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Volume 11, Number 9—September 2005

Volume 11, Number 9—September 2005   PDF Version [PDF - 7.89 MB - 171 pages]

Perspective

  • Canine Rabies Ecology in Southern Africa PDF Version [PDF - 206 KB - 6 pages]
    J. Bingham
    View Summary

    Understanding the persistence of rabies in multiple canine hosts in southern Africa requires applying the principles of metapopulation biology.

        View Abstract

    Rabies is a widespread disease in African domestic dogs and certain wild canine populations. Canine rabies became established in Africa during the 20th century, coinciding with ecologic changes that favored its emergence in canids. I present a conceptual and terminologic framework for understanding rabies ecology in African canids. The framework is underpinned by 2 distinct concepts: maintenance and persistence. Maintenance encompasses the notion of indefinite transmission of infection within a local population and depends on an average transmission ratio >1. Maintenance in all local populations is inherently unstable, and the disease frequently becomes extinct. Persistence, the notion of long-term continuity, depends on the presence of rabies in >1 local population within the canine metapopulation at any time. The implications for understanding rabies ecology and control are reviewed, as are previous studies on rabies ecology in African canids.

        Cite This Article
    EID Bingham J. Canine Rabies Ecology in Southern Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1337-1342. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050172
    AMA Bingham J. Canine Rabies Ecology in Southern Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1337-1342. doi:10.3201/eid1109.050172.
    APA Bingham, J. (2005). Canine Rabies Ecology in Southern Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1337-1342. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050172.

Synopses

  • Achieving Operational Hydrologic Monitoring of Mosquitoborne Disease PDF Version [PDF - 482 KB - 8 pages]
    J. Shaman and J. F. Day
    View Summary

    West Nile virus transmission in Florida can be monitored by using modeled hydrology.

        View Abstract

    Mosquitoes and mosquitoborne disease transmission are sensitive to hydrologic variability. If local hydrologic conditions can be monitored or modeled at the scales at which these conditions affect the population dynamics of vector mosquitoes and the diseases they transmit, a means for monitoring or modeling mosquito populations and mosquitoborne disease transmission may be realized. We review how hydrologic conditions have been associated with mosquito abundances and mosquitoborne disease transmission and discuss the advantages of different measures of hydrologic variability. We propose that the useful application of any measure of hydrologic conditions requires additional consideration of the scales for both the hydrologic measurement and the vector control interventions that will be used to mitigate an outbreak of vectorborne disease. Our efforts to establish operational monitoring of St. Louis encephalitis virus and West Nile virus transmission in Florida are also reviewed.

        Cite This Article
    EID Shaman J, Day JF. Achieving Operational Hydrologic Monitoring of Mosquitoborne Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1343-1350. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050340
    AMA Shaman J, Day JF. Achieving Operational Hydrologic Monitoring of Mosquitoborne Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1343-1350. doi:10.3201/eid1109.050340.
    APA Shaman, J., & Day, J. F. (2005). Achieving Operational Hydrologic Monitoring of Mosquitoborne Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1343-1350. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050340.

Research

  • Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Death, United States PDF Version [PDF - 179 KB - 4 pages]
    E. D. Belay et al.
    View Summary

    Reports of secondary bloodborne transmission of vCJD add to the uncertainty about the future of the vCJD outbreak.

        View Abstract

    The only variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) patient identified in the United States died in 2004, and the diagnosis was confirmed by analysis of autopsy tissue. The patient likely acquired the disease while growing up in Great Britain before immigrating to the United States in 1992. Additional vCJD patients continue to be identified outside the United Kingdom, including 2 more patients in Ireland, and 1 patient each in Japan, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Spain, and the Netherlands. The reports of bloodborne transmission of vCJD in 2 patients, 1 of whom was heterozygous for methionine and valine at polymorphic codon 129, add to the uncertainty about the future of the vCJD outbreak.

        Cite This Article
    EID Belay ED, Sejvar JJ, Shieh W, Wiersma ST, Zou W, Gambetti P, et al. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Death, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1351-1354. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050371
    AMA Belay ED, Sejvar JJ, Shieh W, et al. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Death, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1351-1354. doi:10.3201/eid1109.050371.
    APA Belay, E. D., Sejvar, J. J., Shieh, W., Wiersma, S. T., Zou, W., Gambetti, P....Schonberger, L. B. (2005). Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Death, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1351-1354. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050371.
  • Potential Impact of Antiviral Drug Use during Influenza Pandemic PDF Version [PDF - 559 KB - 8 pages]
    R. Gani et al.
    View Summary

    Impact of different antiviral treatment strategies on hospitalizations during an influenza pandemic is evaluated.

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    The recent spread of highly pathogenic strains of avian influenza has highlighted the threat posed by pandemic influenza. In the early phases of a pandemic, the only treatment available would be neuraminidase inhibitors, which many countries are considering stockpiling for pandemic use. We estimate the effect on hospitalization rates of using different antiviral stockpile sizes to treat infection. We estimate that stockpiles that cover 20%–25% of the population would be sufficient to treat most of the clinical cases and could lead to 50% to 77% reductions in hospitalizations. Substantial reductions in hospitalization could be achieved with smaller antiviral stockpiles if drugs are reserved for persons at high risk.

        Cite This Article
    EID Gani R, Hughes H, Fleming D, Griffin T, Medlock J, Leach S, et al. Potential Impact of Antiviral Drug Use during Influenza Pandemic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1355-1362. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.041344
    AMA Gani R, Hughes H, Fleming D, et al. Potential Impact of Antiviral Drug Use during Influenza Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1355-1362. doi:10.3201/eid1109.041344.
    APA Gani, R., Hughes, H., Fleming, D., Griffin, T., Medlock, J., & Leach, S. (2005). Potential Impact of Antiviral Drug Use during Influenza Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1355-1362. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.041344.
  • Fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli, Indonesia PDF Version [PDF - 127 KB - 7 pages]
    K. Kuntaman et al.
    View Summary

    High prevalence may be due to clonal spread and emergence of resistant strains.

