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Volume 11, Number 7—July 2005
Volume 11, Number 7—July 2005 PDF Version [PDF - 5.61 MB - 178 pages]
Attributing Illness to Food
PDF Version [PDF - 87 KB - 7 pages]
M. B. Batz et al.View Abstract
Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other source responsible for illness. A wide variety of food attribution approaches and data are used around the world, including the analysis of outbreak data, case-control studies, microbial subtyping and source tracking methods, and expert judgment, among others. The Food Safety Research Consortium sponsored the Food Attribution Data Workshop in October 2003 to discuss the virtues and limitations of these approaches and to identify future options for collecting food attribution data in the United States. We summarize workshop discussions and identify challenges that affect progress in this critical component of a risk-based approach to improving food safety.
Wildlife Trade and Global Disease Emergence
PDF Version [PDF - 141 KB - 3 pages]
W. B. Karesh et al.View Abstract
The global trade in wildlife provides disease transmission mechanisms that not only cause human disease outbreaks but also threaten livestock, international trade, rural livelihoods, native wildlife populations, and the health of ecosystems. Outbreaks resulting from wildlife trade have caused hundreds of billions of dollars of economic damage globally. Rather than attempting to eradicate pathogens or the wild species that may harbor them, a practical approach would include decreasing the contact rate among species, including humans, at the interface created by the wildlife trade. Since wildlife marketing functions as a system of scale-free networks with major hubs, these points provide control opportunities to maximize the effects of regulatory efforts.
Occupational Deaths among Healthcare Workers
PDF Version [PDF - 71 KB - 6 pages]
K. A. Sepkowitz and L. EisenbergView Abstract
Recent experiences with severe acute respiratory syndrome and the US smallpox vaccination program have demonstrated the vulnerability of healthcare workers to occupationally acquired infectious diseases. However, despite acknowledgment of risk, the occupational death rate for healthcare workers is unknown. In contrast, the death rate for other professions with occupational risk, such as police officer or firefighter, has been well defined. With available information from federal sources and calculating the additional number of deaths from infection by using data on prevalence and natural history, we estimate the annual death rate for healthcare workers from occupational events, including infection, is 17–57 per 1 million workers. However, a much more accurate estimate of risk is needed. Such information could inform future interventions, as was seen with the introduction of safer needle products. This information would also heighten public awareness of this often minimized but essential aspect of patient care.
Drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Michigan
PDF Version [PDF - 145 KB - 7 pages]
K. E. Macomber et al.View Abstract
The increasing prevalence of quinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (QRNG) in the United States is a cause for concern. Detecting resistance is complicated by the widespread use of molecular tests that do not provide isolates for susceptibility testing. The Michigan Department of Community Health developed a sentinel surveillance program to detect antimicrobial drug resistance in N. gonorrhoeae. Sentinel surveillance from 11 laboratories submitted 1,122 isolates for antimicrobial drug susceptibility testing and detected 2 clusters of QRNG from January 2003 to September 2004. These clusters were epidemiologically distinct: one involved young, heterosexual youth, and the other involved older men who have sex with men. This finding led to changes in local treatment recommendations that limited spread of resistant strains. Development of the sentinel program, collection of data, and epidemiologic analysis of the clusters are discussed.
SARS Vaccine Development
PDF Version [PDF - 95 KB - 5 pages]
S. Jiang et al.View Abstract
Developing effective and safe vaccines is urgently needed to prevent infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)–associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine may be the first one available for clinical use because it is easy to generate; however, safety is the main concern. The spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV is the major inducer of neutralizing antibodies, and the receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the S1 subunit of S protein contains multiple conformational neutralizing epitopes. This suggests that recombinant proteins containing RBD and vectors encoding the RBD sequence can be used to develop safe and effective SARS vaccines.
West Nile Virus–associated Flaccid Paralysis
PDF Version [PDF - 218 KB - 7 pages]
J. J. Sejvar et al.View Abstract
The causes and frequency of acute paralysis and respiratory failure with West Nile virus (WNV) infection are incompletely understood. During the summer and fall of 2003, we conducted a prospective, population-based study among residents of a 3-county area in Colorado, United States, with developing WNV-associated paralysis. Thirty-two patients with developing paralysis and acute WNV infection were identified. Causes included a poliomyelitislike syndrome in 27 (84%) patients and a Guillain-Barré–like syndrome in 4 (13%); 1 had brachial plexus involvement alone. The incidence of poliomyelitislike syndrome was 3.7/100,000. Twelve patients (38%), including 1 with Guillain-Barré–like syndrome, had acute respiratory failure that required endotracheal intubation. At 4 months, 3 patients with respiratory failure died, 2 remained intubated, 25 showed various degrees of improvement, and 2 were lost to followup. A poliomyelitislike syndrome likely involving spinal anterior horn cells is the most common mechanism of WNV-associated paralysis and is associated with significant short- and long-term illness and death.
