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Volume 12, Number 9—September 2006

Volume 12, Number 9—September 2006   PDF Version [PDF - 6.12 MB - 171 pages]

Perspective

  • Nosocomial Tuberculosis in India PDF Version [PDF - 276 KB - 8 pages]
    M. Pai et al.
    View Summary

    India is well positioned to address the problem of nosocomial tuberculosis transmission.

        View Abstract

    Most high-income countries implement tuberculosis (TB) infection control programs to reduce the risk for nosocomial transmission. However, such control programs are not routinely implemented in India, the country that accounts for the largest number of TB cases in the world. Despite the high prevalence of TB in India and the expected high probability of nosocomial transmission, little is known about nosocomial and occupational TB there. The few available studies suggest that nosocomial TB may be a problem. We review the available data on this topic, describe factors that may facilitate nosocomial transmission in Indian healthcare settings, and consider the feasibility and applicability of various recommended infection control interventions in these settings. Finally, we outline the critical information needed to effectively address the problem of nosocomial transmission of TB in India.

        Cite This Article
    EID Pai M, Kalantri S, Aggarwal AN, Menzies D, Blumberg HM. Nosocomial Tuberculosis in India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1311-1318. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.051663
    AMA Pai M, Kalantri S, Aggarwal AN, et al. Nosocomial Tuberculosis in India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1311-1318. doi:10.3201/eid1209.051663.
    APA Pai, M., Kalantri, S., Aggarwal, A. N., Menzies, D., & Blumberg, H. M. (2006). Nosocomial Tuberculosis in India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1311-1318. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.051663.

Synopses

  • Control of Avian Influenza in Poultry PDF Version [PDF - 169 KB - 6 pages]
    I. Capua and S. Marangon
    View Summary

    Vaccines that enable detection of field exposure to any AI would be ideal.

        View Abstract

    Avian influenza, listed by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), has become a disease of great importance for animal and human health. Several aspects of the disease lack scientific information, which has hampered the management of some recent crises. Millions of animals have died, and concern is growing over the loss of human lives and management of the pandemic potential. On the basis of data generated in recent outbreaks and in light of new OIE regulations and maintenance of animal welfare, we review the available control methods for avian influenza infections in poultry, from stamping out to prevention through emergency and prophylactic vaccination.

        Cite This Article
    EID Capua I, Marangon S. Control of Avian Influenza in Poultry. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1319-1324. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060430
    AMA Capua I, Marangon S. Control of Avian Influenza in Poultry. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1319-1324. doi:10.3201/eid1209.060430.
    APA Capua, I., & Marangon, S. (2006). Control of Avian Influenza in Poultry. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1319-1324. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060430.

Research

  • Risk Factors for Buruli Ulcer, Benin PDF Version [PDF - 140 KB - 7 pages]
    M. Debacker et al.
    View Summary

    Disease was associated with age, place of residence, and water sources in all age groups.

        View Abstract

    We identified risk factors for Buruli ulcer (BU) in Benin in an unmatched case-control study at the Centre Sanitaire et Nutritionnel Gbemoten in southern Benin. A total of 2,399 persons admitted from 1997 through 2003 and 1,444 unmatched patients with other conditions in 2002 were recruited. Adjusted odds ratios were determined for age, sex, place of residence, Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination at birth, type of water for domestic use, and occupation. Children <15 years of age and adults >49 years of age had a higher risk for BU. Use of unprotected water from swamps was associated with increased risk for BU; this association was strongest in adults >49 years of age. Sex was not a risk factor for BU. Our data showed that BU was mainly associated with age, place of residence, and water sources in all age groups. Risk for BU was higher in BCG-vaccinated patients >5 years of age.

        Cite This Article
    EID Debacker M, Portaels F, Aguiar J, Steunou C, Zinsou C, Meyers W, et al. Risk Factors for Buruli Ulcer, Benin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1325-1331. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.050598
    AMA Debacker M, Portaels F, Aguiar J, et al. Risk Factors for Buruli Ulcer, Benin. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1325-1331. doi:10.3201/eid1209.050598.
    APA Debacker, M., Portaels, F., Aguiar, J., Steunou, C., Zinsou, C., Meyers, W....Dramaix, M. (2006). Risk Factors for Buruli Ulcer, Benin. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1325-1331. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.050598.
  • Histologic Features and Immunodetection of African Tick-bite Fever Eschar PDF Version [PDF - 438 KB - 6 pages]
    H. Lepidi et al.
    View Summary

    Immunohistochemical detection of rickettsial antigens may be useful in diagnosis.

        View Abstract

    African tick-bite fever (ATBF) is a rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia africae. We describe histologic features and immunodetection of R. africae in cutaneous inoculation eschars from 8 patients with ATBF, which was diagnosed by culture or association of positive PCR detection and positive serologic results. We used quantitative image analysis to compare the pattern of inflammation of these eschars with those from Mediterranean spotted fever. We evaluated the diagnostic value of immunohistochemical techniques by using a monoclonal antibody to R. africae. ATBF eschars were histologically characterized by inflammation of vessels composed mainly of significantly more polymorphonuclear leukocytes than are found in cases of Mediterranean spotted fever (p<0.05). Small amounts R. africae antigens were demonstrated by immunohistochemical examination in 6 of 8 patients with ATBF. Neutrophils in ATBF are a notable component of the host reaction, perhaps because ATBF is a milder disease than the other rickettsioses. Immunohistochemical detection of rickettsial antigens may be useful in diagnosing ATBF.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lepidi H, Fournier P, Raoult D. Histologic Features and Immunodetection of African Tick-bite Fever Eschar. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1332-1337. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.051540
    AMA Lepidi H, Fournier P, Raoult D. Histologic Features and Immunodetection of African Tick-bite Fever Eschar. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1332-1337. doi:10.3201/eid1209.051540.
    APA Lepidi, H., Fournier, P., & Raoult, D. (2006). Histologic Features and Immunodetection of African Tick-bite Fever Eschar. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1332-1337. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.051540.
  • Lymph Node Biopsy Specimens and Diagnosis of Cat-scratch Disease PDF Version [PDF - 126 KB - 7 pages]
    J. Rolain et al.
    View Summary

    Histologic analysis of lymph node biopsy specimens may verify diagnosis of this disease.