        View Abstract

    In a recent, population-based survey of 3,996 persons in Indonesia, fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant Escherichia coli was prevalent in the fecal flora of 6% of patients at hospital admission and 23% of patients at discharge, but not among healthy relatives or patients visiting primary healthcare centers (2%). Molecular typing showed extensive genetic diversity with only limited clonality among isolates. This finding suggests that independent selection of resistant mutants occurs frequently. FQ-resistant isolates exhibited a higher rate of spontaneous mutation, but sparser virulence profiles, than FQ-susceptible isolates from the same population. The resistant isolates belonged predominantly to phylogenetic groups A (57%) and B1 (22%) but also to the moderately virulent group D (20%). Hypervirulent strains from the B2 cluster were underrepresented (1%). Because FQ-resistant E. coli can cause disease, especially nosocomial infections in immunocompromised patients, spread of such strains must be stopped.

        Cite This Article
    EID Kuntaman K, Lestari E, Severin JA, Kershof IM, Mertaniasih N, Purwanta M, et al. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli, Indonesia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1363-1369. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.041207
    AMA Kuntaman K, Lestari E, Severin JA, et al. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli, Indonesia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1363-1369. doi:10.3201/eid1109.041207.
    APA Kuntaman, K., Lestari, E., Severin, J. A., Kershof, I. M., Mertaniasih, N., Purwanta, M....Verbrugh, H. A. (2005). Fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli, Indonesia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1363-1369. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.041207.
  • Dead Crow Density and West Nile Virus Monitoring, New York PDF Version [PDF - 255 KB - 6 pages]
    M. Eidson et al.
    View Summary

    Persons in counties with high dead crow densities had elevated risk for disease.

        View Abstract

    New York State used the health commerce system to monitor the number of West Nile virus (WNV) human disease cases and the density of dead crows. In each year from 2001 to 2003 and for the 3 years combined, persons living in New York counties (excluding New York City) with elevated weekly dead crow densities (above a threshold value of 0.1 dead crows per square mile) had higher risk (2.0–8.6 times) for disease caused by WNV within the next 2 weeks than residents of counties reporting fewer dead crows per square mile. This type of index can offer a real-time, relatively inexpensive window into viral activity in time for prevention and control. Changes in reporting, bird populations, and immunity may require that thresholds other than 0.1 be used in later years or in other areas.

        Cite This Article
    EID Eidson M, Schmit K, Hagiwara Y, Anand M, Backenson P, Gotham I, et al. Dead Crow Density and West Nile Virus Monitoring, New York. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1370-1375. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.040712
    AMA Eidson M, Schmit K, Hagiwara Y, et al. Dead Crow Density and West Nile Virus Monitoring, New York. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1370-1375. doi:10.3201/eid1109.040712.
    APA Eidson, M., Schmit, K., Hagiwara, Y., Anand, M., Backenson, P., Gotham, I....Kramer, L. (2005). Dead Crow Density and West Nile Virus Monitoring, New York. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1370-1375. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.040712.
  • Dengue Virus Type 3, Brazil, 2002 PDF Version [PDF - 88 KB - 6 pages]
    R. Nogueira et al.
    View Summary

    An explosive epidemic of DENV-3 in 2002 was the most severe dengue epidemic reported in Brazil since dengue viruses were introduced.

        View Abstract

    During the summer of 2002, Rio de Janeiro had a large epidemic of dengue fever; 288,245 cases were reported. A subset of 1,831 dengue hemorrhagic fever cases occurred. In this study, performed in the first half of 2002, samples from 1,559 patients with suspected cases of dengue infection were analyzed. From this total, 1,497 were obtained from patients with nonfatal cases, and 62 were obtained from patients with fatal cases. By the use of different methods, 831 (53.3%) cases, including 40 fatal cases, were confirmed as dengue infection. When virus identification was successful, dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3) was obtained in 99% of cases. Neurologic involvement was shown in 1 patient with encephalitis, confirmed by the detection of DENV-3 RNA in the cerebrospinal fluid. This explosive epidemic of DENV-3 was the most severe dengue epidemic reported in Brazil since dengue viruses were introduced in 1986.

        Cite This Article
    EID Nogueira R, Schatzmayr H, Bispo de Filippis A, Barreto dos Santos F, Venâncio da Cunha R, Coelho J, et al. Dengue Virus Type 3, Brazil, 2002. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1376-1381. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.041043
    AMA Nogueira R, Schatzmayr H, Bispo de Filippis A, et al. Dengue Virus Type 3, Brazil, 2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1376-1381. doi:10.3201/eid1109.041043.
    APA Nogueira, R., Schatzmayr, H., Bispo de Filippis, A., Barreto dos Santos, F., Venâncio da Cunha, R., Coelho, J....Miagostovich, M. (2005). Dengue Virus Type 3, Brazil, 2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1376-1381. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.041043.
  • Trypanosomiasis Control, Democratic Republic of Congo, 1993–2003 PDF Version [PDF - 204 KB - 7 pages]
    P. Lutumba et al.
    View Summary

    Efforts to control human trypanosomiasis, which sharply reduced the disease, must be sustained.

        View Abstract

    In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) reached unprecedented levels in the 1990s. To assess recent trends and evaluate control efforts, we analyzed epidemiologic and financial data collected by all agencies involved in HAT control in DRC from 1993 to 2003. Funds allocated to control populations, as well as to the population screened, doubled from 1993 to 1997 and from 1998 to 2003. The number of cases detected decreased from 26,000 new cases per year in 1998 to 11,000 in 2003. Our analysis shows that HAT control in DRC is almost completely dependent on international aid and that sudden withdrawal of such aid in 1990 had a long-lasting effect. Since 1998, control efforts intensified because of renewed donor interest, including a public-private partnership, and this effort led to a major reduction in HAT incidence. To avoid reemergence of this disease, such efforts should be sustained.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lutumba P, Robays J, Bilenge C, Mesu V, Molisho D, Declercq J, et al. Trypanosomiasis Control, Democratic Republic of Congo, 1993–2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1382-1388. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.041020
    AMA Lutumba P, Robays J, Bilenge C, et al. Trypanosomiasis Control, Democratic Republic of Congo, 1993–2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1382-1388. doi:10.3201/eid1109.041020.
    APA Lutumba, P., Robays, J., Bilenge, C., Mesu, V., Molisho, D., Declercq, J....Boelaert, M. (2005). Trypanosomiasis Control, Democratic Republic of Congo, 1993–2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1382-1388. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.041020.
  • Persistence of Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis after Single Course of Clarithromycin PDF Version [PDF - 127 KB - 5 pages]
    M. Sjölund et al.
    View Summary

    Short course of antimicrobial therapy can select resistant bacteria that persist for 4 years or longer.