Primate-to-Human Retroviral Transmission in Asia
PDF Version [PDF - 292 KB - 8 pages]
L. Jones-Engel et al.View Abstract
We describe the first reported transmission to a human of simian foamy virus (SFV) from a free-ranging population of nonhuman primates in Asia. The transmission of an exogenous retrovirus, SFV, from macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to a human at a monkey temple in Bali, Indonesia, was investigated with molecular and serologic techniques. Antibodies to SFV were detected by Western blotting of serum from 1 of 82 humans tested. SFV DNA was detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the blood of the same person. Cloning and sequencing of PCR products confirmed the virus's close phylogenetic relationship to SFV isolated from macaques at the same temple. This study raises concerns that persons who work at or live around monkey temples are at risk for infection with SFV.
Influenza A H5N1 Replication Sites in Humans
PDF Version [PDF - 357 KB - 6 pages]
M. Uiprasertkul et al.View Abstract
Tissue tropism and pathogenesis of influenza A virus subtype H5N1 disease in humans is not well defined. In mammalian experimental models, H5N1 influenza is a disseminated disease. However, limited previous data from human autopsies have not shown evidence of virus dissemination beyond the lung. We investigated a patient with fatal H5N1 influenza. Viral RNA was detected by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction in lung, intestine, and spleen tissues, but positive-stranded viral RNA indicating virus replication was confined to the lung and intestine. Viral antigen was detected in pneumocytes by immunohistochemical tests. Tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA was seen in lung tissue. In contrast to disseminated infection documented in other mammals and birds, H5N1 viral replication in humans may be restricted to the lung and intestine, and the major site of H5N1 viral replication in the lung is the pneumocyte.
Nipah Virus in Lyle's Flying Foxes, Cambodia
PDF Version [PDF - 218 KB - 6 pages]
J. Reynes et al.View Abstract
We conducted a survey in Cambodia in 2000 on henipavirus infection among several bat species, including flying foxes, and persons exposed to these animals. Among 1,072 bat serum samples tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, antibodies reactive to Nipah virus (NiV) antigen were detected only in Pteropus lylei species; Cynopterus sphinx, Hipposideros larvatus, Scotophilus kuhlii, Chaerephon plicata, Taphozous melanopogon, and T. theobaldi species were negative. Seroneutralization applied on a subset of 156 serum samples confirmed these results. None of the 8 human serum samples was NiV seropositive with the seroneutralization test. One virus isolate exhibiting cytopathic effect with syncytia was obtained from 769 urine samples collected at roosts of P. lylei specimens. Partial molecular characterization of this isolate demonstrated that it was closely related to NiV. These results strengthen the hypothesis that flying foxes could be the natural host of NiV. Surveillance of human cases should be implemented.
Leptospirosis in Germany, 1962–2003
PDF Version [PDF - 229 KB - 6 pages]
A. Jansen et al.View Abstract
Epidemiologic trends of human leptospirosis in Germany were investigated by analyzing national surveillance data from 1962 to 2003 and by conducting a questionnaire-based survey from 1997 to 2000. After a steady decrease of leptospirosis incidence from 1962 to 1997, surveillance data indicate an increase in disease incidence to 0.06 per 100,000 (1998–2003). Of 102 laboratory-confirmed cases in humans from 1997 to 2000, 30% were related to occupational exposures. Recreational exposures were reported in 30% (including traveling abroad in 16%), whereas residential exposure accounted for 37% of the cases. Direct contact with animals, mostly rats and dogs, was observed in 31% of the cases. We conclude that recent changes in transmission patterns of leptospirosis, partially caused by an expanding rat population and the resurgence of canine leptospirosis, may facilitate the spread of the disease in temperate countries like Germany. Preventive measures should be adapted to the changing epidemiology of leptospirosis.