        View Abstract

    We report microbiologic analysis of 786 lymph node biopsy specimens from patients with suspected cat-scratch disease (CSD). The specimens were examined by standard, cell culture, and molecular methods. Infectious agents were found in samples from 391 (49.7%) of 786 patients. The most commonly identified infectious agent was Bartonella henselae (245 patients, 31.2%), the agent of CSD. Mycobacteriosis was diagnosed in 54 patients (6.9%) by culture and retrospectively confirmed by using a specific real-time PCR assay. Neoplasm was diagnosed in 181 specimens suitable for histologic analysis (26.0%) from 47 patients. Moreover, 13 patients with confirmed Bartonella infections had concurrent mycobacteriosis (10 cases) or neoplasm (3 cases). A diagnosis of CSD does not eliminate a diagnosis of mycobacteriosis or neoplasm. Histologic analysis of lymph node biopsy specimens should be routinely performed because some patients might have a concurrent malignant disease or mycobacteriosis.

        Cite This Article
    EID Rolain J, Lepidi H, Zanaret M, Triglia J, Michel G, Thomas P, et al. Lymph Node Biopsy Specimens and Diagnosis of Cat-scratch Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1338-1344. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060122
    AMA Rolain J, Lepidi H, Zanaret M, et al. Lymph Node Biopsy Specimens and Diagnosis of Cat-scratch Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1338-1344. doi:10.3201/eid1209.060122.
    APA Rolain, J., Lepidi, H., Zanaret, M., Triglia, J., Michel, G., Thomas, P....Raoult, D. (2006). Lymph Node Biopsy Specimens and Diagnosis of Cat-scratch Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1338-1344. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060122.
  • Periurban Trypanosoma cruzi–infected Triatoma infestans, Arequipa, Peru PDF Version [PDF - 344 KB - 8 pages]
    M. Z. Levy et al.
    View Summary

    Simple interventions may facilitate vector control and prevent periurban transmission of Chagas disease.

        View Abstract

    In Arequipa, Peru, vectorborne transmission of Chagas disease by Triatoma infestans has become an urban problem. We conducted an entomologic survey in a periurban community of Arequipa to identify risk factors for triatomine infestation and determinants of vector population densities. Of 374 households surveyed, triatomines were collected from 194 (52%), and Trypanosoma cruzi–carrying triatomines were collected from 72 (19.3%). Guinea pig pens were more likely than other animal enclosures to be infested and harbored 2.38× as many triatomines. Stacked brick and adobe enclosures were more likely to have triatomines, while wire mesh enclosures were protected against infestation. In human dwellings, only fully stuccoed rooms were protected against infestation. Spatially, households with triatomines were scattered, while households with T. cruzi–infected triatomines were clustered. Keeping small animals in wire mesh cages could facilitate control of T. infestans in this densely populated urban environment.

        Cite This Article
    EID Levy MZ, Bowman NM, Kawai V, Waller LA, Cornejo del Carpio J, Benzaquen EC, et al. Periurban Trypanosoma cruzi–infected Triatoma infestans, Arequipa, Peru. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1345-1352. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.051662
    AMA Levy MZ, Bowman NM, Kawai V, et al. Periurban Trypanosoma cruzi–infected Triatoma infestans, Arequipa, Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1345-1352. doi:10.3201/eid1209.051662.
    APA Levy, M. Z., Bowman, N. M., Kawai, V., Waller, L. A., Cornejo del Carpio, J., Benzaquen, E. C....Bern, C. (2006). Periurban Trypanosoma cruzi–infected Triatoma infestans, Arequipa, Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1345-1352. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.051662.
  • Genomic Signatures of Human versus Avian Influenza A Viruses PDF Version [PDF - 345 KB - 8 pages]
    G. Chen et al.
    View Summary

    Fifty-two species-associated amino acid residues were found between human and avian influenza viruses.

        View Abstract

    Position-specific entropy profiles created from scanning 306 human and 95 avian influenza A viral genomes showed that 228 of 4,591 amino acid residues yielded significant differences between these 2 viruses. We subsequently used 15,785 protein sequences from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) to assess the robustness of these signatures and obtained 52 "species-associated" positions. Specific mutations on those points may enable an avian influenza virus to become a human virus. Many of these signatures are found in NP, PA, and PB2 genes (viral ribonucleoproteins [RNPs]) and are mostly located in the functional domains related to RNP-RNP interactions that are important for viral replication. Upon inspecting 21 human-isolated avian influenza viral genomes from NCBI, we found 19 that exhibited >1 species-associated residue changes; 7 of them contained >2 substitutions. Histograms based on pairwise sequence comparison showed that NP disjointed most between human and avian influenza viruses, followed by PA and PB2.

        Cite This Article
    EID Chen G, Chang S, Mok C, Lo Y, Kung Y, Huang J, et al. Genomic Signatures of Human versus Avian Influenza A Viruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1353-1360. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060276
    AMA Chen G, Chang S, Mok C, et al. Genomic Signatures of Human versus Avian Influenza A Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1353-1360. doi:10.3201/eid1209.060276.
    APA Chen, G., Chang, S., Mok, C., Lo, Y., Kung, Y., Huang, J....Shih, S. (2006). Genomic Signatures of Human versus Avian Influenza A Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1353-1360. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060276.
  • Changing Pattern of Human Listeriosis, England and Wales, 2001–2004 PDF Version [PDF - 209 KB - 6 pages]
    I. A. Gillespie et al.
    View Summary

    Disease has reemerged, mainly in patients ≥60 years of age with bacteremia.