        View Abstract

    We examined how a common therapy that includes clarithromycin affects normally colonizing Staphylococcus epidermidis. Samples from the nostrils of 5 patients receiving therapy were collected before, immediately after, 1 year after, and 4 years after treatment. From each patient and sample, S. epidermidis strains were isolated and analyzed for clarithromycin susceptibility and presence of the erm(C) gene. We show that macrolide-resistant strains of S. epidermidis were selected during therapy and that the same resistant strain may persist for 4 years, in the absence of further antimicrobial treatment.

        Cite This Article
    EID Sjölund M, Tano E, Blaser MJ, Andersson DI, Engstrand L. Persistence of Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis after Single Course of Clarithromycin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1389-1393. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050124
    AMA Sjölund M, Tano E, Blaser MJ, et al. Persistence of Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis after Single Course of Clarithromycin. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1389-1393. doi:10.3201/eid1109.050124.
    APA Sjölund, M., Tano, E., Blaser, M. J., Andersson, D. I., & Engstrand, L. (2005). Persistence of Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis after Single Course of Clarithromycin. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1389-1393. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050124.
  • Simulated Anthrax Attacks and Syndromic Surveillance PDF Version [PDF - 100 KB - 5 pages]
    J. D. Nordin et al.
    View Summary

    Bioterrorism surveillance systems can be assessed using modeling to simulate real-world attacks.

        View Abstract

    We measured sensitivity and timeliness of a syndromic surveillance system to detect bioterrorism events. A hypothetical anthrax release was modeled by using zip code population data, mall customer surveys, and membership information from HealthPartners Medical Group, which covers 9% of a metropolitan area population in Minnesota. For each infection level, 1,000 releases were simulated. Timing of increases in use of medical care was based on data from the Sverdlovsk, Russia, anthrax release. Cases from the simulated outbreak were added to actual respiratory visits recorded for those dates in HealthPartners Medical Group data. Analysis was done by using the space-time scan statistic. We evaluated the proportion of attacks detected at different attack rates and timeliness to detection. Timeliness and completeness of detection of events varied by rate of infection. First detection of events ranged from days 3 to 6. Similar modeling may be possible with other surveillance systems and should be a part of their evaluation.

        Cite This Article
    EID Nordin JD, Goodman MJ, Kulldorff M, Ritzwoller DP, Abrams AM, Kleinman K, et al. Simulated Anthrax Attacks and Syndromic Surveillance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1394-1398. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050223
    AMA Nordin JD, Goodman MJ, Kulldorff M, et al. Simulated Anthrax Attacks and Syndromic Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1394-1398. doi:10.3201/eid1109.050223.
    APA Nordin, J. D., Goodman, M. J., Kulldorff, M., Ritzwoller, D. P., Abrams, A. M., Kleinman, K....Platt, R. (2005). Simulated Anthrax Attacks and Syndromic Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1394-1398. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050223.
  • West Nile Virus–infected Mosquitoes, Louisiana, 2002 PDF Version [PDF - 120 KB - 6 pages]
    M. S. Godsey et al.
    View Summary

    Culex quinquefasciatus was identified as probable vector.

        View Abstract

    Human cases of West Nile virus (WNV) disease appeared in St. Tammany and Tangipahoa Parishes in southeastern Louisiana in June 2002. Cases peaked during July, then rapidly declined. We conducted mosquito collections from August 3 to August 15 at residences of patients with confirmed and suspected WNV disease to estimate species composition, relative abundance, and WNV infection rates. A total of 31,215 mosquitoes representing 25 species were collected by using primarily gravid traps and CO2-baited light traps. Mosquitoes containing WNV RNA were obtained from 5 of 11 confirmed case sites and from 1 of 3 sites with non-WNV disease. WNV RNA was detected in 9 mosquito pools, including 7 Culex quinquefasciatus, 1 Cx. salinarius, and 1 Coquillettidia perturbans. Mosquito infection rates among sites ranged from 0.8/1,000 to 10.9/1,000. Results suggest that Cx. quinquefasciatus was the primary epizootic/epidemic vector, with other species possibly playing a secondary role.

        Cite This Article
    EID Godsey MS, Nasci R, Savage HM, Aspen S, King R, Powers AM, et al. West Nile Virus–infected Mosquitoes, Louisiana, 2002. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1399-1404. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.040443
    AMA Godsey MS, Nasci R, Savage HM, et al. West Nile Virus–infected Mosquitoes, Louisiana, 2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1399-1404. doi:10.3201/eid1109.040443.
    APA Godsey, M. S., Nasci, R., Savage, H. M., Aspen, S., King, R., Powers, A. M....Palmisano, C. T. (2005). West Nile Virus–infected Mosquitoes, Louisiana, 2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1399-1404. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.040443.
  • Legionellosis from Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 13 PDF Version [PDF - 143 KB - 5 pages]
    B. Faris et al.
    View Summary

    Legionella pneumophila serogroup 13 may be underrecognized.

        View Abstract

    We describe 4 cases of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 13–associated pneumonia. These cases originate from a broad geographic range that includes Scotland, Australia, and New Zealand. L. pneumophila serogroup 13 pneumonia has a clinically diverse spectrum that ranges from relatively mild, community-acquired pneumonia to potentially fatal severe pneumonia with multisystem organ failure. All cases were confirmed by culture and direct fluorescent antibody staining or indirect immunofluorescent antibody tests. Proven or putative sources of L. pneumophila serogroup 13 infections in 2 patients included a contaminated whirlpool spa filter and river water. An environmental source was not found in the remaining 2 cases; environmental cultures yielded only other L. pneumophila serogroups or nonpneumophila Legionella species. We describe the clinical and laboratory features of L. pneumophila serogroup 13 infections. L. pneumophila serogroup 13 pneumonia is rarely reported, but it may be an underrecognized pathogenic serogroup of L. pneumophila.