Survey of Tickborne Infections in Denmark
PDF Version [PDF - 193 KB - 7 pages]
S. Skarphédinsson et al.View Abstract
We conducted a study of the distribution and prevalence of tickborne infections in Denmark by using roe deer as sentinels. Blood samples from 237 roe deer were collected during the 2002–2003 hunting season. Overall, 36.6% of deer were Borrelia seropositive, while 95.6% were Anaplasma phagocytophilum positive; all animals were negative for Bartonella quintana and B. henselae by indirect immunofluorescence assay. When a hemagglutination-inhibition test was used, 8.7% of deer were found positive for tickborne encephalitis (TBE)-complex virus. A total of 42.6% were found positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for A. phagocytophilum with significant seasonal variation. All were PCR negative for Rickettsia helvetica. PCR and sequencing also showed a novel bacterium in roe deer previously only found in ticks. The study showed that the emerging pathogen A. phagocytophilum is widely distributed and that a marked shift has occurred in the distribution of TBE-complex virus in Denmark. This finding supports studies that predict alterations in distribution due to climatic changes.
Risk Factors for Pediatric Invasive Group A Streptococcal Disease
PDF Version [PDF - 80 KB - 5 pages]
S. H. Factor et al.View Abstract
Invasive group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections can be fatal and can occur in healthy children. A case-control study identified factors associated with pediatric disease. Case-patients were identified when Streptococcus pyogenes was isolated from a normally sterile site, and matched controls (≥2) were identified by using sequential-digit dialing. All participants were noninstitutionalized surveillance-area residents <18 years of age. Conditional regression identified factors associated with invasive disease: other children living in the home (odds ratio [OR] = 16.85, p = 0.0002) and new use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (OR = 10.64, p = 0.005) were associated with increased risk. More rooms in the home (OR = 0.67, p = 0.03) and household member(s) with runny nose (OR = 0.09, p = 0.002) were associated with decreased risk. Among children, household-level characteristics that influence exposure to GAS most affect development of invasive disease.
Emergency Department Response to SARS, Taiwan
PDF Version [PDF - 217 KB - 7 pages]
W. Chen et al.View Abstract
How emergency departments of different levels and types cope with a large-scale contagious infectious disease is unclear. We retrospectively analyzed the response of 100 emergency departments regarding use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and implementation of infection control measures (ICMs) during the severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak in Taiwan. Emergency department workers in large hospitals were more severely affected by the epidemic. Large hospitals or public hospitals were more likely to use respirators. Small hospitals implemented more restrictive ICMs. Most emergency departments provided PPE (80%) and implemented ICMs (66%) at late stages of the outbreak. Instructions to use PPE or ICMs more frequently originated by emergency department administrators. The difficulty of implementing ICMs was significantly negatively correlated with their effectiveness. Because ability to prepare for and respond to emerging infectious diseases varies among hospitals, grouping infectious patients in a centralized location in an early stage of infection may reduce the extent of epidemics.
Human Metapneumovirus Genetic Variability, South Africa
PDF Version [PDF - 79 KB - 5 pages]
H. P. Ludewick et al.View Abstract
The molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of the human metapneumovirus (hMPV) were characterized for a 3-year period (2000–2002) from viruses that were identified in South Africa. Two major genetic groups (A and B) and 2 subgroups (1 and 2) of hMPV were identified, as well as 2–6 possible genotypes within the subgroups. A shift in the predominant group was documented in successive seasons. Whereas the F gene was relatively conserved between subgroups, a high degree of variation was observed in the extracellular domain of the G gene of the virus. The G protein identities between groups A and B were 45.1%–53.1% at the nucleotide level and 22.4%–27.6% at the amino acid level. These results provide evidence for the diversity of both surface glycoproteins of hMPV in Africa, which may be a prerequisite to understanding protective immunity against hMPV.
Norovirus Recombination in ORF1/ORF2 Overlap
PDF Version [PDF - 244 KB - 7 pages]
R. Bull et al.View Abstract
Norovirus (NoV) genogroups I and II (GI and GII) are now recognized as the predominant worldwide cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in humans. Three recombinant NoV GII isolates were identified and characterized, 2 of which are unrelated to any previously published recombinant NoV. Using data from the current study, published sequences, database searches, and molecular techniques, we identified 23 recombinant NoV GII and 1 recombinant NoV GI isolates. Analysis of the genetic relationships among the recombinant NoV GII isolates identified 9 independent recombinant sequences; the other 14 strains were close relatives. Two of the 9 independent recombinant NoV were closely related to other recombinants only in the polymerase region, and in a similar fashion 1 recombinant NoV was closely related to another only in the capsid region. Breakpoint analysis of recombinant NoV showed that recombination occurred in the open reading frame (ORF)1/ORF2 overlap. We provide evidence to support the theory of the role of subgenomic RNA promoters as recombination hotspots and describe a simple mechanism of how recombination might occur in NoV.