        View Abstract

    Microbiologic and epidemiologic data on 1,933 cases of human listeriosis reported in England and Wales from 1990 to 2004 were reviewed. A substantial increase in incidence occurred from 2001 to 2004. Ten clusters (60 cases), likely to represent common-source outbreaks, were detected. However, these clusters did not account for the upsurge in incidence, which occurred sporadically, predominantly in patients >60 years of age with bacteremia and which was independent of sex; regional, seasonal, ethnic, or socioeconomic differences; underlying conditions; or Listeria monocytogenes subtype. The reasons for the increase are not known, but since multiple L. monocytogenes strains were responsible, this upsurge is unlikely to be due to a common-source outbreak. In the absence of risk factors for listeriosis in this emerging at-risk sector of the population, dietary advice on avoiding high-risk foods should be provided routinely to the elderly and immunocompromised, not just to pregnant women.

        Cite This Article
    EID Gillespie IA, McLauchlin J, Grant KA, Little CL, Mithani V, Penman C, et al. Changing Pattern of Human Listeriosis, England and Wales, 2001–2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1361-1366. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.051657
    AMA Gillespie IA, McLauchlin J, Grant KA, et al. Changing Pattern of Human Listeriosis, England and Wales, 2001–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1361-1366. doi:10.3201/eid1209.051657.
    APA Gillespie, I. A., McLauchlin, J., Grant, K. A., Little, C. L., Mithani, V., Penman, C....Regan, M. (2006). Changing Pattern of Human Listeriosis, England and Wales, 2001–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1361-1366. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.051657.
  • Predominance of Ancestral Lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in India PDF Version [PDF - 211 KB - 8 pages]
    M. C. Gutierrez et al.
    View Summary

    Molecular epidemiologic findings suggest an ancient focus of TB.

        View Abstract

    Although India has the highest prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide, the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in India is largely unknown. A collection of 91 isolates originating from 12 different regions spread across the country were analyzed by genotyping using 21 loci with variable-number tandem repeats (VNTRs), by spoligotyping, by principal genetic grouping (PGG), and by deletion analysis of M. tuberculosis–specific deletion region 1. The isolates showed highly diverse VNTR genotypes. Nevertheless, highly congruent groupings identified by using the 4 independent sets of markers permitted a clear definition of 3 prevalent PGG1 lineages, which corresponded to the "ancestral" East African–Indian, the Delhi, and the Beijing/W genogroups. A few isolates from PGG2 lineages and a single representative of the presumably most recent PGG3 were identified. These observations suggest a predominance of ancestral M. tuberculosis genotypes in the Indian subcontinent, which supports the hypothesis that India is an ancient endemic focus of TB.

        Cite This Article
    EID Gutierrez MC, Ahmed N, Willery E, Narayanan S, Hasnain SE, Chauhan DS, et al. Predominance of Ancestral Lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1367-1374. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.050017
    AMA Gutierrez MC, Ahmed N, Willery E, et al. Predominance of Ancestral Lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1367-1374. doi:10.3201/eid1209.050017.
    APA Gutierrez, M. C., Ahmed, N., Willery, E., Narayanan, S., Hasnain, S. E., Chauhan, D. S....Supply, P. (2006). Predominance of Ancestral Lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1367-1374. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.050017.
  • Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis by Nationality, the Netherlands, 1993–2001 PDF Version [PDF - 249 KB - 8 pages]
    L. A. te Beek et al.
    View Summary

    The growth of the number of inhabitants with a non-Western ethnic background most likely explains the growth of extrapulmonary TB in the Netherlands.

        View Abstract

    This study describes the epidemiology of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in the Netherlands from 1993 through 2001. We assessed whether the increasing numbers of inhabitants with a non-Western ethnic background had an effect on the number of extrapulmonary patients. We used data from the Netherlands Tuberculosis Register and included all cases of TB diagnosed in the Netherlands between January 1, 1993, and December 31, 2001. Information on age, sex, nationality, year of diagnosis, culture result, anatomic location of the site of disease, and HIV status was retrieved from the register. Of 13,258 patients with TB, 8,216 (62%) had pulmonary TB, and 5,042 (38%) had extrapulmonary TB. Non-Dutch nationals were more likely to have most types of extrapulmonary TB. The growth of the number of inhabitants with a non-Western ethnic background in the Netherlands explains the proportional growth of extrapulmonary TB. Physicians need to be aware of the changing clinical picture of TB.

        Cite This Article
    EID te Beek LA, van der Werf MJ, Richter C, Borgdorff MW. Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis by Nationality, the Netherlands, 1993–2001. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1375-1382. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.050553
    AMA te Beek LA, van der Werf MJ, Richter C, et al. Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis by Nationality, the Netherlands, 1993–2001. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1375-1382. doi:10.3201/eid1209.050553.
    APA te Beek, L. A., van der Werf, M. J., Richter, C., & Borgdorff, M. W. (2006). Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis by Nationality, the Netherlands, 1993–2001. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1375-1382. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.050553.
  • Risk for Tuberculosis among Children PDF Version [PDF - 127 KB - 6 pages]
    H. Nakaoka et al.
    View Summary

    Risk among children is underestimated in countries with a high incidence of this disease.