        Cite This Article
    EID Faris B, Faris C, Schousboe M, Heath CH. Legionellosis from Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 13. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1405-1409. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050345
    AMA Faris B, Faris C, Schousboe M, et al. Legionellosis from Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 13. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1405-1409. doi:10.3201/eid1109.050345.
    APA Faris, B., Faris, C., Schousboe, M., & Heath, C. H. (2005). Legionellosis from Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 13. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1405-1409. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050345.
  • Malaria Attributable to the HIV-1 Epidemic, Sub-Saharan Africa PDF Version [PDF - 401 KB - 10 pages]
    E. L. Korenromp et al.
    View Summary

    The HIV-1 epidemic has increased the malaria disease and death rate in southern Africa.

        View Abstract

    We assessed the impact of HIV-1 on malaria in the sub-Saharan African population. Relative risks for malaria in HIV-infected persons, derived from literature review, were applied to the HIV-infected population in each country, by age group, stratum of CD4 cell count, and urban versus rural residence. Distributions of CD4 counts among HIV-infected persons were modeled assuming a linear decline in CD4 after seroconversion. Averaged across 41 countries, the impact of HIV-1 was limited (although quantitatively uncertain) because of the different geographic distributions and contrasting age patterns of the 2 diseases. However, in Botswana, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, South Africa, and Namibia, the incidence of clinical malaria increased by <28% (95% confidence interval [CI] 14%–47%) and death increased by <114% (95% CI 37%–188%). These effects were due to high HIV-1 prevalence in rural areas and the locally unstable nature of malaria transmission that results in a high proportion of adult cases.

        Cite This Article
    EID Korenromp EL, Williams BG, de Vlas SJ, Gouws E, Gilks CF, Ghys PD, et al. Malaria Attributable to the HIV-1 Epidemic, Sub-Saharan Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1410-1419. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050337
    AMA Korenromp EL, Williams BG, de Vlas SJ, et al. Malaria Attributable to the HIV-1 Epidemic, Sub-Saharan Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1410-1419. doi:10.3201/eid1109.050337.
    APA Korenromp, E. L., Williams, B. G., de Vlas, S. J., Gouws, E., Gilks, C. F., Ghys, P. D....Nahlen, B. L. (2005). Malaria Attributable to the HIV-1 Epidemic, Sub-Saharan Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1410-1419. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050337.
  • Molecular Epidemiology of SARS-associated Coronavirus, Beijing PDF Version [PDF - 219 KB - 5 pages]
    W. Liu et al.
    View Summary

    Viral adaptation to the host may be occurring under selective immune pressure.

        View Abstract

    Single nucleotide variations (SNVs) at 5 loci (17564, 21721, 22222, 23823, and 27827) were used to define the molecular epidemiologic characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome–associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) from Beijing patients. Five fragments targeted at the SNV loci were amplified directly from clinical samples by using reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), before sequencing the amplified products. Analyses of 45 sequences obtained from 29 patients showed that the GGCTC motif dominated among samples collected from March to early April 2003; the TGTTT motif predominanted afterwards. The switch from GGCTC to TGTTT was observed among patients belonging to the same cluster, which ruled out the possibility of the coincidental superposition of 2 epidemics running in parallel in Beijing. The Beijing isolates underwent the same change pattern reported from Guangdong Province. The same series of mutations occurring in separate geographic locations and at different times suggests a dominant process of viral adaptation to the host.

        Cite This Article
    EID Liu W, Tang F, Fontanet A, Zhan L, Wang T, Zhang P, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of SARS-associated Coronavirus, Beijing. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1420-1424. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.040773
    AMA Liu W, Tang F, Fontanet A, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of SARS-associated Coronavirus, Beijing. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1420-1424. doi:10.3201/eid1109.040773.
    APA Liu, W., Tang, F., Fontanet, A., Zhan, L., Wang, T., Zhang, P....Cao, W. (2005). Molecular Epidemiology of SARS-associated Coronavirus, Beijing. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1420-1424. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.040773.

Historical Review

  • Malaria in Kenya's Western Highlands PDF Version [PDF - 470 KB - 8 pages]
    G. Shanks et al.
    View Summary

    Reemergence of epidemics in tea plantations will likely result in antimalarial-drug resistance.

        View Abstract

    Records from tea estates in the Kericho district in Kenya show that malaria reemerged in the 1980s. Renewed epidemic activity coincided with the emergence of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria and may have been triggered by the failure of antimalarial drugs. Meteorologic changes, population movements, degradation of health services, and changes in Anopheles vector populations are possible contributing factors. The highland malaria epidemics of the 1940s were stopped largely by sporontocidal drugs, and combination chemotherapy has recently limited transmission. Antimalarial drugs can limit the pool of gametocytes available to infect mosquitoes during the brief transmission season.

        Cite This Article
    EID Shanks G, Hay SI, Omumbo JA, Snow RW. Malaria in Kenya's Western Highlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1425-1432. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.041131
    AMA Shanks G, Hay SI, Omumbo JA, et al. Malaria in Kenya's Western Highlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1425-1432. doi:10.3201/eid1109.041131.
    APA Shanks, G., Hay, S. I., Omumbo, J. A., & Snow, R. W. (2005). Malaria in Kenya's Western Highlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1425-1432. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.041131.

Dispatches

  • Protective Behavior and West Nile Virus Risk PDF Version [PDF - 289 KB - 4 pages]
    M. Loeb et al.
        View Abstract

    We conducted a cross-sectional, household survey in Oakville, Ontario, where an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) in 2002 led to an unprecedented number of cases of meningitis and encephalitis. Practicing >2 personal protective behavior traits reduced the risk for WNV infection by half.