Adventitious Agents and Smallpox Vaccine in Strategic National Stockpile
PDF Version [PDF - 162 KB - 4 pages]
F. A. Murphy and B. I. OsburnView Abstract
In keeping with current standards, we urge that old smallpox vaccines that were made in animal skin and are still a key part of our strategic national stockpile be tested for adventitious infectious agents. The advisory especially applies to viruses that have the potential for zoonotic transmission to human vaccine recipients.
New Lymphogranuloma Venereum Chlamydia trachomatis Variant, Amsterdam
PDF Version [PDF - 126 KB - 3 pages]
J. Spaargaren et al.View Abstract
We retrospectively conducted a study of men who have sex with men who visited the Amsterdam, the Netherlands, sexually transmitted diseases clinic from January 2002 to December 2003 and had rectal Chlamydia trachomatis infections. We found that symptomatic (73%) as well as asymptomatic (43%) patients were infected with a new C. trachomatis LGV variant.
Household Transmission of Gastroenteritis
PDF Version [PDF - 184 KB - 4 pages]
S. Perry et al.View Abstract
Transmission of infectious gastroenteritis was studied in 936 predominately Hispanic households in northern California. Among 3,916 contacts of 1,099 primary case-patients, the secondary attack rate was 8.8% (95% confidence interval 7.9–9.7); children had a 2- to 8-fold greater risk than adults. Bed-sharing among children in crowded homes is a potentially modifiable risk.
Nosocomial Malaria and Saline Flush
PDF Version [PDF - 93 KB - 3 pages]
S. K. Jain et al.View Abstract
An investigation of malaria in a US patient without recent travel established Plasmodium falciparum molecular genotype identity in 2 patients who shared a hospital room. P. falciparum can be transmitted in a hospital environment from patient to patient by blood inoculum if standard precautions are breached.
West Nile Virus Surveillance, Guadeloupe, 2003–2004
PDF Version [PDF - 267 KB - 4 pages]
T. Lefrançois et al.View Abstract
We conducted extensive surveillance for West Nile virus infection in equines and chickens in Guadeloupe in 2003–2004. We showed a high seroprevalence in equines in 2003 related to biome, followed by a major decrease in virus circulation in 2004. No human or equine cases were reported during the study.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae Diarrhea, Bangladesh, 2004
PDF Version [PDF - 125 KB - 4 pages]
F. Qadri et al.View Abstract
Flooding in Dhaka in July 2004 caused epidemics of diarrhea. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) was almost as prevalent as Vibrio cholerae O1 in diarrheal stools. ETEC that produced heat-stable enterotoxin alone was most prevalent, and 78% of strains had colonization factors. Like V. cholerae O1, ETEC can cause epidemic diarrhea.
SARS Coronavirus Detection Methods
PDF Version [PDF - 220 KB - 4 pages]
S. Lau et al.View Abstract
Using clinical samples from patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome, we showed that the sensitivities of a quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (80% for fecal samples and 25% for urine samples) were higher than those of the polyclonal (50% and 5%) and monoclonal (35% and 8%) antibody-based nucleocapsid antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.
Veillonella montpellierensis Endocarditis
PDF Version [PDF - 197 KB - 3 pages]
C. Rovery et al.View Abstract
Veillonella spp. rarely cause infections in humans. We report a case of Veillonella endocarditis documented by isolating a slow-growing, gram-negative microbe in blood cultures. This microbe was identified as the newly recognized species Veillonella montpellierensis (100% homology) by 16S RNA gene sequence analysis.
Burkholderia fungorum Septicemia
PDF Version [PDF - 34 KB - 3 pages]
G. Gerrits et al.View Abstract
We report the first case of community-acquired bacteremia with Burkholderia fungorum, a newly described member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex. A 9-year-old girl sought treatment with septic arthritis in her right knee and ankle with soft tissue involvement. Commercial identification systems did not identify the causative microorganism.
Blackwater Fever in Children, Burundi
PDF Version [PDF - 127 KB - 3 pages]
F. Gobbi et al.View Abstract
Blackwater fever is characterized by acute intravascular hemolysis with hemoglobinuria in patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Its pathogenesis and management are still debated. Nine cases of this syndrome occurred in 2003 at Kiremba Hospital in Burundi in children receiving multiple quinine treatments.
Cervids as Babesiae Hosts, Slovenia
PDF Version [PDF - 88 KB - 3 pages]
D. Duh et al.View Abstract
We describe cervids as potential reservoir hosts of Babesia EU1 and B. divergens. Both babesial parasites were found in roe deer. Sequence analysis of 18S rRNA showed 99.7% identity of roe deer Babesia EU1 with the human EU1 strain. B. divergens detected in cervids was 99.6% identical to bovine B. divergens.