        View Abstract

    Contacts of adults with tuberculosis (TB) are at risk for infection. Tests based on interferon-γ (IFN-γ) expression in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens may be more sensitive than the tuberculin skin test (TST). Risk for infection was assessed by using TST and an IFN-γ-based assay (QuantiFERON Gold in Tube [QFT-IT] test) for 207 children in Nigeria in 1 of 3 groups: contact with adults with smear-positive TB, contact with adults with smear-negative TB, and controls. For these 3 groups, respectively, TST results were >10 mm for 38 (49%) of 78, 13 (16%) of 83, and 6 (13%) of 46 and QFT-IT positive for 53 (74%) of 72, 8 (10%) of 81, and 4 (10.3%) of 39 (p<0.01). Most test discrepancies were TST negative; QFT-IT positive if in contact with TB-positive persons; and TST positive, QFT-IT negative if in contact with TB-negative persons or controls. TST may underestimate risk for infection with TB in children.

        Cite This Article
    EID Nakaoka H, Lawson L, Squire SB, Coulter B, Ravn P, Brock I, et al. Risk for Tuberculosis among Children. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1383-1388. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.051606
    AMA Nakaoka H, Lawson L, Squire SB, et al. Risk for Tuberculosis among Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1383-1388. doi:10.3201/eid1209.051606.
    APA Nakaoka, H., Lawson, L., Squire, S. B., Coulter, B., Ravn, P., Brock, I....Cuevas, L. E. (2006). Risk for Tuberculosis among Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1383-1388. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.051606.
  • Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis Management in Resource-limited Settings
    E. Nathanson et al.
    View Summary

    Managing MDRTB through national programs can yield results similar to those seen in wealthier settings.

        View Abstract

    Evidence of successful management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) is mainly generated from referral hospitals in high-income countries. We evaluate the management of MDRTB in 5 resource-limited countries: Estonia, Latvia, Peru, the Philippines, and the Russian Federation. All projects were approved by the Green Light Committee for access to quality-assured second-line drugs provided at reduced price for MDRTB management. Of 1,047 MDRTB patients evaluated, 119 (11%) were new, and 928 (89%) had received treatment previously. More than 50% of previously treated patients had received both first- and second-line drugs, and 65% of all patients had infections that were resistant to both first- and second-line drugs. Treatment was successful in 70% of all patients, but success rate was higher among new (77%) than among previously treated patients (69%). In resource-limited settings, treatment of MDRTB provided through, or in collaboration with, national TB programs can yield results similar to those from wealthier settings.

        Cite This Article
    EID Nathanson E, Lambregts-van Weezenbeek C, Rich M, Gupta R, Bayona J, Blöndal K, et al. Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis Management in Resource-limited Settings. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1389-1397. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.051618
    AMA Nathanson E, Lambregts-van Weezenbeek C, Rich M, et al. Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis Management in Resource-limited Settings. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1389-1397. doi:10.3201/eid1209.051618.
    APA Nathanson, E., Lambregts-van Weezenbeek, C., Rich, M., Gupta, R., Bayona, J., Blöndal, K....Raviglione, M. C. (2006). Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis Management in Resource-limited Settings. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1389-1397. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.051618.
  • Fluoroquinolones and Risk for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Canada PDF Version [PDF - 344 KB - 8 pages]
    L. LeBlanc et al.
    View Summary

    Fluoroquinolones were associated with MRSA colonization and infection.

        View Abstract

    Receipt of fluoroquinolones was the predominant risk factor for Clostridium difficile–associated disease (CDAD) during an epidemic in Quebec, Canada. To determine the role of antimicrobial drugs in facilitating healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization and infection and to compare this role with their effects on methicillin-susceptible S. aureus infection and CDAD, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients in a Quebec hospital. For 7,371 episodes of care, data were collected on risk factors, including receipt of antimicrobial drugs. Crude and adjusted hazard ratios (AHR) were calculated by Cox regression. Of 150 episodes of MRSA colonization and 23 of MRSA infection, fluoroquinolones were the only antimicrobials that increased risk for colonization (AHR 2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.84–3.60) and infection (AHR 2.49, 95% CI 1.02–6.07). Effect of antimicrobial drugs on MRSA colonization and infection was similar to effect on CDAD and should be considered when selecting antimicrobial drugs to treat common infections.

        Cite This Article
    EID LeBlanc L, Pépin J, Toulouse K, Ouellette M, Coulombe M, Corriveau M, et al. Fluoroquinolones and Risk for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1398-1405. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060397
    AMA LeBlanc L, Pépin J, Toulouse K, et al. Fluoroquinolones and Risk for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1398-1405. doi:10.3201/eid1209.060397.
    APA LeBlanc, L., Pépin, J., Toulouse, K., Ouellette, M., Coulombe, M., Corriveau, M....Alary, M. (2006). Fluoroquinolones and Risk for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1398-1405. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060397.
  • Differentiation of Tuberculosis Strains in a Population with Mainly Beijing-family Strains PDF Version [PDF - 264 KB - 8 pages]
    V. Nikolayevskyy et al.
    View Summary

    A new panel of 25 VNTR-MIRU loci differentiates Beijing-family TB strains better than a panel of 15.

        View Abstract

    A high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) isolates that are genetically homogenous and from the Beijing family has been reported in Russia. To map TB transmission caused by these strains, new genotyping systems are needed. Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRUs) offer the possibility of rapid PCR-based typing with comparable discrimination to IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques. Spoligotyping and detection of IS6110 insertion in the dnaA-dnaN region were used to identify Beijing strains in 187 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Samara, Russia. The Beijing isolates were analyzed by using 12-MIRU and 3–exact tandem repeats (ETR) loci and by an expanded set of 10 additional variable number tandem repeats loci. The expanded set of 25 MIRUs provided better discrimination than the original set of 15 (Hunter-Gaston diversity index 0.870 vs 0.625). Loci MIRU 26, 1982, and 3232 were the most polymorphic in Beijing isolates.

