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Volume 12, Number 4—April 2006

Volume 12, Number 4—April 2006   PDF Version [PDF - 10.15 MB - 183 pages]

Archival of this issue is in progress. To receive a PDF of an article that appeared in this issue, please click here.

Perspective

  • Negligible Risk for Epidemics after Geophysical Disasters PDF Version [PDF - 205 KB - 6 pages]
    N. Floret et al.
    View Summary

    Short-term risk for epidemics after geophysical disasters is very low.

        View Abstract

    After geophysical disasters (i.e., earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis), media reports almost always stress the risk for epidemics; whether this risk is genuine has been debated. We analyzed the medical literature and data from humanitarian agencies and the World Health Organization from 1985 to 2004. Of >600 geophysical disasters recorded, we found only 3 reported outbreaks related to these disasters: 1 of measles after the eruption of Pinatubo in Philippines, 1 of coccidioidomycosis after an earthquake in California, and 1 of Plasmodium vivax malaria in Costa Rica related to an earthquake and heavy rainfall. Even though the humanitarian response may play a role in preventing epidemics, our results lend support to the epidemiologic evidence that short-term risk for epidemics after a geophysical disaster is very low.

        Cite This Article
    EID Floret N, Viel J, Mauny F, Hoen B, Piarroux R. Negligible Risk for Epidemics after Geophysical Disasters. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):543-548. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051569
    AMA Floret N, Viel J, Mauny F, et al. Negligible Risk for Epidemics after Geophysical Disasters. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):543-548. doi:10.3201/eid1204.051569.
    APA Floret, N., Viel, J., Mauny, F., Hoen, B., & Piarroux, R. (2006). Negligible Risk for Epidemics after Geophysical Disasters. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 543-548. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051569.
  • Potential Arbovirus Emergence and Implications for the United Kingdom PDF Version [PDF - 193 KB - 7 pages]
    E. Gould et al.
    View Summary

    Climate change can cause arthropodborne diseases to emerge.

        View Abstract

    Arboviruses have evolved a number of strategies to survive environmental challenges. This review examines the factors that may determine arbovirus emergence, provides examples of arboviruses that have emerged into new habitats, reviews the arbovirus situation in western Europe in detail, discusses potential arthropod vectors, and attempts to predict the risk for arbovirus emergence in the United Kingdom. We conclude that climate change is probably the most important requirement for the emergence of arthropodborne diseases such as dengue fever, yellow fever, Rift Valley fever, Japanese encephalitis, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, bluetongue, and African horse sickness in the United Kingdom. While other arboviruses, such as West Nile virus, Sindbis virus, Tahyna virus, and Louping ill virus, apparently circulate in the United Kingdom, they do not appear to present an imminent threat to humans or animals.

        Cite This Article
    EID Gould E, Higgs S, Buckley A, Gritsun T. Potential Arbovirus Emergence and Implications for the United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):549-555. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051010
    AMA Gould E, Higgs S, Buckley A, et al. Potential Arbovirus Emergence and Implications for the United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):549-555. doi:10.3201/eid1204.051010.
    APA Gould, E., Higgs, S., Buckley, A., & Gritsun, T. (2006). Potential Arbovirus Emergence and Implications for the United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 549-555. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051010.
  • Confronting Zoonoses, Linking Human and Veterinary Medicine PDF Version [PDF - 66 KB - 6 pages]
    L. H. Kahn
    View Summary

    Greater collaboration is needed between human and veterinary medicine to better control zoonoses.

        View Abstract

    Many of the emerging infectious diseases, including those caused by bioterrorist agents, are zoonoses. Since zoonoses can infect both animals and humans, the medical and veterinary communities should work closely together in clinical, public health, and research settings. In the clinical setting, input from both professions would improve assessments of the risk-benefit ratios of pet ownership, particularly for pet owners who are immunocompromised. In public health, human and animal disease surveillance systems are important in tracking and controlling zoonoses such as avian influenza virus, West Nile virus, and foodborne pathogens. Comparative medicine is the study of disease processes across species, including humans. Physician and veterinarian comparative medicine research teams should be promoted and encouraged to study zoonotic agent-host interactions. These efforts would increase our understanding of how zoonoses expand their host range and would, ultimately, improve prevention and control strategies.

        Cite This Article
    EID Kahn LH. Confronting Zoonoses, Linking Human and Veterinary Medicine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):556-561. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.050956
    AMA Kahn LH. Confronting Zoonoses, Linking Human and Veterinary Medicine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):556-561. doi:10.3201/eid1204.050956.
    APA Kahn, L. H. (2006). Confronting Zoonoses, Linking Human and Veterinary Medicine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 556-561. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.050956.
  • Human Influenza Surveillance: the Demand to Expand PDF Version [PDF - 134 KB - 7 pages]
    S. P. Layne
    View Summary

    The potential of avian A/H5N1 to cause a global human pandemic is uncertain because it cannot be predicted with current knowledge.

        View Abstract

    The World Health Organization Influenza Program is one of the best developed and longest running infectious disease surveillance systems that exists. It maintains a worldwide watch of influenza's evolution to assist delivery of appropriately formulated vaccines in time to blunt seasonal epidemics and unpredictable pandemics. Despite the program's success, however, much more is possible with today's advanced technologies. This article summarizes ongoing human influenza surveillance activities worldwide. It shows that the technology to establish a high-throughput laboratory network that can process and test influenza viruses more quickly and more accurately is available. It also emphasizes the practical public health and scientific applications of such a network.