        Cite This Article
    EID Loeb M, Elliott SJ, Gibson B, Fearon M, Nosal R, Drebot M, et al. Protective Behavior and West Nile Virus Risk. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1433-1436. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.041184
    AMA Loeb M, Elliott SJ, Gibson B, et al. Protective Behavior and West Nile Virus Risk. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1433-1436. doi:10.3201/eid1109.041184.
    APA Loeb, M., Elliott, S. J., Gibson, B., Fearon, M., Nosal, R., Drebot, M....Eyles, J. (2005). Protective Behavior and West Nile Virus Risk. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1433-1436. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.041184.
  • West Nile Virus Detection in Kidney, Cloacal, and Nasopharyngeal Specimens PDF Version [PDF - 94 KB - 3 pages]
    O. A. Ohajuruka et al.
        View Abstract

    We compared kidney tissue samples and cloacal and nasopharyngeal swab samples from field-collected dead crows and blue jays for West Nile virus surveillance. Compared to tissue samples, 35% more swab samples were false negative. Swab samples were usually positive only when the corresponding tissue sample was strongly positive.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ohajuruka OA, Berry RL, Grimes S, Farkas S. West Nile Virus Detection in Kidney, Cloacal, and Nasopharyngeal Specimens. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1437-1439. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050016
    AMA Ohajuruka OA, Berry RL, Grimes S, et al. West Nile Virus Detection in Kidney, Cloacal, and Nasopharyngeal Specimens. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1437-1439. doi:10.3201/eid1109.050016.
    APA Ohajuruka, O. A., Berry, R. L., Grimes, S., & Farkas, S. (2005). West Nile Virus Detection in Kidney, Cloacal, and Nasopharyngeal Specimens. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1437-1439. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050016.
  • Endemic Tularemia, Sweden, 2003 PDF Version [PDF - 230 KB - 3 pages]
    L. Payne et al.
        View Abstract

    Tularemia cases have been reported in Sweden since 1931, but no cyclical patterns can be identified. In 2003, the largest outbreak of tularemia since 1967 occurred, involving 698 cases. Increased reports were received from tularemia-nonendemic areas. Causal factors for an outbreak year and associated geographic distribution are not yet understood.

        Cite This Article
    EID Payne L, Arneborn M, Tegnell A, Giesecke J. Endemic Tularemia, Sweden, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1440-1442. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.041189
    AMA Payne L, Arneborn M, Tegnell A, et al. Endemic Tularemia, Sweden, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1440-1442. doi:10.3201/eid1109.041189.
    APA Payne, L., Arneborn, M., Tegnell, A., & Giesecke, J. (2005). Endemic Tularemia, Sweden, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1440-1442. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.041189.
  • Chromobacterium violaceum in Siblings, Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 152 KB - 3 pages]
    I. Cristina de Siqueira et al.
        View Abstract

    Chromobacterium violaceum, a saprophyte bacterium found commonly in soil and water in tropical and subtropical climates, is a rare cause of severe, often fatal, human disease. We report 1 confirmed and 2 suspected cases of C. violaceum septicemia, with 2 fatalities, in siblings after recreational exposure in northeastern Brazil.

        Cite This Article
    EID Cristina de Siqueira I, Dias J, Ruf H, Ramos EG, Maciel E, Rolim A, et al. Chromobacterium violaceum in Siblings, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1443-1445. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050278
    AMA Cristina de Siqueira I, Dias J, Ruf H, et al. Chromobacterium violaceum in Siblings, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1443-1445. doi:10.3201/eid1109.050278.
    APA Cristina de Siqueira, I., Dias, J., Ruf, H., Ramos, E. G., Maciel, E., Rolim, A....Silvany, C. (2005). Chromobacterium violaceum in Siblings, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1443-1445. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050278.
  • Divergent HIV and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Surveillance, Zaire PDF Version [PDF - 174 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Schaefer et al.
        View Abstract

    Recent HIV infection or divergent HIV or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains may be responsible for Western blot–indeterminate results on 70 serum samples from Zairian hospital employees that were reactive in an enzyme immunoassay. Using universal polymerase chain reaction HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV primers, we detected 1 (1.4%) HIV-1 sequence. Except for 1 sample, no molecular evidence for unusual HIV- or SIV-like strains in this sampling was found.

        Cite This Article
    EID Schaefer A, Robbins KE, Nzilambi E, St. Louis ME, Quinn TC, Folks TM, et al. Divergent HIV and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Surveillance, Zaire. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1446-1448. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050179
    AMA Schaefer A, Robbins KE, Nzilambi E, et al. Divergent HIV and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Surveillance, Zaire. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1446-1448. doi:10.3201/eid1109.050179.
    APA Schaefer, A., Robbins, K. E., Nzilambi, E., St. Louis, M. E., Quinn, T. C., Folks, T. M....Pieniazek, D. (2005). Divergent HIV and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Surveillance, Zaire. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1446-1448. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050179.
  • West Nile Virus Isolation in Human and Mosquitoes, Mexico PDF Version [PDF - 141 KB - 4 pages]
    D. Elizondo-Quiroga et al.
        View Abstract

    West Nile virus has been isolated for the first time in Mexico, from a sick person and from mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus). Partial sequencing and analysis of the 2 isolates indicate that they are genetically similar to other recent isolates from northern Mexico and the western United States.

        Cite This Article
    EID Elizondo-Quiroga D, Davis C, Fernandez-Salas I, Escobar-Lopez R, Olmos D, Gastalum L, et al. West Nile Virus Isolation in Human and Mosquitoes, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1449-1452. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050121
    AMA Elizondo-Quiroga D, Davis C, Fernandez-Salas I, et al. West Nile Virus Isolation in Human and Mosquitoes, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1449-1452. doi:10.3201/eid1109.050121.
    APA Elizondo-Quiroga, D., Davis, C., Fernandez-Salas, I., Escobar-Lopez, R., Olmos, D., Gastalum, L....Tesh, R. B. (2005). West Nile Virus Isolation in Human and Mosquitoes, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1449-1452. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050121.
  • Cyclosporiasis Outbreak, Indonesia PDF Version [PDF - 125 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Blans et al.
        View Abstract

    We describe an outbreak of Cyclospora cayetanensis infection among Dutch participants at a scientific meeting in September 2001 in Bogor, Indonesia. Fifty percent of the investigated participants were positive for C. cayetanensis. To our knowledge, this outbreak is the first caused by C. cayetanensis among susceptible persons in a disease-endemic area.