        Cite This Article
    EID Nikolayevskyy V, Gopaul K, Balabanova Y, Brown T, Fedorin I, Drobniewski F, et al. Differentiation of Tuberculosis Strains in a Population with Mainly Beijing-family Strains. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1406-1413. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.041263
    AMA Nikolayevskyy V, Gopaul K, Balabanova Y, et al. Differentiation of Tuberculosis Strains in a Population with Mainly Beijing-family Strains. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1406-1413. doi:10.3201/eid1209.041263.
    APA Nikolayevskyy, V., Gopaul, K., Balabanova, Y., Brown, T., Fedorin, I., & Drobniewski, F. (2006). Differentiation of Tuberculosis Strains in a Population with Mainly Beijing-family Strains. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1406-1413. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.041263.

Policy Review

  • State Plans for Containment of Pandemic Influenza PDF Version [PDF - 133 KB - 4 pages]
    S. D. Holmberg et al.
    View Summary

    Current plans for control of pandemic influenza vary, and many do not include nonpharmaceutical interventions.

        View Abstract

    This review assesses differences and similarities of the states in planning for pandemic influenza. We reviewed the recently posted plans of 49 states for vaccination, early epidemic surveillance and detection, and intraepidemic plans for containment of pandemic influenza. All states generally follow vaccination priorities set by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. They all also depend on National Sentinel Physician Surveillance and other passive surveillance systems to alert them to incipient epidemic influenza, but these systems may not detect local epidemics until they are well established. Because of a lack of epidemiologic data, few states explicitly discuss implementing nonpharmaceutical community interventions: voluntary self-isolation (17 states [35%]), school or other institutional closing (18 [37%]), institutional or household quarantine (15 [31%]), or contact vaccination or chemoprophylaxis (12 [25%]). This review indicates the need for central planning for pandemic influenza and for epidemiologic studies regarding containment strategies in the community.

        Cite This Article
    EID Holmberg SD, Layton CM, Ghneim GS, Wagener DK. State Plans for Containment of Pandemic Influenza. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1414-1417. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060369
    AMA Holmberg SD, Layton CM, Ghneim GS, et al. State Plans for Containment of Pandemic Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1414-1417. doi:10.3201/eid1209.060369.
    APA Holmberg, S. D., Layton, C. M., Ghneim, G. S., & Wagener, D. K. (2006). State Plans for Containment of Pandemic Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1414-1417. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060369.

Dispatches

  • Human Bocavirus Infection among Children, Jordan PDF Version [PDF - 155 KB - 3 pages]
    N. M. Kaplan et al.
        View Abstract

    Human bocavirus was detected in 57 (18.3%) of 312 children with acute respiratory infection (ARI) who required hospitalization in Jordan. It was also detected in 30 (21.7%) of 138 children with severe ARI, in 27 (15.5%) of 174 with mild or moderate disease, and in 41 (72%) of 57 with other pathogens.

        Cite This Article
    EID Kaplan NM, Dove W, Abu-Zeid AF, Shamoon HE, Abd-Eldayem SA, Hart CA, et al. Human Bocavirus Infection among Children, Jordan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1418-1420. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060417
    AMA Kaplan NM, Dove W, Abu-Zeid AF, et al. Human Bocavirus Infection among Children, Jordan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1418-1420. doi:10.3201/eid1209.060417.
    APA Kaplan, N. M., Dove, W., Abu-Zeid, A. F., Shamoon, H. E., Abd-Eldayem, S. A., & Hart, C. A. (2006). Human Bocavirus Infection among Children, Jordan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1418-1420. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060417.
  • Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W135 ST-2881 PDF Version [PDF - 57 KB - 3 pages]
    P. Boisier et al.
        View Abstract

    Serogroup W135 ST-2881 meningococci caused a cluster of meningitis cases in Niger in 2003. Of 80 healthy persons in the patients' villages, 28 (35%) carried meningococci; 20 of 21 W135 carrier strains were ST-2881. Ten months later, 5 former carriers were still carriers of W135 ST-2881 strains. The serum bactericidal antibody activity changed according to carrier status.

        Cite This Article
    EID Boisier P, Nicolas P, Djibo S, Hamidou AA, Tenebray B, Borrow R, et al. Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W135 ST-2881. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1421-1423. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.051518
    AMA Boisier P, Nicolas P, Djibo S, et al. Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W135 ST-2881. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1421-1423. doi:10.3201/eid1209.051518.
    APA Boisier, P., Nicolas, P., Djibo, S., Hamidou, A. A., Tenebray, B., Borrow, R....Chanteau, S. (2006). Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W135 ST-2881. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1421-1423. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.051518.
  • Lookback Exercise with Imported Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Senegal and France PDF Version [PDF - 77 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Tarantola et al.
        View Abstract

    A patient with suspected malaria was hospitalized successively in 2 hospitals, first in Dakar, Senegal, then in Rennes, France, where tests diagnosed Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. An international incident management group was set up in France and Senegal, which traced 181 contacts and analyzed 50 samples from 3 countries. No secondary cases were identified clinically.

        Cite This Article
    EID Tarantola A, Nabeth P, Tattevin P, Michelet C, Zeller H. Lookback Exercise with Imported Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Senegal and France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1424-1426. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060002
    AMA Tarantola A, Nabeth P, Tattevin P, et al. Lookback Exercise with Imported Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Senegal and France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1424-1426. doi:10.3201/eid1209.060002.
    APA Tarantola, A., Nabeth, P., Tattevin, P., Michelet, C., & Zeller, H. (2006). Lookback Exercise with Imported Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Senegal and France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1424-1426. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060002.
  • Japanese Encephalitis Outbreak, India, 2005 PDF Version [PDF - 170 KB - 4 pages]
    M. Parida et al.
        View Abstract

    An outbreak of viral encephalitis occurred in Gorakhpur, India, from July through November 2005. The etiologic agent was confirmed to be Japanese encephalitis virus by analyzing 326 acute-phase clinical specimens for virus-specific antibodies and viral RNA and by virus isolation. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these isolates belonged to genogroup 3.