        Cite This Article
    EID Layne SP. Human Influenza Surveillance: the Demand to Expand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):562-568. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051198
    AMA Layne SP. Human Influenza Surveillance: the Demand to Expand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):562-568. doi:10.3201/eid1204.051198.
    APA Layne, S. P. (2006). Human Influenza Surveillance: the Demand to Expand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 562-568. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051198.
  • Prospects for Universal Influenza Virus Vaccine PDF Version [PDF - 62 KB - 6 pages]
    W. Gerhard et al.
        View Abstract

    The current vaccination strategy against influenza A and B viruses is vulnerable to the unanticipated emergence of epidemic strains that are poorly matched by the vaccine. A vaccine that is less sensitive to the antigenic evolution of the virus would be a major improvement. The general feasibility of this goal is supported by studies in animal models that show that immunologic activities directed against relatively invariant viral determinants can reduce illness and death. The most promising approaches are based on antibodies specific for the relatively conserved ectodomain of matrix protein 2 and the intersubunit region of hemagglutinin. However, additional conserved determinants for protective antibodies are likely to exist, and their identification should be encouraged. Most importantly, infection and current vaccines do not appear to effectively induce these antibodies in humans. This finding provides a powerful rationale for testing the protective activity of these relatively conserved viral components in humans.

        Cite This Article
    EID Gerhard W, Mozdzanowska K, Zharikova D. Prospects for Universal Influenza Virus Vaccine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):569-574. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051020
    AMA Gerhard W, Mozdzanowska K, Zharikova D. Prospects for Universal Influenza Virus Vaccine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):569-574. doi:10.3201/eid1204.051020.
    APA Gerhard, W., Mozdzanowska, K., & Zharikova, D. (2006). Prospects for Universal Influenza Virus Vaccine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 569-574. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051020.

Synopses

  • Domestic Ducks and H5N1 Influenza Epidemic, Thailand PDF Version [PDF - 552 KB - 7 pages]
    T. Songserm et al.
    View Summary

    Traditional methods of raising ducks in Southeast Asia must be modified.

        View Abstract

    In addition to causing 12 human deaths and 17 cases of human infection, the 2004 outbreak of H5N1 influenza virus in Thailand resulted in the death or slaughter of 60 million domestic fowl and the disruption of poultry production and trade. After domestic ducks were recognized as silent carriers of H5N1 influenza virus, government teams went into every village to cull flocks in which virus was detected; these team efforts markedly reduced H5N1 infection. Here we examine the pathobiology and epidemiology of H5N1 influenza virus in the 4 systems of duck raising used in Thailand in 2004. No influenza viruses were detected in ducks raised in "closed" houses with high biosecurity. However, H5N1 influenza virus was prevalent among ducks raised in "open" houses, free-ranging (grazing) ducks, and backyard ducks.

        Cite This Article
    EID Songserm T, Jam-on R, Sae-Heng N, Meemak N, Hulse-Post DJ, Sturm-Ramirez K, et al. Domestic Ducks and H5N1 Influenza Epidemic, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):575-581. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051614
    AMA Songserm T, Jam-on R, Sae-Heng N, et al. Domestic Ducks and H5N1 Influenza Epidemic, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):575-581. doi:10.3201/eid1204.051614.
    APA Songserm, T., Jam-on, R., Sae-Heng, N., Meemak, N., Hulse-Post, D. J., Sturm-Ramirez, K....Webster, R. G. (2006). Domestic Ducks and H5N1 Influenza Epidemic, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 575-581. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051614.

Research

  • Recently Acquired Toxoplasma gondii Infection, Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 176 KB - 6 pages]
    J. L. Jones et al.
    View Summary

    Soil exposure, eating undercooked meat, and having children are risk factors for acute infection and high rate of eye disease.

        View Abstract

    The city of Erechim, Brazil, has a 17% prevalence of ocular toxoplasmosis, and type 1 Toxoplasma gondii predominates. To examine risk factors for acute T. gondii infection in this area, we administered a questionnaire to recently infected persons (n = 131) and seronegative controls (n = 110). Eating undercooked meat; having a garden; working in the garden or yard more than once per week; eating rare meat; eating cured, dried, or smoked meat; eating frozen lamb; and being male increased risk for T. gondii infection in univariate analysis. Risk factors independently associated with acute T. gondii infection in multivariate analysis were working in the garden (odds ratio [OR] 2.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27–4.33) and eating frozen lamb (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.15–3.67). Among women (n = 86), having had children markedly increased the risk for T. gondii infection (OR 14.94, 95% CI 3.68–60.73).

        Cite This Article
    EID Jones JL, Muccioli C, Belfort R, Holland GN, Roberts JM, Silveira C, et al. Recently Acquired Toxoplasma gondii Infection, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):582-587. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051081
    AMA Jones JL, Muccioli C, Belfort R, et al. Recently Acquired Toxoplasma gondii Infection, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):582-587. doi:10.3201/eid1204.051081.
    APA Jones, J. L., Muccioli, C., Belfort, R., Holland, G. N., Roberts, J. M., & Silveira, C. (2006). Recently Acquired Toxoplasma gondii Infection, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 582-587. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051081.
  • Reducing Legionella Colonization of Water Systems with Monochloramine PDF Version [PDF - 515 KB - 9 pages]
    B. Flannery et al.
    View Summary

    Monochloramine reduced colonization in building hot water systems.

        View Abstract

    Monochloramine disinfection of municipal water supplies is associated with decreased risk for Legionnaires' disease. We conducted a 2-year, prospective, environmental study to evaluate whether converting from chlorine to monochloramine for water disinfection would decrease Legionella colonization of hot water systems. Water and biofilm samples from 53 buildings were collected for Legionella culture during 6 intervals. Prevalence ratios (PRs) comparing Legionella colonization before and after monochloramine disinfection were adjusted for water system characteristics. Legionella colonized 60% of the hot water systems before monochloramine versus 4% after conversion (PR 0.07, 95% confidence interval 0.03–0.16). The median number of colonized sites per building decreased with monochloramine disinfection. Increased prevalence of Legionella colonization was associated with water heater temperatures <50°C, buildings taller than 10 stories, and interruptions in water service. Increasing use of monochloramine in water supplies throughout the United States may reduce Legionella transmission and incidence of Legionnaires' disease.

