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Volume 11, Number 5—May 2005

Volume 11, Number 5—May 2005   PDF Version [PDF - 7.33 MB - 147 pages]

Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

  • Persistent Emergence of Dengue PDF Version [PDF - 27 KB - 2 pages]
    C. H. Calisher
  • More Dengue, More Questions PDF Version [PDF - 34 KB - 2 pages]
    S. B. Halstead
  • Dengue Fever, Hawaii, 2001–2002 PDF Version [PDF - 378 KB - 8 pages]
    P. V. Effler et al.
       View Abstract

    Autochthonous dengue infections were last reported in Hawaii in 1944. In September 2001, the Hawaii Department of Health was notified of an unusual febrile illness in a resident with no travel history; dengue fever was confirmed. During the investigation, 1,644 persons with locally acquired denguelike illness were evaluated, and 122 (7%) laboratory-positive dengue infections were identified; dengue virus serotype 1 was isolated from 15 patients. No cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever or shock syndrome were reported. In 3 instances autochthonous infections were linked to a person who reported denguelike illness after travel to French Polynesia. Phylogenetic analyses showed the Hawaiian isolates were closely associated with contemporaneous isolates from Tahiti. Aedes albopictus was present in all communities surveyed on Oahu, Maui, Molokai, and Kauai; no Ae. aegypti were found. This outbreak underscores the importance of maintaining surveillance and control of potential disease vectors even in the absence of an imminent disease threat.

  • Dengue Risk among Visitors to Hawaii during an Outbreak PDF Version [PDF - 289 KB - 7 pages]
    C. E. Smith et al.
       View Abstract

    Despite the high rates of dengue in many tropical destinations frequented by tourists, limited information is available on the risk for infection among short-term visitors. We retrospectively surveyed 4,000 persons who arrived in Hawaii during the peak of the 2001–2002 dengue outbreak and collected follow-up serologic test results for those reporting denguelike illness. Of 3,064 visitors who responded, 94 (3%) experienced a denguelike illness either during their trip or within 14 days of departure; 34 of these persons were seen by a physician, and 2 were hospitalized. Twenty-seven visitors with denguelike illness provided a serum specimen; all specimens were negative for anti-dengue immunoglobulin G antibodies. The point estimate of dengue incidence was zero infections per 358 person-days of exposure with an upper 95% confidence limit of 3.0 cases per person-year. Thus, the risk for dengue infection for visitors to Hawaii during the outbreak was low.

  • Dengue Type 3 Virus, Saint Martin, 2003–2004 PDF Version [PDF - 202 KB - 7 pages]
    C. N. Peyrefitte et al.
       View Abstract

    We describe the spread of a dengue virus during an outbreak in Saint Martin island (French West Indies) during winter 2003–2004. Dengue type 3 viruses were isolated from 6 patients exhibiting clinical symptoms. This serotype had not been detected on the island during the preceding 3 years. Genome sequence determinations and analyses showed a common origin with dengue type 3 viruses isolated in Martinique 2 years earlier.

  • Dengue Antibody Prevalence in German Travelers PDF Version [PDF - 131 KB - 4 pages]
    O. Wichmann et al.
       View Abstract

    We studied 2,259 German citizens after they returned from dengue-endemic countries from 1996 to 2004. Serotype-specific dengue antibodies indicated acute infections in 51 (4.7%) travelers with recent fever and 13 (1.1%) travelers with no recent fever, depending largely on destination and epidemic activity in the countries visited.

  • Leptospirosis during Dengue Outbreak, Bangladesh PDF Version [PDF - 110 KB - 4 pages]
    R. C. LaRocque et al.
       View Abstract

    We collected acute-phase serum samples from febrile patients at 2 major hospitals in Dhaka, Bangladesh, during an outbreak of dengue fever in 2001. A total of 18% of dengue-negative patients tested positive for leptospirosis. The case-fatality rate among leptospirosis patients (5%) was higher than among dengue fever patients (1.2%).