        Cite This Article
    EID Parida M, Dash PK, Tripathi NK, Ambuj A, Sannarangaiah S, Saxena P, et al. Japanese Encephalitis Outbreak, India, 2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1427-1430. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060200
    AMA Parida M, Dash PK, Tripathi NK, et al. Japanese Encephalitis Outbreak, India, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1427-1430. doi:10.3201/eid1209.060200.
    APA Parida, M., Dash, P. K., Tripathi, N. K., Ambuj, A., Sannarangaiah, S., Saxena, P....Sekhar, K. (2006). Japanese Encephalitis Outbreak, India, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1427-1430. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060200.
  • Mycobacterium bovis Infection, Lyon, France PDF Version [PDF - 199 KB - 3 pages]
    S. Mignard et al.
        View Abstract

    In a 5-year retrospective study, we used spoligotyping and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units to type 13 strains of Mycobacterium bovis isolated from human sources. Despite the relatively high incidence of human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis (2%), these tools showed no clonal evolution and no relationships between the isolates.

        Cite This Article
    EID Mignard S, Pichat C, Carret G. Mycobacterium bovis Infection, Lyon, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1431-1433. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060209
    AMA Mignard S, Pichat C, Carret G. Mycobacterium bovis Infection, Lyon, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1431-1433. doi:10.3201/eid1209.060209.
    APA Mignard, S., Pichat, C., & Carret, G. (2006). Mycobacterium bovis Infection, Lyon, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1431-1433. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060209.
  • Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis among Somalis in Minnesota PDF Version [PDF - 184 KB - 3 pages]
    R. B. Rock et al.
        View Abstract

    To analyze extrapulmonary tuberculosis in Somalis living in Minnesota, we reviewed surveillance and public health case management data on tuberculosis cases in ethnic Somalis in Minnesota from 1993 through 2003. The presence of these recent immigrants substantially affects the local epidemiology and clinical manifestation of tuberculosis.

        Cite This Article
    EID Rock RB, Sutherland WM, Baker C, Williams DN. Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis among Somalis in Minnesota. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1434-1436. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.050295
    AMA Rock RB, Sutherland WM, Baker C, et al. Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis among Somalis in Minnesota. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1434-1436. doi:10.3201/eid1209.050295.
    APA Rock, R. B., Sutherland, W. M., Baker, C., & Williams, D. N. (2006). Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis among Somalis in Minnesota. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1434-1436. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.050295.
  • Human Metapneumovirus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease in Children, Yemen PDF Version [PDF - 84 KB - 3 pages]
    N. Al-Sonboli et al.
        View Abstract

    Factors increasing the severity of respiratory infections in developing countries are poorly described. We report factors associated with severe acute respiratory illness in Yemeni children (266 infected with respiratory syncytial virus and 66 with human metapneumovirus). Age, indoor air pollution, and incomplete vaccinations were risk factors and differed from those in industrialized countries.

        Cite This Article
    EID Al-Sonboli N, Hart CA, Al-Aghbari N, Al-Ansi A, Ashoor O, Cuevas LE, et al. Human Metapneumovirus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease in Children, Yemen. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1437-1439. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060207
    AMA Al-Sonboli N, Hart CA, Al-Aghbari N, et al. Human Metapneumovirus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease in Children, Yemen. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1437-1439. doi:10.3201/eid1209.060207.
    APA Al-Sonboli, N., Hart, C. A., Al-Aghbari, N., Al-Ansi, A., Ashoor, O., & Cuevas, L. E. (2006). Human Metapneumovirus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease in Children, Yemen. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1437-1439. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060207.
  • Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 4 in Ugandan Children and Their Mothers PDF Version [PDF - 211 KB - 4 pages]
    R. J. Biggar et al.
        View Abstract

    In Kampala, Uganda, in 2001, hepatitis C virus antibodies were found in 27 (4%) of 603 children and in 62 (12%) of 525 of their mothers. However, only ≈10% of positive results were confirmed by reverse transcription–PCR, which suggests frequent false-positive results or viral clearance. All sequenced types were genotype 4.

        Cite This Article
    EID Biggar RJ, Ortiz-Conde BA, Bagni RK, Bakaki PM, Wang C, Engels EA, et al. Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 4 in Ugandan Children and Their Mothers. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1440-1443. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.041068
    AMA Biggar RJ, Ortiz-Conde BA, Bagni RK, et al. Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 4 in Ugandan Children and Their Mothers. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1440-1443. doi:10.3201/eid1209.041068.
    APA Biggar, R. J., Ortiz-Conde, B. A., Bagni, R. K., Bakaki, P. M., Wang, C., Engels, E. A....Ndugwa, C. M. (2006). Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 4 in Ugandan Children and Their Mothers. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1440-1443. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.041068.
  • Shift in Staphylococcus aureus Clone Linked to an Infected Tattoo PDF Version [PDF - 82 KB - 3 pages]
    M. E. Stemper et al.
        View Abstract

    A retrospective investigation of skin and soft tissue infections caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains among inmates in a Wisconsin correctional facility suggested a shift in MRSA genotype. Case timeline indicated a displacement of USA400 clone by USA300 clone. The USA300 index case was associated with an infected new tattoo.

        Cite This Article
    EID Stemper ME, Brady JM, Qutaishat SS, Borlaug G, Reed J, Reed KD, et al. Shift in Staphylococcus aureus Clone Linked to an Infected Tattoo. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1444-1446. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.051634
    AMA Stemper ME, Brady JM, Qutaishat SS, et al. Shift in Staphylococcus aureus Clone Linked to an Infected Tattoo. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1444-1446. doi:10.3201/eid1209.051634.
    APA Stemper, M. E., Brady, J. M., Qutaishat, S. S., Borlaug, G., Reed, J., Reed, K. D....Shukla, S. K. (2006). Shift in Staphylococcus aureus Clone Linked to an Infected Tattoo. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1444-1446. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.051634.
  • Eighth Major Clade for Hepatitis Delta Virus PDF Version [PDF - 271 KB - 4 pages]
    F. Le Gal et al.
        View Abstract

    Hepatitis delta virus is the only representative of the Deltavirus genus, which consists of 7 differentiated major clades. In this study, an eighth clade was identified from 3 distinct strains. Deltavirus genetic variability should be considered for diagnostic purposes. Clinical consequences of the diversity have yet to be evaluated.