        Cite This Article
    EID Flannery B, Gelling LB, Vugia DJ, Weintraub JM, Salerno JJ, Conroy MJ, et al. Reducing Legionella Colonization of Water Systems with Monochloramine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):588-596. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051101
    AMA Flannery B, Gelling LB, Vugia DJ, et al. Reducing Legionella Colonization of Water Systems with Monochloramine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):588-596. doi:10.3201/eid1204.051101.
    APA Flannery, B., Gelling, L. B., Vugia, D. J., Weintraub, J. M., Salerno, J. J., Conroy, M. J....Besser, R. E. (2006). Reducing Legionella Colonization of Water Systems with Monochloramine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 588-596. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051101.
  • Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Infection and Prolonged Diarrhea in Children PDF Version [PDF - 113 KB - 7 pages]
    R. N. Nguyen et al.
    View Summary

    Infection of children with atypical EPEC is associated with prolonged diarrhea.

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    Some clinical isolates of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) lack bundle-forming pili and are termed atypical EPEC. The aim of this study was to determine if atypical EPEC are pathogens by comparing the clinical features of patients infected with atypical EPEC with those of children infected with other causative agents of diarrhea. Fecal samples obtained from children attending the Royal Children's Hospital in Melbourne for investigation of diarrhea were examined for adenovirus, rotavirus, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., protozoa, and pathogenic E. coli. Clinical data were obtained by using a standardized pro forma and analyzed separately. Patients infected with atypical EPEC experienced mild, nondehydrating, and noninflammatory diarrhea that was not particularly associated with fever, vomiting, or abdominal pain. However, the duration of diarrhea in patients infected with atypical EPEC was significantly longer than that caused by the other species or where no pathogens were identified. Infection with atypical EPEC is associated with prolonged diarrhea.

        Cite This Article
    EID Nguyen RN, Taylor LS, Tauschek M, Robins-Browne RM. Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Infection and Prolonged Diarrhea in Children. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):597-603. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051112
    AMA Nguyen RN, Taylor LS, Tauschek M, et al. Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Infection and Prolonged Diarrhea in Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):597-603. doi:10.3201/eid1204.051112.
    APA Nguyen, R. N., Taylor, L. S., Tauschek, M., & Robins-Browne, R. M. (2006). Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Infection and Prolonged Diarrhea in Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 597-603. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051112.
  • Epidemic Spread of Lyme Borreliosis, Northeastern United States PDF Version [PDF - 216 KB - 8 pages]
    K. Hanincová et al.
    View Summary

    Host specialization is a key issue in infectious disease research because patterns of cross-species transmission affect parasite dispersal.

        View Abstract

    We examined the degree of host specialization of different strains of Borrelia burgdorferi, the tickborne pathogen that causes Lyme borreliosis in the northeastern United States. We first assessed the genetic population structures of B. burgdorferi in ticks obtained from different mammalian host species and in questing ticks sampled in a woodland ecosystem in Connecticut. By comparing the patterns found in our study with data from another cross-sectional study, we demonstrate that B. burgdorferi is a generalist microparasite and conclude that efficient cross-species transmission of B. burgdorferi is a key feature that has allowed the rapid spread of Lyme borreliosis across the northeastern United States.

        Cite This Article
    EID Hanincová K, Kurtenbach K, Diuk-Wasser M, Brei B, Fish D. Epidemic Spread of Lyme Borreliosis, Northeastern United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):604-611. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051016
    AMA Hanincová K, Kurtenbach K, Diuk-Wasser M, et al. Epidemic Spread of Lyme Borreliosis, Northeastern United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):604-611. doi:10.3201/eid1204.051016.
    APA Hanincová, K., Kurtenbach, K., Diuk-Wasser, M., Brei, B., & Fish, D. (2006). Epidemic Spread of Lyme Borreliosis, Northeastern United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 604-611. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051016.
  • Emerging Pediatric HIV Epidemic Related to Migration PDF Version [PDF - 60 KB - 6 pages]
    D. W. MacPherson et al.
    View Summary

    Imported HIV infection is an emerging epidemic in countries with low HIV incidence.

        View Abstract

    In 2002, Canada introduced routine, mandatory HIV antibody screening for all residency applicants, including selected children. We report screening results from January 2002 to February 2005. Thirty-six pediatric HIV cases were detected (14/100,000 applicants); 94% of infected children were eligible to arrive in Canada. Thirty-two of the affected children were from Africa, and maternal infection was the main risk factor. Only 4 (11%) of the children had received antiretroviral therapy. In countries of low HIV incidence, migration-related imported infection in children may be an emerging epidemic. The early identification of HIV-infected immigrant women permits intervention to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission. Routine HIV testing as a component of the medical examination of immigrants has national and international health policy and programmatic implications.

        Cite This Article
    EID MacPherson DW, Zencovich M, Gushulak BD. Emerging Pediatric HIV Epidemic Related to Migration. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):612-617. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051025
    AMA MacPherson DW, Zencovich M, Gushulak BD. Emerging Pediatric HIV Epidemic Related to Migration. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):612-617. doi:10.3201/eid1204.051025.
    APA MacPherson, D. W., Zencovich, M., & Gushulak, B. D. (2006). Emerging Pediatric HIV Epidemic Related to Migration. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 612-617. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051025.
  • Lineage 1 and 2 Strains of Encephalitic West Nile Virus, Central Europe PDF Version [PDF - 91 KB - 6 pages]
    T. Bakonyi et al.
    View Summary

    An encephalitic lineage 2 strain of WNV is observed for the first time outside Africa.

        View Abstract

    Two different West Nile virus (WNV) strains caused lethal encephalitis in a flock of geese and a goshawk in southeastern Hungary in 2003 and 2004, respectively. During the outbreak in geese, 14 confirmed human cases of WNV encephalitis and meningitis were reported in the same area. Sequencing of complete genomes of both WNV strains and phylogenetic analyses showed that the goose-derived strain exhibits closest genetic relationship to strains isolated in 1998 in Israel and to the strain that emerged in 1999 in the United States. WNV derived from the goshawk showed the highest identity to WNV strains of lineage 2 isolated in central Africa. The same strain reemerged in 2005 in the same location, which suggests that the virus may have overwintered in Europe. The emergence of an exotic WNV strain in Hungary emphasizes the role of migrating birds in introducing new viruses to Europe.