        Cite This Article
    EID Blans M, Ridwan BU, Verweij JJ, Rozenberg-Arska M, Verhoef J. Cyclosporiasis Outbreak, Indonesia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1453-1455. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.040947
    AMA Blans M, Ridwan BU, Verweij JJ, et al. Cyclosporiasis Outbreak, Indonesia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1453-1455. doi:10.3201/eid1109.040947.
    APA Blans, M., Ridwan, B. U., Verweij, J. J., Rozenberg-Arska, M., & Verhoef, J. (2005). Cyclosporiasis Outbreak, Indonesia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1453-1455. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.040947.
  • Plague from Eating Raw Camel Liver PDF Version [PDF - 58 KB - 2 pages]
    A. A. Saeed et al.
        View Abstract

    We investigated a cluster of 5 plague cases; the patients included 4 with severe pharyngitis and submandibular lymphadenitis. These 4 case-patients had eaten raw camel liver. Yersinia pestis was isolated from bone marrow of the camel and from jirds (Meriones libycus) and fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis) captured at the camel corral.

        Cite This Article
    EID Saeed AA, Al-Hamdan NA, Fontaine RE. Plague from Eating Raw Camel Liver. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1456-1457. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050081
    AMA Saeed AA, Al-Hamdan NA, Fontaine RE. Plague from Eating Raw Camel Liver. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1456-1457. doi:10.3201/eid1109.050081.
    APA Saeed, A. A., Al-Hamdan, N. A., & Fontaine, R. E. (2005). Plague from Eating Raw Camel Liver. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1456-1457. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050081.
  • Melioidosis, Northeastern Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 62 KB - 3 pages]
    D. Rolim et al.
        View Abstract

    Melioidosis was first recognized in northeastern Brazil in 2003. Confirmation of additional cases from the 2003 cluster in Ceará, more recent cases in other districts, environmental isolation of Burkholderia pseudomallei, molecular confirmation and typing results, and positive serosurveillance specimens indicate that melioidosis is more widespread in northeastern Brazil than previously thought.

        Cite This Article
    EID Rolim D, Vilar D, Sousa A, Miralles I, Almeida de Oliveira D, Harnett G, et al. Melioidosis, Northeastern Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1458-1460. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050493
    AMA Rolim D, Vilar D, Sousa A, et al. Melioidosis, Northeastern Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1458-1460. doi:10.3201/eid1109.050493.
    APA Rolim, D., Vilar, D., Sousa, A., Miralles, I., Almeida de Oliveira, D., Harnett, G....Inglis, T. (2005). Melioidosis, Northeastern Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1458-1460. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050493.
  • Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis Detection, Latvia PDF Version [PDF - 53 KB - 3 pages]
    G. Skenders et al.
        View Abstract

    To improve multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) detection, we successfully introduced the rpoB gene mutation line probe assay into the national laboratory in Latvia, a country with epidemic MDR-TB. The assay detected rifampin resistance with 91% sensitivity and 96% specificity within 1 to 5 days (vs. 12–47 days for BACTEC).

        Cite This Article
    EID Skenders G, Fry AM, Prokopovica I, Greckoseja S, Broka L, Metchock B, et al. Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis Detection, Latvia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1461-1463. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.041236
    AMA Skenders G, Fry AM, Prokopovica I, et al. Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis Detection, Latvia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1461-1463. doi:10.3201/eid1109.041236.
    APA Skenders, G., Fry, A. M., Prokopovica, I., Greckoseja, S., Broka, L., Metchock, B....Leimane, V. (2005). Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis Detection, Latvia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1461-1463. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.041236.
  • β-Lactam Resistance and Enterobacteriaceae, United States PDF Version [PDF - 97 KB - 3 pages]
    J. M. Whichard et al.
        View Abstract

    Extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) are an important drug class for treating severe Salmonella infections. We screened the human collection from the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System 2000 for ESC resistance mechanisms. Of non-Typhi Salmonella tested, 3.2% (44/1,378) contained blaCMY genes. Novel findings included blaCMY-positive Escherichia coli O157:H7 and a blaSHV-positive Salmonella isolate. CMY-positive isolates showed a ceftriaxone MIC >2 µg/mL.

        Cite This Article
    EID Whichard JM, Joyce K, Fey PD, Nelson JA, Angulo FJ, Barrett TJ, et al. β-Lactam Resistance and Enterobacteriaceae, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1464-1466. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050182
    AMA Whichard JM, Joyce K, Fey PD, et al. β-Lactam Resistance and Enterobacteriaceae, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1464-1466. doi:10.3201/eid1109.050182.
    APA Whichard, J. M., Joyce, K., Fey, P. D., Nelson, J. A., Angulo, F. J., & Barrett, T. J. (2005). β-Lactam Resistance and Enterobacteriaceae, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1464-1466. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050182.
  • Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease Prevention, Minnesota PDF Version [PDF - 51 KB - 3 pages]
    C. A. Morin et al.
        View Abstract

    In 2002, revised guidelines for preventing perinatal group B streptococcal disease were published. In 2002, all Minnesota providers surveyed reported using a prevention policy. Most screen vaginal and rectal specimens at 34–37 weeks of gestation. The use of screening-based methods has increased dramatically since 1998.

        Cite This Article
    EID Morin CA, White K, Schuchat A, Danila RN, Lynfield R. Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease Prevention, Minnesota. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1467-1469. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.041109
    AMA Morin CA, White K, Schuchat A, et al. Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease Prevention, Minnesota. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1467-1469. doi:10.3201/eid1109.041109.
    APA Morin, C. A., White, K., Schuchat, A., Danila, R. N., & Lynfield, R. (2005). Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease Prevention, Minnesota. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1467-1469. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.041109.
  • Characterizing Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci in Neonatal Intensive Care PDF Version [PDF - 65 KB - 3 pages]
    C. Sherer et al.
        View Abstract

    Repetitive sequence–based polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting was used to characterize 23 vancomycin-nonsusceptible enterococcal isolates from 2003 to 2004. Five genetically related clusters spanned geographically distinct referring centers. DNA fingerprinting showed infant-to-infant transmission from referring institutions. Thus, community healthcare facilities are a source of vancomycin-nonsusceptible enterococci and should be targeted for increased infection control efforts.