  • Retinal Hemorrhages in 4 Patients with Dengue Fever PDF Version [PDF - 124 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Chlebicki et al.
       View Abstract

    We report 4 patients with retinal hemorrhages that developed during hospitalization for dengue fever. Onset of symptoms coincided with resolution of fever and the nadir of thrombocytopenia. Retinal hemorrhages may reflect the rising incidence of dengue in Singapore or may be caused by changes in the predominant serotype of the dengue virus.

  • Dengue Virus Type 3, Cuba, 2000–2002 PDF Version [PDF - 76 KB - 2 pages]
    R. Rodriguez-Roche et al.
  • Nosocomial Dengue by Mucocutaneous Transmission PDF Version [PDF - 16 KB - 1 page]
    L. H. Chen and M. E. Wilson

Volume 11, Number 5—May 2005 - Continued


  • Adenovirus Type 7 Peptide Diversity during Outbreak, Korea, 1995–2000 PDF Version [PDF - 163 KB - 6 pages]
    E. Choi et al.
       View Abstract

    To understand the molecular basis of observed regional shifts in the genome types of adenovirus type 7 (Ad7) isolated in Korea during nationwide outbreaks from 1995 to 2000, the genetic variabilities of Ad7d and Ad7l were studied by sequence analysis of hexon, fiber, E3, and E4 open reading frame (ORF) 6/7 peptides. One amino acid change in the receptor-binding domain of fiber and 6 amino acid variations in E4 ORF 6/7 were identified between 2 genome types, while no variations were found in hexon and E3. Phylogenetic trees based on hexon, fiber, and E4 suggested that the Ad7 epidemic was probably caused by the introduction of the Japanese Ad7d strains. Our data also provide evidence that the rapid divergence of Ad7d to a novel genome type Ad7l could have been due to viral strategies involving multiple sequence changes in E4. This result suggests fiber and E4 ORF 6/7 peptides participate in the evolution of Ad7.

  • Risk Factors for Kala-Azar in Bangladesh PDF Version [PDF - 261 KB - 8 pages]
    C. Bern et al.
       View Abstract

    Since 1990, South Asia has experienced a resurgence of kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis). To determine risk factors for kala-azar, we performed cross-sectional surveys over a 3-year period in a Bangladeshi community. By history, active case detection, and serologic screening, 155 of 2,356 residents had kala-azar with onset from 2000 to 2003. Risk was highest for persons 3–45 years of age, and no significant difference by sex was seen. In age-adjusted multivariable models, 3 factors were identified: proximity to a previous kala-azar patient (odds ratio [OR] 25.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 15–44 within household; OR 3.2 95% CI 1.7–6.1 within 50 m), bed net use in summer (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.53–0.93), and cattle per 1,000 m2 (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.70–0.94]). No difference was seen by income, education, or occupation; land ownership or other assets; housing materials and condition; or keeping goats or chickens inside bedrooms. Our data confirm strong clustering and suggest that insecticide-treated nets could be effective in preventing kala-azar.

  • Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Infection of Spiny Rats PDF Version [PDF - 228 KB - 7 pages]
    A. Carrara et al.
       View Abstract

    Enzootic strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) circulate in forested habitats of Mexico, Central, and South America, and spiny rats (Proechimys spp.) are believed to be the principal reservoir hosts in several foci. To better understand the host-pathogen interactions and resistance to disease characteristic of many reservoir hosts, we performed experimental infections of F1 progeny from Proechimys chrysaeolus collected at a Colombian enzootic VEEV focus using sympatric and allopatric virus strains. All animals became viremic with a mean peak titer of 3.3 log10 PFU/mL, and all seroconverted with antibody titers from 1:20 to 1:640, which persisted up to 15 months. No signs of disease were observed, including after intracerebral injections. The lack of detectable disease and limited histopathologic lesions in these animals contrast dramatically with the severe disease and histopathologic findings observed in other laboratory rodents and humans, and support their role as reservoir hosts with a long-term coevolutionary relationship to VEEV.