        Cite This Article
    EID Bakonyi T, Ivanics É, Erdélyi K, Ursu K, Ferenczi E, Weissenböck H, et al. Lineage 1 and 2 Strains of Encephalitic West Nile Virus, Central Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):618-623. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051379
    AMA Bakonyi T, Ivanics É, Erdélyi K, et al. Lineage 1 and 2 Strains of Encephalitic West Nile Virus, Central Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):618-623. doi:10.3201/eid1204.051379.
    APA Bakonyi, T., Ivanics, É., Erdélyi, K., Ursu, K., Ferenczi, E., Weissenböck, H....Nowotny, N. (2006). Lineage 1 and 2 Strains of Encephalitic West Nile Virus, Central Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 618-623. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051379.
  • Human Trypanosoma cruzi Infection and Seropositivity in Dogs, Mexico PDF Version [PDF - 239 KB - 7 pages]
    J. G. Estrada-Franco et al.
    View Summary

    Seroanalysis of parasite circulation in dogs can help identify T. cruzi infection in humans.

        View Abstract

    We used 5 diagnostic tests in a cross-sectional investigation of the prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi in Tejupilco municipality, State of Mexico, Mexico. Our findings showed a substantial prevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies to T. cruzi in human (n = 293, IgG 2.05%, IgM 5.5%, both 7.1%) and dog (n = 114, IgG 15.8%, IgM 11.4%, both 21%) populations. We also found antibodies to T. cruzi (n = 80, IgG 10%, IgM 15%, both 17.5%) in dogs from Toluca, an area previously considered free of T. cruzi. Our data demonstrate the need for active epidemiologic surveillance programs in these regions. A direct correlation (r2 = 0.955) of seropositivity between humans and dogs suggests that seroanalysis in dogs may help identify the human prevalence of T. cruzi infection in these areas.

        Cite This Article
    EID Estrada-Franco JG, Bhatia V, Diaz-Albiter H, Ochoa-Garcia L, Barbabosa A, Vazquez-Chagoyan JC, et al. Human Trypanosoma cruzi Infection and Seropositivity in Dogs, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):624-630. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.050450
    AMA Estrada-Franco JG, Bhatia V, Diaz-Albiter H, et al. Human Trypanosoma cruzi Infection and Seropositivity in Dogs, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):624-630. doi:10.3201/eid1204.050450.
    APA Estrada-Franco, J. G., Bhatia, V., Diaz-Albiter, H., Ochoa-Garcia, L., Barbabosa, A., Vazquez-Chagoyan, J. C....Garg, N. (2006). Human Trypanosoma cruzi Infection and Seropositivity in Dogs, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 624-630. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.050450.
  • Contrasting Pediatric and Adult Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates PDF Version [PDF - 250 KB - 7 pages]
    M. Z. David et al.
    View Summary

    Children may share a reservoir of MRSA strains that have an antimicrobial drug resistance profile distinct from that of adults.

        View Abstract

    We performed a prospective study of all inpatient and outpatient methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates identified at the University of Chicago Hospitals from November 2003 through November 2004. Differences in resistance to non–β-lactam antimicrobial drugs were determined after stratification of the 578 MRSA isolates into 4 groups by patient age (pediatric vs. adult) and onset location (community vs. hospital). Non–β-lactam resistance was significantly greater among the 288 adult than the 177 pediatric community-associated isolates for erythromycin (93.2 vs. 87.0%, p = 0.03), clindamycin (51.8 vs. 7.3%, p<0.001), ciprofloxacin (62.1 vs. 10.7%, p<0.001), gentamicin (11.1 vs. 1.1%, p<0.001), and tetracycline (19.9 vs. 6.4%, p<0.001). In contrast, hospital-associated MRSA isolates from children and adults had similar rates of non–β-lactam antimicrobial drug resistance. In our region, clindamycin is an appropriate empiric therapy of community-associated MRSA infection in children but should be used with caution in adults.

        Cite This Article
    EID David MZ, Crawford SE, Boyle-Vavra S, Hostetler MA, Kim DC, Daum RS, et al. Contrasting Pediatric and Adult Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):631-637. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.050960
    AMA David MZ, Crawford SE, Boyle-Vavra S, et al. Contrasting Pediatric and Adult Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):631-637. doi:10.3201/eid1204.050960.
    APA David, M. Z., Crawford, S. E., Boyle-Vavra, S., Hostetler, M. A., Kim, D. C., & Daum, R. S. (2006). Contrasting Pediatric and Adult Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 631-637. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.050960.
  • Identifying Influenza Viruses with Resequencing Microarrays PDF Version [PDF - 285 KB - 9 pages]
    Z. Wang et al.
    View Summary

    Resequencing microarrays rapidly identify influenza viruses.

        View Abstract

    Identification of genetic variations of influenza viruses is essential for epidemic and pandemic outbreak surveillance and determination of vaccine strain selection. In this study, we combined a random amplification strategy with high-density resequencing microarray technology to demonstrate simultaneous detection and sequence-based typing of 25 geographically distributed human influenza virus strains collected in 2004 and 2005. In addition to identification, this method provided primary sequence information, which suggested that distinct lineages of influenza viruses co-circulated during the 2004–2005 season, and simultaneously identified and typed all component strains of the trivalent FluMist intranasal vaccine. The results demonstrate a novel, timely, and unbiased method for the molecular epidemiologic surveillance of influenza viruses.

        Cite This Article
    EID Wang Z, Daum LT, Vora GJ, Metzgar D, Walter EA, Canas LC, et al. Identifying Influenza Viruses with Resequencing Microarrays. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):638-646. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051441
    AMA Wang Z, Daum LT, Vora GJ, et al. Identifying Influenza Viruses with Resequencing Microarrays. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):638-646. doi:10.3201/eid1204.051441.
    APA Wang, Z., Daum, L. T., Vora, G. J., Metzgar, D., Walter, E. A., Canas, L. C....Stenger, D. A. (2006). Identifying Influenza Viruses with Resequencing Microarrays. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 638-646. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051441.
  • Animals as Sentinels of Bioterrorism Agents PDF Version [PDF - 75 KB - 6 pages]
    P. Rabinowitz et al.
    View Summary

    Pets, wildlife, or livestock could provide early warning.