        Cite This Article
    EID Sherer C, Sprague BM, Campos JM, Nambiar S, Temple R, Short B, et al. Characterizing Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci in Neonatal Intensive Care. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1470-1472. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050148
    AMA Sherer C, Sprague BM, Campos JM, et al. Characterizing Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci in Neonatal Intensive Care. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1470-1472. doi:10.3201/eid1109.050148.
    APA Sherer, C., Sprague, B. M., Campos, J. M., Nambiar, S., Temple, R., Short, B....Singh, N. (2005). Characterizing Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci in Neonatal Intensive Care. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1470-1472. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050148.
  • Human Infection with Rickettsia honei, Thailand PDF Version [PDF - 69 KB - 3 pages]
    J. Jiang et al.
        View Abstract

    Human spotted fever rickettsiosis was detected molecularly by 2 real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays performed on DNA extracted from a Thai patient's serum sample. Sequences of PCR amplicons from 5 rickettsial genes used for multilocus sequence typing were 100% identical with those deposited with GenBank for Rickettsia honei TT-118.

        Cite This Article
    EID Jiang J, Sangkasuwan V, Lerdthusnee K, Sukwit S, Chuenchitra T, Rozmajzl PJ, et al. Human Infection with Rickettsia honei, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1473-1475. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050011
    AMA Jiang J, Sangkasuwan V, Lerdthusnee K, et al. Human Infection with Rickettsia honei, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1473-1475. doi:10.3201/eid1109.050011.
    APA Jiang, J., Sangkasuwan, V., Lerdthusnee, K., Sukwit, S., Chuenchitra, T., Rozmajzl, P. J....Richards, A. L. (2005). Human Infection with Rickettsia honei, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1473-1475. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050011.
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b Carriage, Central Asia PDF Version [PDF - 188 KB - 4 pages]
    S. H. Factor et al.
        View Abstract

    A study of children was conducted in 3 Central Asian Republics. Approximately half of the Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were serotypes included in available vaccine formulations. Approximately 6% of children carried Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Using pneumococcal and Hib conjugate vaccines may decrease illness in the Central Asian Republics.

        Cite This Article
    EID Factor SH, LaClaire L, Bronsdon M, Suleymanova F, Altynbaeva G, Kadirov BA, et al. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b Carriage, Central Asia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1476-1479. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.040798
    AMA Factor SH, LaClaire L, Bronsdon M, et al. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b Carriage, Central Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1476-1479. doi:10.3201/eid1109.040798.
    APA Factor, S. H., LaClaire, L., Bronsdon, M., Suleymanova, F., Altynbaeva, G., Kadirov, B. A....Chorba, T. (2005). Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b Carriage, Central Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1476-1479. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.040798.
  • Human Herpesvirus 8 and Pulmonary Hypertension PDF Version [PDF - 166 KB - 3 pages]
    E. Nicastri et al.
        View Abstract

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) antibodies were detected in 1 of 33 patients with pulmonary hypertension (including in 1 of 16 with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension), 5 of 29 with cystic fibrosis, and 3 of 13 with interstitial lung disease. No relationship between HHV-8 infection and pulmonary hypertension was found.

        Cite This Article
    EID Nicastri E, Vizza C, Carletti F, Cicalini S, Badagliacca R, Poscia R, et al. Human Herpesvirus 8 and Pulmonary Hypertension. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1480-1482. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.040880
    AMA Nicastri E, Vizza C, Carletti F, et al. Human Herpesvirus 8 and Pulmonary Hypertension. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1480-1482. doi:10.3201/eid1109.040880.
    APA Nicastri, E., Vizza, C., Carletti, F., Cicalini, S., Badagliacca, R., Poscia, R....Petrosillo, N. (2005). Human Herpesvirus 8 and Pulmonary Hypertension. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1480-1482. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.040880.
  • Gram-positive Rod Surveillance for Early Anthrax Detection PDF Version [PDF - 191 KB - 4 pages]
    E. M. Begier et al.
        View Abstract

    Connecticut established telephone-based gram-positive rod (GPR) reporting primarily to detect inhalational anthrax cases more quickly. From March to December 2003, annualized incidence of blood isolates was 21.3/100,000 persons; reports included 293 Corynebacterium spp., 193 Bacillus spp., 73 Clostridium spp., 26 Lactobacillus spp., and 49 other genera. Around-the-clock GPR reporting has described GPR epidemiology and enhanced rapid communication with clinical laboratories.

        Cite This Article
    EID Begier EM, Barrett NL, Mshar PA, Johnson DG, Hadler JL. Gram-positive Rod Surveillance for Early Anthrax Detection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1483-1486. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.041013
    AMA Begier EM, Barrett NL, Mshar PA, et al. Gram-positive Rod Surveillance for Early Anthrax Detection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1483-1486. doi:10.3201/eid1109.041013.
    APA Begier, E. M., Barrett, N. L., Mshar, P. A., Johnson, D. G., & Hadler, J. L. (2005). Gram-positive Rod Surveillance for Early Anthrax Detection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1483-1486. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.041013.

Commentaries

  • Syndromic Surveillance in Bioterrorist Attacks PDF Version [PDF - 173 KB - 2 pages]
    A. F. Kaufmann et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Kaufmann AF, Pesik N, Meltzer MI. Syndromic Surveillance in Bioterrorist Attacks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1487-1488. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050981
    AMA Kaufmann AF, Pesik N, Meltzer MI. Syndromic Surveillance in Bioterrorist Attacks. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1487-1488. doi:10.3201/eid1109.050981.
    APA Kaufmann, A. F., Pesik, N., & Meltzer, M. I. (2005). Syndromic Surveillance in Bioterrorist Attacks. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1487-1488. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050981.

