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Volume 14, Number 8—August 2008

Volume 14, Number 8—August 2008   PDF Version [PDF - 6.15 MB - 179 pages]

Perspective

  • Bacterial Pneumonia and Pandemic Influenza Planning PDF Version [PDF - 195 KB - 5 pages]
    R. K. Gupta et al.
        View Abstract

    Pandemic influenza planning is well under way across the globe. Antiviral drugs and vaccines have dominated the therapeutic agenda. Far less work has been conducted on stockpiling and planning for deployment of antimicrobial drugs against secondary bacterial pneumonia, a cause of substantial illness and death in previous pandemics and epidemics. In the event of a pandemic, effective antimicrobial drug measures are expected to substantially benefit public health. We address issues regarding use of antimicrobial drugs as stocks of individual agents are diminished and the role of resistance surveillance in informing such policy. Furthermore, vaccination with polysaccharide and conjugate pneumococcal vaccines is considered as part of a pandemic strategy. Most illness and death from influenza are likely to occur in developing countries, where neuraminidase inhibitors and vaccines may be neither affordable nor available; thus, compared with industrialized countries, the benefits of treating bacterial complications in developing countries may be substantially greater.

        Cite This Article
    EID Gupta RK, George RC, Nguyen-Van-Tam JS. Bacterial Pneumonia and Pandemic Influenza Planning. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1187-1192. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.070751
    AMA Gupta RK, George RC, Nguyen-Van-Tam JS. Bacterial Pneumonia and Pandemic Influenza Planning. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1187-1192. doi:10.3201/eid1408.070751.
    APA Gupta, R. K., George, R. C., & Nguyen-Van-Tam, J. S. (2008). Bacterial Pneumonia and Pandemic Influenza Planning. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1187-1192. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.070751.

Research

  • Diverse Contexts of Zoonotic Transmission of Simian Foamy Viruses in Asia PDF Version [PDF - 559 KB - 9 pages]
    L. Jones-Engel et al.
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    In Asia, contact between persons and nonhuman primates is widespread in multiple occupational and nonoccupational contexts. Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) are retroviruses that are prevalent in all species of nonhuman primates. To determine SFV prevalence in humans, we tested 305 persons who lived or worked around nonhuman primates in several South and Southeast Asian countries; 8 (2.6%) were confirmed SFV positive by Western blot and, for some, by PCR. The interspecies interactions that likely resulted in virus transmission were diverse; 5 macaque taxa were implicated as a potential source of infection. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SFV from 3 infected persons was similar to that from the nonhuman primate populations with which the infected persons reported contact. Thus, SFV infections are likely to be prevalent among persons who live or work near nonhuman primates in Asia.

        Cite This Article
    EID Jones-Engel L, May CC, Engel GA, Steinkraus KA, Schillaci MA, Fuentes A, et al. Diverse Contexts of Zoonotic Transmission of Simian Foamy Viruses in Asia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1200-1208. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.071430
    AMA Jones-Engel L, May CC, Engel GA, et al. Diverse Contexts of Zoonotic Transmission of Simian Foamy Viruses in Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1200-1208. doi:10.3201/eid1408.071430.
    APA Jones-Engel, L., May, C. C., Engel, G. A., Steinkraus, K. A., Schillaci, M. A., Fuentes, A....Linial, M. L. (2008). Diverse Contexts of Zoonotic Transmission of Simian Foamy Viruses in Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1200-1208. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.071430.
  • Puumala Hantavirus Excretion Kinetics in Bank Voles (Myodes glareolus) PDF Version [PDF - 329 KB - 7 pages]
    J. Hardestam et al.
        View Abstract

    Puumala hantavirus is present in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and is believed to be spread mainly by contaminated excretions. In this study, we subcutaneously inoculated 10 bank voles with Puumala virus and sampled excretions until day 133 postinfection. Levels of shed viral RNA peaked within 11–28, 14–21, and 11–28 days postinfection for saliva, urine, and feces, respectively. The latest detection of viral RNA was 84, 44, and 44 days postinfection in saliva, urine, and feces, respectively. In contrast, blood of 5 of 6 animals contained viral RNA at day 133 postinfection, suggesting that bank voles secrete virus only during a limited time of the infection. Intranasal inoculations with bank vole saliva, urine, or feces were all infectious for virus-negative bank voles, indicating that these 3 transmission routes may occur in nature and that rodent saliva might play a role in transmission to humans.