        View Abstract

    We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature from 1966 to 2005 to determine whether animals could provide early warning of a bioterrorism attack, serve as markers for ongoing exposure risk, and amplify or propagate a bioterrorism outbreak. We found evidence that, for certain bioterrorism agents, pets, wildlife, or livestock could provide early warning and that for other agents, humans would likely manifest symptoms before illness could be detected in animals. After an acute attack, active surveillance of wild or domestic animal populations could help identify many ongoing exposure risks. If certain bioterrorism agents found their way into animal populations, they could spread widely through animal-to-animal transmission and prove difficult to control. The public health infrastructure must look beyond passive surveillance of acute animal disease events to build capacity for active surveillance and intervention efforts to detect and control ongoing outbreaks of disease in domestic and wild animal populations.

        Cite This Article
    EID Rabinowitz P, Gordon Z, Chudnov D, Wilcox M, Odofin L, Liu A, et al. Animals as Sentinels of Bioterrorism Agents. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):647-652. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051120
    AMA Rabinowitz P, Gordon Z, Chudnov D, et al. Animals as Sentinels of Bioterrorism Agents. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):647-652. doi:10.3201/eid1204.051120.
    APA Rabinowitz, P., Gordon, Z., Chudnov, D., Wilcox, M., Odofin, L., Liu, A....Dein, J. (2006). Animals as Sentinels of Bioterrorism Agents. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 647-652. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051120.
  • Economic Impact of Lyme Disease PDF Version [PDF - 326 KB - 8 pages]
    X. Zhang et al.
    View Summary

    Since 1975, Lyme disease has become the most common vectorborne inflammatory disease in the United States.

        View Abstract

    To assess the economic impact of Lyme disease (LD), the most common vectorborne inflammatory disease in the United States, cost data were collected in 5 counties of the Maryland Eastern Shore from 1997 to 2000. Patients were divided into 5 diagnosis groups, clinically defined early-stage LD, clinically defined late-stage LD, suspected LD, tick bite, and other related complaints. From 1997 to 2000, the mean per patient direct medical cost of early-stage LD decreased from $1,609 to $464 (p<0.05), and the mean per patient direct medical cost of late-stage LD decreased from $4,240 to $1,380 (p<0.05). The expected median of all costs (direct medical cost, indirect medical cost, nonmedical cost, and productivity loss), aggregated across all diagnosis groups of patients, was ≈$281 per patient. These findings will help assess the economics of current and future prevention and control efforts.

        Cite This Article
    EID Zhang X, Meltzer MI, Peña CA, Hopkins AB, Wroth L, Fix AD, et al. Economic Impact of Lyme Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):653-660. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.050602
    AMA Zhang X, Meltzer MI, Peña CA, et al. Economic Impact of Lyme Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):653-660. doi:10.3201/eid1204.050602.
    APA Zhang, X., Meltzer, M. I., Peña, C. A., Hopkins, A. B., Wroth, L., & Fix, A. D. (2006). Economic Impact of Lyme Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 653-660. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.050602.
  • 1951 Influenza Epidemic, England and Wales, Canada, and the United States PDF Version [PDF - 605 KB - 8 pages]
    C. Viboud et al.
    View Summary

    Death rates were substantially higher for England and Canada than for the United States.

        View Abstract

    Influenza poses a continuing public health threat in epidemic and pandemic seasons. The 1951 influenza epidemic (A/H1N1) caused an unusually high death toll in England; in particular, weekly deaths in Liverpool even surpassed those of the 1918 pandemic. We further quantified the death rate of the 1951 epidemic in 3 countries. In England and Canada, we found that excess death rates from pneumonia and influenza and all causes were substantially higher for the 1951 epidemic than for the 1957 and 1968 pandemics (by >50%). The age-specific pattern of deaths in 1951 was consistent with that of other interpandemic seasons; no age shift to younger age groups, reminiscent of pandemics, occurred in the death rate. In contrast to England and Canada, the 1951 epidemic was not particularly severe in the United States. Why this epidemic was so severe in some areas but not others remains unknown and highlights major gaps in our understanding of interpandemic influenza.

        Cite This Article
    EID Viboud C, Tam T, Fleming D, Miller M, Simonsen L. 1951 Influenza Epidemic, England and Wales, Canada, and the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):661-668. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.050695
    AMA Viboud C, Tam T, Fleming D, et al. 1951 Influenza Epidemic, England and Wales, Canada, and the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):661-668. doi:10.3201/eid1204.050695.
    APA Viboud, C., Tam, T., Fleming, D., Miller, M., & Simonsen, L. (2006). 1951 Influenza Epidemic, England and Wales, Canada, and the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 661-668. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.050695.

Dispatches

  • HIV Transmission in Correctional Facility PDF Version [PDF - 162 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Macher et al.
        View Abstract

    Acute retroviral syndrome developed in an inmate in a detention center after he had intercourse with 2 HIV-infected inmates. Correctional facilities house a disproportionate number of HIV-infected persons, and most do not provide inmates with condoms. Correctional healthcare providers should be familiar with primary HIV infection and acute retroviral syndrome.

        Cite This Article
    EID Macher A, Kibble D, Wheeler D. HIV Transmission in Correctional Facility. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):669-671. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.050484
    AMA Macher A, Kibble D, Wheeler D. HIV Transmission in Correctional Facility. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):669-671. doi:10.3201/eid1204.050484.
    APA Macher, A., Kibble, D., & Wheeler, D. (2006). HIV Transmission in Correctional Facility. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 669-671. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.050484.
  • Fatal Human Infection with Rickettsia rickettsii, Yucatán, Mexico PDF Version [PDF - 250 KB - 3 pages]
    J. E. Zavala-Castro et al.
        View Abstract

    The first fatal Rickettsia rickettsii infection was diagnosed in the southwest of Mexico. The patient had fever, erythematous rash, abdominal pain, and severe central nervous system involvement with convulsive crisis. The diagnosis of R. rickettsii infection was established by immunohistochemistry and specific polymerase chain reaction.