Salmonella Agona Outbreak from Contaminated Aniseed, Germany
PDF Version [PDF - 162 KB - 4 pages]
J. Koch et al.View Abstract
A nationwide outbreak of Salmonella Agona caused by aniseed-containing herbal tea occurred from October 2002 through July 2003 among infants in Germany. Consumers should adhere strictly to brewing instructions, although in exceptional cases this precaution may not be protective, particularly when preparing tea for vulnerable age groups.
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Septicemia and HIV
PDF Version [PDF - 61 KB - 3 pages]
M. Paglia et al.View Abstract
Two cases of community-acquired septicemia caused by serotype-O1 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis were diagnosed in middle-aged, HIV-positive, immunodeficient patients during an 8-month period. Bacterial isolates were genetically indistinguishable, but no epidemiologic link between the 2 patients was established. HIV-related immunosuppression should be regarded as a risk factor for Y. pseudotuberculosis septicemia.
Bordetella petrii Clinical Isolate
PDF Version [PDF - 70 KB - 3 pages]
N. K. Fry et al.View Abstract
We describe the first clinical isolate of Bordetella petrii from a patient with mandibular osteomyelitis. The only previously documented isolation of B. petrii occurred after the initial culture of a single strain from an environmental source.
Caliciviruses and Foodborne Gastroenteritis, Chile
PDF Version [PDF - 169 KB - 4 pages]
R. Vidal et al.View Abstract
Human caliciviruses caused 45% of 55 gastroenteritis outbreaks occurring in Santiago, Chile, during 2000–2003. Outbreaks affected ≤99 persons, occurred most commonly in the home, and were associated with seafood consumption. Thirteen outbreak strains sequenced were noroviruses, including 8 GII, 2 GI, and 3 belonging to a novel genogroup.
Beliefs about Appropriate Antibacterial Therapy, California
PDF Version [PDF - 139 KB - 4 pages]
K. C. Cummings et al.View Abstract
To our knowledge, previous population-based surveys have not assessed misconceptions about antibacterial drug use over time. We documented a 26.3% decline in a key misconception in California women in 2003 compared to 2000; declines varied significantly by education level. Educational campaigns specifically designed to influence important subpopulations are needed.
Asymptomatic SARS Coronavirus Infection among Healthcare Workers, Singapore
PDF Version [PDF - 160 KB - 4 pages]
A. Wilder-Smith et al.View Abstract
We conducted a study among healthcare workers (HCWs) exposed to patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) before infection control measures were instituted. Of all exposed HCWs, 7.5% had asymptomatic SARS-positive cases. Asymptomatic SARS was associated with lower SARS antibody titers and higher use of masks when compared to pneumonic SARS.
Pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 Spread, France
PDF Version [PDF - 47 KB - 2 pages]
M. Quilici et al.
Third Borrelia Species in White-footed Mice
PDF Version [PDF - 46 KB - 2 pages]
J. Bunikis and A. G. Barbour
Comparing Diagnostic Coding and Laboratory Results
PDF Version [PDF - 47 KB - 3 pages]
A. J. Riegodedios et al.
Concurrent Dengue and Malaria
PDF Version [PDF - 26 KB - 2 pages]
R. N. Charrel et al.
West Nile Virus Detection and Commercial Assays
PDF Version [PDF - 40 KB - 2 pages]
P. Tilley et al.
Hepatitis A, Italy
PDF Version [PDF - 58 KB - 2 pages]
R. D'Amelio et al.
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in Salad
PDF Version [PDF - 26 KB - 2 pages]
A. Qureshi et al.
Avian Influenza H5N1 and Healthcare Workers
PDF Version [PDF - 33 KB - 2 pages]
C. Schultsz et al.
Cell Phones and Acinetobacter Transmission
PDF Version [PDF - 89 KB - 2 pages]
A. Borer et al.
PDF Version [PDF - 17 KB - 1 page]
Bartonella henselae and Domestic Cats, Jamaica
PDF Version [PDF - 26 KB - 2 pages]
L. Messam et al.
Books and Media
Beasts of the Earth: Animals, Humans, and Disease
PDF Version [PDF - 16 KB - 1 page]
Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers, Perspectives in Medical Virology, Volume 11
PDF Version [PDF - 137 KB - 2 pages]
P. B. Jahrling
About the Cover
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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- Page created: April 24, 2012
- Page last updated: April 24, 2012
- Page last reviewed: April 24, 2012
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
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