        Cite This Article
    EID Le Gal F, Gault E, Ripault M, Serpaggi J, Trinchet J, Gordien E, et al. Eighth Major Clade for Hepatitis Delta Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1447-1450. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060112
    AMA Le Gal F, Gault E, Ripault M, et al. Eighth Major Clade for Hepatitis Delta Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1447-1450. doi:10.3201/eid1209.060112.
    APA Le Gal, F., Gault, E., Ripault, M., Serpaggi, J., Trinchet, J., Gordien, E....Dény, P. (2006). Eighth Major Clade for Hepatitis Delta Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1447-1450. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060112.
  • West Nile Virus Infection in Commercial Waterfowl Operation, Wisconsin PDF Version [PDF - 54 KB - 3 pages]
    J. K. Meece et al.
        View Abstract

    A West Nile virus (WNV) outbreak occurred at a commercial waterfowl operation in Wisconsin in 2005. Retrospective analysis of dead and live birds was conducted. WNV was detected by PCR in 84.1% of 88 dead birds; neutralizing antibodies were found in 14 of 30 randomly sampled asymptomatic or recovered birds.

        Cite This Article
    EID Meece JK, Kronenwetter-Koepel TA, Vandermause MF, Reed KD. West Nile Virus Infection in Commercial Waterfowl Operation, Wisconsin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1451-1453. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.051648
    AMA Meece JK, Kronenwetter-Koepel TA, Vandermause MF, et al. West Nile Virus Infection in Commercial Waterfowl Operation, Wisconsin. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1451-1453. doi:10.3201/eid1209.051648.
    APA Meece, J. K., Kronenwetter-Koepel, T. A., Vandermause, M. F., & Reed, K. D. (2006). West Nile Virus Infection in Commercial Waterfowl Operation, Wisconsin. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1451-1453. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.051648.
  • Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bangui, Central African Republic PDF Version [PDF - 80 KB - 3 pages]
    L. X. Nouvel et al.
        View Abstract

    We investigated multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in Bangui, Central African Republic. We found 39.6% with the same spoligotype and synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in the mutT1 gene. However, strains had different rpoB mutations responsible for rifampin resistance. MDR strains in Bangui may emerge preferentially from a single, MDR-prone family.

        Cite This Article
    EID Nouvel LX, Kassa-Kelembho E, Dos Vultos T, Zandanga G, Rauzier J, Lafoz C, et al. Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bangui, Central African Republic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1454-1456. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060361
    AMA Nouvel LX, Kassa-Kelembho E, Dos Vultos T, et al. Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bangui, Central African Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1454-1456. doi:10.3201/eid1209.060361.
    APA Nouvel, L. X., Kassa-Kelembho, E., Dos Vultos, T., Zandanga, G., Rauzier, J., Lafoz, C....Gicquel, B. (2006). Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bangui, Central African Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1454-1456. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060361.