        Cite This Article
    EID Zavala-Castro JE, Zavala-Velázquez JE, Walker DH, Arcila EE, Laviada-Molina H, Olano JP, et al. Fatal Human Infection with Rickettsia rickettsii, Yucatán, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):672-674. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051282
    AMA Zavala-Castro JE, Zavala-Velázquez JE, Walker DH, et al. Fatal Human Infection with Rickettsia rickettsii, Yucatán, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):672-674. doi:10.3201/eid1204.051282.
    APA Zavala-Castro, J. E., Zavala-Velázquez, J. E., Walker, D. H., Arcila, E. E., Laviada-Molina, H., Olano, J. P....Dzul-Rosado, K. R. (2006). Fatal Human Infection with Rickettsia rickettsii, Yucatán, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 672-674. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051282.
  • Shrews as Reservoir Hosts of Borna Disease Virus PDF Version [PDF - 163 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Hilbe et al.
        View Abstract

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is the causative agent of severe T-cell–mediated meningoencephalitis in horses, sheep, and other animal species in central Europe. Here we report the first unequivocal detection of a BDV reservoir species, the bicolored white-toothed shrew, Crocidura leucodon, in an area in Switzerland with endemic Borna disease.

        Cite This Article
    EID Hilbe M, Herrsche R, Kolodziejek J, Nowotny N, Zlinszky K, Ehrensperger F, et al. Shrews as Reservoir Hosts of Borna Disease Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):675-677. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051418
    AMA Hilbe M, Herrsche R, Kolodziejek J, et al. Shrews as Reservoir Hosts of Borna Disease Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):675-677. doi:10.3201/eid1204.051418.
    APA Hilbe, M., Herrsche, R., Kolodziejek, J., Nowotny, N., Zlinszky, K., & Ehrensperger, F. (2006). Shrews as Reservoir Hosts of Borna Disease Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 675-677. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051418.
  • Tularemia Outbreak, Bulgaria, 1997–2005 PDF Version [PDF - 279 KB - 3 pages]
    T. Kantardjiev et al.
        View Abstract

    The 1997–2005 tularemia outbreak in Bulgaria affected 285 people. Ten strains were isolated from humans, a tick, a hare, and water. Amplified fragment length polymorphism typing of the present isolates and of the strain isolated in 1962 suggests that a new genetic variant caused the outbreak.

        Cite This Article
    EID Kantardjiev T, Ivanov I, Velinov T, Padeshki P, Popov B, Nenova R, et al. Tularemia Outbreak, Bulgaria, 1997–2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):678-680. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.050709
    AMA Kantardjiev T, Ivanov I, Velinov T, et al. Tularemia Outbreak, Bulgaria, 1997–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):678-680. doi:10.3201/eid1204.050709.
    APA Kantardjiev, T., Ivanov, I., Velinov, T., Padeshki, P., Popov, B., Nenova, R....Mincheff, M. (2006). Tularemia Outbreak, Bulgaria, 1997–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 678-680. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.050709.
  • Avian Influenza H5N1 in Naturally Infected Domestic Cat PDF Version [PDF - 152 KB - 3 pages]
    T. Songserm et al.
        View Abstract

    We report H5N1 virus infection in a domestic cat infected by eating a pigeon carcass. The virus isolated from the pigeon and the cat showed the same cluster as the viruses obtained during the outbreak in Thailand. Since cats are common house pets, concern regarding disease transmission to humans exists.

        Cite This Article
    EID Songserm T, Amonsin A, Jam-on R, Sae-Heng N, Meemak N, Pariyothorn N, et al. Avian Influenza H5N1 in Naturally Infected Domestic Cat. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):681-683. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051396
    AMA Songserm T, Amonsin A, Jam-on R, et al. Avian Influenza H5N1 in Naturally Infected Domestic Cat. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):681-683. doi:10.3201/eid1204.051396.
    APA Songserm, T., Amonsin, A., Jam-on, R., Sae-Heng, N., Meemak, N., Pariyothorn, N....Poovorawan, Y. (2006). Avian Influenza H5N1 in Naturally Infected Domestic Cat. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 681-683. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051396.
  • Cryptosporidiosis Associated with Ozonated Apple Cider PDF Version [PDF - 59 KB - 3 pages]
    B. G. Blackburn et al.
        View Abstract

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.

        Cite This Article
    EID Blackburn BG, Mazurek JM, Hlavsa M, Park J, Tillapaw M, Parrish M, et al. Cryptosporidiosis Associated with Ozonated Apple Cider. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):684-686. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.050796
    AMA Blackburn BG, Mazurek JM, Hlavsa M, et al. Cryptosporidiosis Associated with Ozonated Apple Cider. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):684-686. doi:10.3201/eid1204.050796.
    APA Blackburn, B. G., Mazurek, J. M., Hlavsa, M., Park, J., Tillapaw, M., Parrish, M....Jones, J. L. (2006). Cryptosporidiosis Associated with Ozonated Apple Cider. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 684-686. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.050796.
  • Long-term Follow-up for Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis PDF Version [PDF - 29 KB - 2 pages]
    S. S. Shin et al.
        View Abstract

    Patients treated in Peru for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) were followed-up for a median of 67 months. Among 86 patients considered cured after completion of treatment, 97% remain healthy; 1 patient relapsed. Employment increased from 34% before treatment to 71%. We observed favorable long-term outcomes among MDR-TB patients.

        Cite This Article
    EID Shin SS, Furin JJ, Alcántara F, Bayona J, Sánchez E, Mitnick CD, et al. Long-term Follow-up for Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):687-688. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.041256
    AMA Shin SS, Furin JJ, Alcántara F, et al. Long-term Follow-up for Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):687-688. doi:10.3201/eid1204.041256.
    APA Shin, S. S., Furin, J. J., Alcántara, F., Bayona, J., Sánchez, E., & Mitnick, C. D. (2006). Long-term Follow-up for Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 687-688. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.041256.
  • Immune Restoration Disease in HIV Patient PDF Version [PDF - 88 KB - 3 pages]
    N. E. Jenkins et al.
        View Abstract

    We describe a severely immunosuppressed HIV-1–positive man in whom immune restoration disease associated with pulmonary infection caused by Mycobacterium microti developed after antiretroviral treatment. The diagnosis was made by using convenient spoligotyping techniques, but invasive investigations were required to exclude a tumor.

