabies in China based on data from 1950 and 2004, obtained mainly from epidemiologic bulletins published by the Chinese Ministry of Health.
Echinococcus multilocularis in Estonia
PDF Version [PDF - 42 KB - 2 pages]
E. Moks et al.
Influenza Virus Infection in Racing Greyhounds
PDF Version [PDF - 50 KB - 3 pages]
K. Yoon et al.
Syngamoniasis in Tourist
PDF Version [PDF - 45 KB - 2 pages]
J. C. da Costa et al.
Human Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Jamaica
PDF Version [PDF - 23 KB - 2 pages]
C. A. Waugh et al.
Nipah Virus Strain Variation
PDF Version [PDF - 22 KB - 2 pages]
J. Pulliam et al.
PDF Version [PDF - 77 KB - 3 pages]
E. Marva et al.
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning, Canary Islands
PDF Version [PDF - 74 KB - 2 pages]
J. Pérez-Arellano et al.
Human Rabies in China
PDF Version [PDF - 49 KB - 2 pages]
Y. Zhang et al.
Resistant Salmonella Virchow in Quail Products
PDF Version [PDF - 34 KB - 2 pages]
F. M. Aarestrup et al.
Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium Clone in Swine, Europe
PDF Version [PDF - 62 KB - 3 pages]
C. Novais et al.
Rabies Vaccine Baits, Pennsylvania
PDF Version [PDF - 46 KB - 2 pages]
V. M. Dato and C. Rupprecht
Salmonella Typhimurium Veterinary Clinic Outbreak
PDF Version [PDF - 67 KB - 1 page]
J. F. Prescott
Books and Media
Behind the Mask: How the World Survived SARS, the First Epidemic of the 21st Century
PDF Version [PDF - 62 KB - 1 page]
M. S. Massoudi
About the Cover
- Page created: February 02, 2012
- Page last updated: April 05, 2012
- Page last reviewed: April 05, 2012
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
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