  • Assessing Parents' Perception of Children's Risk for Recreational Water Illnesses PDF Version [PDF - 283 KB - 7 pages]
    J. McClain et al.
       View Abstract

    Understanding people's risk perceptions and motivations to adopt preventive behavior is important in preventing the spread of recreational water illnesses (RWI) and other emerging infectious diseases. We developed a comprehensive scale measuring parents' perceived risk of their children contracting RWI. Parents (N = 263) completed a self-administered questionnaire with scale items based on 4 constructs of the Protection Motivation Theory: perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, response efficacy, and self-efficacy. Exploratory factor analysis identified 7 underlying factors, indicating 7 subscales of perceived risk for RWI. Cronbach α ranged from 0.60 to 0.81. The Precaution Adoption Process Model supported scale construct validity. This study provides the first perceived risk scale for exploring psychosocial factors that may predict or mediate the adoption of behaviors that prevent the spread of infectious diseases contracted by children while swimming. Findings from this study also provide implications for encouraging preventive behavior against other emerging infectious diseases.

  • Avian Influenza Risk Perception, Hong Kong PDF Version [PDF - 93 KB - 6 pages]
    R. Fielding et al.
       View Abstract

    A telephone survey of 986 Hong Kong households determined exposure and risk perception of avian influenza from live chicken sales. Householders bought 38,370,000 live chickens; 11% touched them when buying, generating 4,220,000 exposures annually; 36% (95% confidence interval [CI] 33%–39%) perceived this as risky, 9% (7%–11%) estimated >50% likelihood of resultant sickness, whereas 46% (43%–49%) said friends worried about such sickness. Recent China travel (adjusted odds ratio 0.35; CI 0.13–0.91), traditional beliefs (1.20, 1.06–1.13), willingness to change (0.29, 0.11–0.81) and believing cooking protects against avian influenza (8.66, 1.61-46.68) predicted buying. Birth in China (2.79, 1.43–5.44) or overseas (4.23, 1.43–12.53) and unemployment (3.87, 1.24–12.07) predicted touching. Age, avian influenza contagion worries, husbandry threat, avian influenza threat, and avian influenza anxiety predicted perceived sickness risk. High population exposures to live chickens and low perceived risk are potentially important health threats in avian influenza.

  • Low Diversity of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Saudi Arabia, 1994–1999 PDF Version [PDF - 228 KB - 6 pages]
    R. N. Charrel et al.
       View Abstract

    Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (genus Flavivirus, AHFV) was recently identified as the agent of a viral hemorrhagic fever in Saudi Arabia and characterized serologically and genetically as a variant genotype of Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV). Since viral diagnosis and vaccine development may be hindered by genetic diversity, this study was intended to address AHFV genetic heterogeneity. Eleven strains isolated from hospitalized patients from 1994 to 1999 in Saudi Arabia were sequenced in the envelope, NS3, and NS5 genes. Homologous sequences were compared and used to look for patterns reflecting specific evolution associated with spatiality, temporality, infection pathway, and disease prognosis. Genetic analyses showed low diversity, which suggests a slow microevolution. Evaluation of divergence times showed that AHFV and KFDV ancestral lineage diverged 66–177 years ago, and the diversity observed within the studied AHFV strains reflected a 4- to 72-year period of evolution.

  • Travel-associated Rabies in Austrian Man PDF Version [PDF - 147 KB - 3 pages]
    R. Krause et al.
       View Abstract

    Rabies developed in an Austrian man after he was bitten by a dog in Agadir, Morocco. Diagnosis was confirmed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. The patient's girlfriend was bitten by the same dog, but she did not become ill.

Historical Review

  • Osler and the Infected Letter PDF Version [PDF - 257 KB - 5 pages]
    C. T. Ambrose
       View Abstract

    The spread of infectious agents through the mail has concerned public health officials for 5 centuries. The dissemination of anthrax spores in the US mail in 2001 was a recent example. In 1901, two medical journals reported outbreaks of smallpox presumably introduced by letters contaminated with variola viruses. The stability and infectivity of the smallpox virus are reviewed from both a historical (anecdotal) perspective and modern virologic studies. Bubonic plague was the contagious disease that led to quarantines as early as the 14th century in port cities in southern Europe. Later, smallpox, cholera, typhus, and yellow fever were recognized as also warranting quarantine measures. Initially, attempts were made to decontaminate all goods imported from pestilential areas, particularly mail. Disinfection of mail was largely abandoned in the early 20th century with newer knowledge about the spread and stability of these 5 infectious agents.




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