        Cite This Article
    EID Jenkins NE, Beadsworth M, Anson JJ, Nye FJ, Martlew VJ, Beeching NJ, et al. Immune Restoration Disease in HIV Patient. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):689-691. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.050455
    AMA Jenkins NE, Beadsworth M, Anson JJ, et al. Immune Restoration Disease in HIV Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):689-691. doi:10.3201/eid1204.050455.
    APA Jenkins, N. E., Beadsworth, M., Anson, J. J., Nye, F. J., Martlew, V. J., & Beeching, N. J. (2006). Immune Restoration Disease in HIV Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 689-691. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.050455.
  • MassTag Polymerase Chain Reaction for Differential Diagnosis of Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers PDF Version [PDF - 117 KB - 4 pages]
    G. Palacios et al.
        View Abstract

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers are associated with high rates of illness and death. Although therapeutic options are limited, early differential diagnosis has implications for containment and may aid in clinical management. We describe a diagnostic system for rapid, multiplex polymerase chain reaction identification of 10 different causes of viral hemorrhagic fevers.

        Cite This Article
    EID Palacios G, Briese T, Kapoor V, Jabado O, Liu Z, Venter M, et al. MassTag Polymerase Chain Reaction for Differential Diagnosis of Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):692-695. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051515
    AMA Palacios G, Briese T, Kapoor V, et al. MassTag Polymerase Chain Reaction for Differential Diagnosis of Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):692-695. doi:10.3201/eid1204.051515.
    APA Palacios, G., Briese, T., Kapoor, V., Jabado, O., Liu, Z., Venter, M....Lipkin, W. (2006). MassTag Polymerase Chain Reaction for Differential Diagnosis of Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 692-695. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051515.

Commentaries

  • Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: Typical Pathogens? PDF Version [PDF - 24 KB - 1 page]
    J. P. Nataro
            Cite This Article
    EID Nataro JP. Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: Typical Pathogens?. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):696. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.060125
    AMA Nataro JP. Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: Typical Pathogens?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):696. doi:10.3201/eid1204.060125.
    APA Nataro, J. P. (2006). Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: Typical Pathogens?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 696. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.060125.

Another Dimension

  • Bedside Manners PDF Version [PDF - 12 KB - 1 page]
    C. Wiseman
            Cite This Article
    EID Wiseman C. Bedside Manners. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):623. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.AD1204
    AMA Wiseman C. Bedside Manners. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):623. doi:10.3201/eid1204.AD1204.
    APA Wiseman, C. (2006). Bedside Manners. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 623. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.AD1204.