Letters

  • Human Bocavirus in Hospitalized Children, South Africa PDF Version [PDF - 45 KB - 2 pages]
    H. Smuts and D. Hardie
            Cite This Article
    EID Smuts H, Hardie D. Human Bocavirus in Hospitalized Children, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1457-1458. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.051616
    AMA Smuts H, Hardie D. Human Bocavirus in Hospitalized Children, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1457-1458. doi:10.3201/eid1209.051616.
    APA Smuts, H., & Hardie, D. (2006). Human Bocavirus in Hospitalized Children, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1457-1458. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.051616.
  • Shigella sonnei Outbreak among Homosexual Men, London PDF Version [PDF - 78 KB - 3 pages]
    O. Morgan et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Morgan O, Crook P, Cheasty T, Jiggle B, Giraudon I, Hughes H, et al. Shigella sonnei Outbreak among Homosexual Men, London. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1458-1460. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060282
    AMA Morgan O, Crook P, Cheasty T, et al. Shigella sonnei Outbreak among Homosexual Men, London. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1458-1460. doi:10.3201/eid1209.060282.
    APA Morgan, O., Crook, P., Cheasty, T., Jiggle, B., Giraudon, I., Hughes, H....Maguire, H. (2006). Shigella sonnei Outbreak among Homosexual Men, London. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1458-1460. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060282.
  • Perinatal Toxoplasmosis, Northern Taiwan PDF Version [PDF - 31 KB - 2 pages]
    I. Hu et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Hu I, Chen P, Su F, Hsieh C, Jeng S, Liao H, et al. Perinatal Toxoplasmosis, Northern Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1460-1461. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060033
    AMA Hu I, Chen P, Su F, et al. Perinatal Toxoplasmosis, Northern Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1460-1461. doi:10.3201/eid1209.060033.
    APA Hu, I., Chen, P., Su, F., Hsieh, C., Jeng, S., Liao, H....Hsieh, W. (2006). Perinatal Toxoplasmosis, Northern Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1460-1461. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060033.
  • Fluoroquinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae PDF Version [PDF - 41 KB - 2 pages]
    M. W. Pletz et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Pletz MW, Fugit RV, McGee L, Glasheen JJ, Keller DL, Welte T, et al. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1462-1463. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.051400
    AMA Pletz MW, Fugit RV, McGee L, et al. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1462-1463. doi:10.3201/eid1209.051400.
    APA Pletz, M. W., Fugit, R. V., McGee, L., Glasheen, J. J., Keller, D. L., Welte, T....Klugman, K. P. (2006). Fluoroquinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1462-1463. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.051400.
  • Spring Scrub Typhus, People’s Republic of China PDF Version [PDF - 51 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Cao et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Cao M, Guo H, Tang T, Wang C, Li X, Pan X, et al. Spring Scrub Typhus, People’s Republic of China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1463-1465. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060257
    AMA Cao M, Guo H, Tang T, et al. Spring Scrub Typhus, People’s Republic of China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1463-1465. doi:10.3201/eid1209.060257.
    APA Cao, M., Guo, H., Tang, T., Wang, C., Li, X., Pan, X....Tang, J. (2006). Spring Scrub Typhus, People’s Republic of China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1463-1465. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060257.
  • Early Neuroschistosomiasis Complicating Katayama Syndrome PDF Version [PDF - 35 KB - 2 pages]
    J. Clerinx et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Clerinx J, van Gompel A, Lynen L, Ceulemans B. Early Neuroschistosomiasis Complicating Katayama Syndrome. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1465-1466. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060113
    AMA Clerinx J, van Gompel A, Lynen L, et al. Early Neuroschistosomiasis Complicating Katayama Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1465-1466. doi:10.3201/eid1209.060113.
    APA Clerinx, J., van Gompel, A., Lynen, L., & Ceulemans, B. (2006). Early Neuroschistosomiasis Complicating Katayama Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1465-1466. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060113.
  • Epidemic Risk after Disasters PDF Version [PDF - 46 KB - 2 pages]
    J. Watson et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Watson J, Gayer M, Connolly MA. Epidemic Risk after Disasters. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1468-1469. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060500
    AMA Watson J, Gayer M, Connolly MA. Epidemic Risk after Disasters. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1468-1469. doi:10.3201/eid1209.060500.
    APA Watson, J., Gayer, M., & Connolly, M. A. (2006). Epidemic Risk after Disasters. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1468-1469. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060500.
  • Community-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus PDF Version [PDF - 56 KB - 6 pages]
    B. Hota and R. A. Weinstein
            Cite This Article
    EID Hota B, Weinstein RA. Community-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1469-1474. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060162
    AMA Hota B, Weinstein RA. Community-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1469-1474. doi:10.3201/eid1209.060162.
    APA Hota, B., & Weinstein, R. A. (2006). Community-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1469-1474. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060162.
  • Cryptosporidium felis Infection, Spain PDF Version [PDF - 43 KB - 2 pages]
    M. T. Llorente et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Llorente MT, Clavel A, Varea M, Goñi MP, Sahagún J, Olivera S, et al. Cryptosporidium felis Infection, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1471-1472. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060385
    AMA Llorente MT, Clavel A, Varea M, et al. Cryptosporidium felis Infection, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1471-1472. doi:10.3201/eid1209.060385.
    APA Llorente, M. T., Clavel, A., Varea, M., Goñi, M. P., Sahagún, J., & Olivera, S. (2006). Cryptosporidium felis Infection, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1471-1472. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060385.
  • Murine Typhus from Vietnam, Imported into Japan PDF Version [PDF - 62 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Azuma et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Azuma M, Nishioka Y, Ogawa M, Takasaki T, Sone S, Uchiyama T, et al. Murine Typhus from Vietnam, Imported into Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1466-1468. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060071
    AMA Azuma M, Nishioka Y, Ogawa M, et al. Murine Typhus from Vietnam, Imported into Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1466-1468. doi:10.3201/eid1209.060071.
    APA Azuma, M., Nishioka, Y., Ogawa, M., Takasaki, T., Sone, S., & Uchiyama, T. (2006). Murine Typhus from Vietnam, Imported into Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1466-1468. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060071.

Books and Media

  • The Access Principle: The Case for Open Access to Research and Scholarship
    M. Gwinn
            Cite This Article
    EID Gwinn M. The Access Principle: The Case for Open Access to Research and Scholarship. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1473. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060643
    AMA Gwinn M. The Access Principle: The Case for Open Access to Research and Scholarship. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1473. doi:10.3201/eid1209.060643.
    APA Gwinn, M. (2006). The Access Principle: The Case for Open Access to Research and Scholarship. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1473. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060643.

About the Cover

  • “He Who Dines with the Leopard Is Liable To Be Eaten” PDF Version [PDF - 50 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Potter
            Cite This Article
    EID Potter P. “He Who Dines with the Leopard Is Liable To Be Eaten”. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1474-1475. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.AC1209
    AMA Potter P. “He Who Dines with the Leopard Is Liable To Be Eaten”. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1474-1475. doi:10.3201/eid1209.AC1209.
    APA Potter, P. (2006). “He Who Dines with the Leopard Is Liable To Be Eaten”. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1474-1475. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.AC1209.

Etymologia

  • Etymologia: Trypanosoma PDF Version [PDF - 44 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID Etymologia: Trypanosoma. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1473. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.ET1209
    AMA Etymologia: Trypanosoma. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1473. doi:10.3201/eid1209.ET1209.
    APA (2006). Etymologia: Trypanosoma. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1473. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.ET1209.

Corrections

  • Correction, Vol. 10, No. 5 PDF Version [PDF - 20 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID Correction, Vol. 10, No. 5. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1472. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.C11209
    AMA Correction, Vol. 10, No. 5. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1472. doi:10.3201/eid1209.C11209.
    APA (2006). Correction, Vol. 10, No. 5. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1472. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.C11209.
  • Correction, Vol. 11, No. 6 PDF Version [PDF - 20 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID Correction, Vol. 11, No. 6. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1472. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.C21209
    AMA Correction, Vol. 11, No. 6. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1472. doi:10.3201/eid1209.C21209.
    APA (2006). Correction, Vol. 11, No. 6. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(9), 1472. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.C21209.
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