Letters

  • Telithromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae PDF Version [PDF - 26 KB - 2 pages]
    F. W. Goldstein et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Goldstein FW, Vidal B, Kitzis MD. Telithromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1489-1490. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050415
    AMA Goldstein FW, Vidal B, Kitzis MD. Telithromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1489-1490. doi:10.3201/eid1109.050415.
    APA Goldstein, F. W., Vidal, B., & Kitzis, M. D. (2005). Telithromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1489-1490. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050415.
  • Integrated Human-Animal Disease Surveillance PDF Version [PDF - 54 KB - 2 pages]
    W. A. Mauer and J. B. Kaneene
            Cite This Article
    EID Mauer WA, Kaneene JB. Integrated Human-Animal Disease Surveillance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1490-1491. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050180
    AMA Mauer WA, Kaneene JB. Integrated Human-Animal Disease Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1490-1491. doi:10.3201/eid1109.050180.
    APA Mauer, W. A., & Kaneene, J. B. (2005). Integrated Human-Animal Disease Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1490-1491. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050180.
  • VanB-VanC1 Enterococcus gallinarum, Italy PDF Version [PDF - 58 KB - 2 pages]
    C. Mammina et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Mammina C, Di Noto A, Costa A, Nastasi A. VanB-VanC1 Enterococcus gallinarum, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1491-1492. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050282
    AMA Mammina C, Di Noto A, Costa A, et al. VanB-VanC1 Enterococcus gallinarum, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1491-1492. doi:10.3201/eid1109.050282.
    APA Mammina, C., Di Noto, A., Costa, A., & Nastasi, A. (2005). VanB-VanC1 Enterococcus gallinarum, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1491-1492. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050282.
  • Empyema Thoracis from Salmonella Choleraesuis PDF Version [PDF - 25 KB - 2 pages]
    C. Lai et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Lai C, Lee L, Hsueh P, Yu C, Yang P. Empyema Thoracis from Salmonella Choleraesuis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1493-1494. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050030
    AMA Lai C, Lee L, Hsueh P, et al. Empyema Thoracis from Salmonella Choleraesuis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1493-1494. doi:10.3201/eid1109.050030.
    APA Lai, C., Lee, L., Hsueh, P., Yu, C., & Yang, P. (2005). Empyema Thoracis from Salmonella Choleraesuis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1493-1494. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050030.
  • Asymptomatic Yersinia pestis Infection, China PDF Version [PDF - 61 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Li et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Li M, Song Y, Li B, Wang Z, Yang R, Jiang L, et al. Asymptomatic Yersinia pestis Infection, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1494-1496. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.041147
    AMA Li M, Song Y, Li B, et al. Asymptomatic Yersinia pestis Infection, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1494-1496. doi:10.3201/eid1109.041147.
    APA Li, M., Song, Y., Li, B., Wang, Z., Yang, R., Jiang, L....Yang, R. (2005). Asymptomatic Yersinia pestis Infection, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1494-1496. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.041147.
  • Sporotrichosis, Plain of Jars, Lao People's Democratic Republic PDF Version [PDF - 46 KB - 2 pages]
    P. N. Newton et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Newton PN, Chung W, Phetsouvanh R, White NJ. Sporotrichosis, Plain of Jars, Lao People's Democratic Republic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1496-1497. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050240
    AMA Newton PN, Chung W, Phetsouvanh R, et al. Sporotrichosis, Plain of Jars, Lao People's Democratic Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1496-1497. doi:10.3201/eid1109.050240.
    APA Newton, P. N., Chung, W., Phetsouvanh, R., & White, N. J. (2005). Sporotrichosis, Plain of Jars, Lao People's Democratic Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1496-1497. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050240.
  • West Nile Virus Antibodies in Colombian Horses PDF Version [PDF - 41 KB - 2 pages]
    S. Mattar et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Mattar S, Edwards E, Laguado J, González M, Alvarez J, Komar N, et al. West Nile Virus Antibodies in Colombian Horses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1497-1498. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050426
    AMA Mattar S, Edwards E, Laguado J, et al. West Nile Virus Antibodies in Colombian Horses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1497-1498. doi:10.3201/eid1109.050426.
    APA Mattar, S., Edwards, E., Laguado, J., González, M., Alvarez, J., & Komar, N. (2005). West Nile Virus Antibodies in Colombian Horses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1497-1498. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050426.
  • Wild Poliovirus Type 1, Central African Republic PDF Version [PDF - 72 KB - 2 pages]
    I. Gouandjika-Vasilache et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Gouandjika-Vasilache I, Kipela J, Daba R, Mokwapi V, Nambozuina E, Cabore J, et al. Wild Poliovirus Type 1, Central African Republic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1498-1499. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050517
    AMA Gouandjika-Vasilache I, Kipela J, Daba R, et al. Wild Poliovirus Type 1, Central African Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1498-1499. doi:10.3201/eid1109.050517.
    APA Gouandjika-Vasilache, I., Kipela, J., Daba, R., Mokwapi, V., Nambozuina, E., Cabore, J....Menard, D. (2005). Wild Poliovirus Type 1, Central African Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1498-1499. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.050517.

About the Cover

  • Oneness, Complexity, and the Distribution of Disease PDF Version [PDF - 69 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Potter
            Cite This Article
    EID Potter P. Oneness, Complexity, and the Distribution of Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1500-1501. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.AC1109
    AMA Potter P. Oneness, Complexity, and the Distribution of Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1500-1501. doi:10.3201/eid1109.AC1109.
    APA Potter, P. (2005). Oneness, Complexity, and the Distribution of Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1500-1501. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.AC1109.

Etymologia

  • Etymologia: Rickettsia PDF Version [PDF - 47 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID Etymologia: Rickettsia . Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1475. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.ET1109
    AMA Etymologia: Rickettsia . Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(9):1475. doi:10.3201/eid1109.ET1109.
    APA (2005). Etymologia: Rickettsia . Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 1475. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1109.ET1109.
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