Letters

  • Computer-assisted Telephone Interview Techniques PDF Version [PDF - 56 KB - 2 pages]
    M. Kirk et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Kirk M, Tribe I, Givney R, Raupach J, Stafford R. Computer-assisted Telephone Interview Techniques. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):697-698. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.050756
    AMA Kirk M, Tribe I, Givney R, et al. Computer-assisted Telephone Interview Techniques. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):697-698. doi:10.3201/eid1204.050756.
    APA Kirk, M., Tribe, I., Givney, R., Raupach, J., & Stafford, R. (2006). Computer-assisted Telephone Interview Techniques. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 697-698. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.050756.
  • Lack of Transmission of Vaccinia Virus PDF Version [PDF - 50 KB - 3 pages]
    J. H. Stark et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Stark JH, Frey SE, Blum PS, Monath TP. Lack of Transmission of Vaccinia Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):698-700. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051373
    AMA Stark JH, Frey SE, Blum PS, et al. Lack of Transmission of Vaccinia Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):698-700. doi:10.3201/eid1204.051373.
    APA Stark, J. H., Frey, S. E., Blum, P. S., & Monath, T. P. (2006). Lack of Transmission of Vaccinia Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 698-700. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051373.
  • Discrimination between Highly Pathogenic and Low Pathogenic H5 Avian Influenza A Viruses PDF Version [PDF - 53 KB - 2 pages]
    S. Payungporn et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Payungporn S, Chutinimitkul S, Chaisingh A, Damrongwantanapokin S, Nuansrichay B, Pinyochon W, et al. Discrimination between Highly Pathogenic and Low Pathogenic H5 Avian Influenza A Viruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):700-701. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051427
    AMA Payungporn S, Chutinimitkul S, Chaisingh A, et al. Discrimination between Highly Pathogenic and Low Pathogenic H5 Avian Influenza A Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):700-701. doi:10.3201/eid1204.051427.
    APA Payungporn, S., Chutinimitkul, S., Chaisingh, A., Damrongwantanapokin, S., Nuansrichay, B., Pinyochon, W....Poovorawan, Y. (2006). Discrimination between Highly Pathogenic and Low Pathogenic H5 Avian Influenza A Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 700-701. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051427.
  • Rift Valley Fever in Goats, Cameroon PDF Version [PDF - 33 KB - 2 pages]
    M. LeBreton et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID LeBreton M, Umlauf S, Djoko CF, Daszak P, Burke DS, Kwenkam P, et al. Rift Valley Fever in Goats, Cameroon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):702-703. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051428
    AMA LeBreton M, Umlauf S, Djoko CF, et al. Rift Valley Fever in Goats, Cameroon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):702-703. doi:10.3201/eid1204.051428.
    APA LeBreton, M., Umlauf, S., Djoko, C. F., Daszak, P., Burke, D. S., Kwenkam, P....Wolfe, N. D. (2006). Rift Valley Fever in Goats, Cameroon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 702-703. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051428.
  • HIV-1 CRF07_BC Infections, Injecting Drug Users, Taiwan PDF Version [PDF - 75 KB - 3 pages]
    Y. Chen et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Chen Y, Lan Y, Lai S, Yang J, Tsai S, Kuo S, et al. HIV-1 CRF07_BC Infections, Injecting Drug Users, Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):703-705. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.050762
    AMA Chen Y, Lan Y, Lai S, et al. HIV-1 CRF07_BC Infections, Injecting Drug Users, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):703-705. doi:10.3201/eid1204.050762.
    APA Chen, Y., Lan, Y., Lai, S., Yang, J., Tsai, S., & Kuo, S. (2006). HIV-1 CRF07_BC Infections, Injecting Drug Users, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 703-705. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.050762.
  • Chlamydialike Organisms and Atherosclerosis PDF Version [PDF - 48 KB - 2 pages]
    G. Greub et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Greub G, Hartung O, Adekambi T, Alimi YS, Raoult D. Chlamydialike Organisms and Atherosclerosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):705-706. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.050751
    AMA Greub G, Hartung O, Adekambi T, et al. Chlamydialike Organisms and Atherosclerosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):705-706. doi:10.3201/eid1204.050751.
    APA Greub, G., Hartung, O., Adekambi, T., Alimi, Y. S., & Raoult, D. (2006). Chlamydialike Organisms and Atherosclerosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 705-706. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.050751.
  • Maculopathy in Dengue Fever PDF Version [PDF - 19 KB - 1 page]
    D. Su and S. Chee
            Cite This Article
    EID Su D, Chee S. Maculopathy in Dengue Fever. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):707. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051476
    AMA Su D, Chee S. Maculopathy in Dengue Fever. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):707. doi:10.3201/eid1204.051476.
    APA Su, D., & Chee, S. (2006). Maculopathy in Dengue Fever. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 707. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051476.
  • Pulmonary Tuberculosis and SARS, China PDF Version [PDF - 73 KB - 3 pages]
    W. Liu et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Liu W, Fontanet A, Zhang P, Zhan L, Xin Z, Tang F, et al. Pulmonary Tuberculosis and SARS, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):707-709. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.050264
    AMA Liu W, Fontanet A, Zhang P, et al. Pulmonary Tuberculosis and SARS, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):707-709. doi:10.3201/eid1204.050264.
    APA Liu, W., Fontanet, A., Zhang, P., Zhan, L., Xin, Z., Tang, F....Cao, W. (2006). Pulmonary Tuberculosis and SARS, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 707-709. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.050264.
  • Tetanus in Injecting Drug Users, United Kingdom PDF Version [PDF - 52 KB - 2 pages]
    S. Hahné et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Hahné S, White JM, Crowcroft NS, Brett MM, George RC, Beeching NJ, et al. Tetanus in Injecting Drug Users, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):709-710. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.050599
    AMA Hahné S, White JM, Crowcroft NS, et al. Tetanus in Injecting Drug Users, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):709-710. doi:10.3201/eid1204.050599.
    APA Hahné, S., White, J. M., Crowcroft, N. S., Brett, M. M., George, R. C., Beeching, N. J....Goldberg, D. (2006). Tetanus in Injecting Drug Users, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 709-710. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.050599.
  • Henipavirus in Pteropus vampyrus Bats, Indonesia PDF Version [PDF - 70 KB - 2 pages]
    I. Sendow et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Sendow I, Field H, Curran J, Morrissy C, Meehan G, Buick T, et al. Henipavirus in Pteropus vampyrus Bats, Indonesia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):711-712. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051181
    AMA Sendow I, Field H, Curran J, et al. Henipavirus in Pteropus vampyrus Bats, Indonesia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):711-712. doi:10.3201/eid1204.051181.
    APA Sendow, I., Field, H., Curran, J., Morrissy, C., Meehan, G., Buick, T....Daniels, P. (2006). Henipavirus in Pteropus vampyrus Bats, Indonesia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 711-712. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051181.

Books and Media

  • AIDS in Asia: A Continent in Peril PDF Version [PDF - 15 KB - 1 page]
    E. Pisani
            Cite This Article
    EID Pisani E. AIDS in Asia: A Continent in Peril. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):713. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.060013
    AMA Pisani E. AIDS in Asia: A Continent in Peril. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):713. doi:10.3201/eid1204.060013.
    APA Pisani, E. (2006). AIDS in Asia: A Continent in Peril. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 713. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.060013.
  • Biological Weapons Defense: Infectious Diseases and Counterbioterrorism PDF Version [PDF - 52 KB - 1 page]
    D. R. Lucey
            Cite This Article
    EID Lucey DR. Biological Weapons Defense: Infectious Diseases and Counterbioterrorism. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):713. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.060090
    AMA Lucey DR. Biological Weapons Defense: Infectious Diseases and Counterbioterrorism. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):713. doi:10.3201/eid1204.060090.
    APA Lucey, D. R. (2006). Biological Weapons Defense: Infectious Diseases and Counterbioterrorism. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 713. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.060090.

About the Cover

  • Manifesting Ecologic and Microbial Connections PDF Version [PDF - 69 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Potter
            Cite This Article
    EID Potter P. Manifesting Ecologic and Microbial Connections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):715-716. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.AC1204
    AMA Potter P. Manifesting Ecologic and Microbial Connections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):715-716. doi:10.3201/eid1204.AC1204.
    APA Potter, P. (2006). Manifesting Ecologic and Microbial Connections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 715-716. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.AC1204.

Etymologia

  • Etymologia: measles PDF Version [PDF - 47 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID Etymologia: measles. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):630. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.ET1204
    AMA Etymologia: measles. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):630. doi:10.3201/eid1204.ET1204.
    APA (2006). Etymologia: measles. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 630. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.ET1204.

Corrections

  • Correction, Vol. 12, No. 2 PDF Version [PDF - 44 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID Correction, Vol. 12, No. 2. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):714. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.C11204
    AMA Correction, Vol. 12, No. 2. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(4):714. doi:10.3201/eid1204.C11204.
    APA (2006). Correction, Vol. 12, No. 2. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 714. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.C11204.
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