        Cite This Article
    EID Hardestam J, Karlsson M, Falk KI, Olsson G, Klingström J, Lundkvist Å, et al. Puumala Hantavirus Excretion Kinetics in Bank Voles (Myodes glareolus). Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1209-1215. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080221
    AMA Hardestam J, Karlsson M, Falk KI, et al. Puumala Hantavirus Excretion Kinetics in Bank Voles (Myodes glareolus). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1209-1215. doi:10.3201/eid1408.080221.
    APA Hardestam, J., Karlsson, M., Falk, K. I., Olsson, G., Klingström, J., & Lundkvist, Å. (2008). Puumala Hantavirus Excretion Kinetics in Bank Voles (Myodes glareolus). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1209-1215. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080221.
  • Community Strains of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus as Potential Cause of Healthcare-associated Infections, Uruguay, 2002–2004 PDF Version [PDF - 271 KB - 8 pages]
    S. R. Benoit et al.
        View Abstract

    Community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains have emerged in Uruguay. We reviewed Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a large healthcare facility in Montevideo (center A) and obtained information from 3 additional hospitals on patients infected with CA-MRSA. An infection was defined as healthcare-onset if the culture was obtained >48 hours after hospital admission. At center A, the proportion of S. aureus infections caused by CA-MRSA increased from 4% to 23% over 2 years; the proportion caused by healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) decreased from 25% to 5%. Of 182 patients infected with CA-MRSA, 38 (21%) had healthcare-onset infections. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis determined that 22 (92%) of 24 isolates were USA1100, a community strain. CA-MRSA has emerged in Uruguay and appears to have replaced HA-MRSA strains at 1 healthcare facility. In addition, CA-MRSA appears to cause healthcare-onset infections, a finding that emphasizes the need for infection control measures to prevent transmission within healthcare settings.

        Cite This Article
    EID Benoit SR, Estivariz C, Mogdasy C, Pedreira W, Galiana A, Galiana A, et al. Community Strains of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus as Potential Cause of Healthcare-associated Infections, Uruguay, 2002–2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1216-1223. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.071183
    AMA Benoit SR, Estivariz C, Mogdasy C, et al. Community Strains of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus as Potential Cause of Healthcare-associated Infections, Uruguay, 2002–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1216-1223. doi:10.3201/eid1408.071183.
    APA Benoit, S. R., Estivariz, C., Mogdasy, C., Pedreira, W., Galiana, A., Galiana, A....Jernigan, D. (2008). Community Strains of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus as Potential Cause of Healthcare-associated Infections, Uruguay, 2002–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1216-1223. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.071183.
  • Medscape CME Activity
    Systematic Literature Review of Role of Noroviruses in Sporadic Gastroenteritis PDF Version [PDF - 219 KB - 8 pages]
    M. M. Patel et al.
    View Summary

    Noroviruses accounted for 12% of severe gastroenteritis cases among children <5 years of age.

        View Abstract

    We conducted a systematic review of studies that used reverse transcription–PCR to diagnose norovirus (NoV) infections in patients with mild or moderate (outpatient) and severe (hospitalized) diarrhea. NoVs accounted for 12% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10%–15%) of severe gastroenteritis cases among children <5 years of age and 12% (95% CI 9%–15%) of mild and moderate diarrhea cases among persons of all ages. Of 19 studies among children <5 years of age, 7 were in developing countries where pooled prevalence of severe NoV disease (12%) was comparable to that for industrialized countries (12%). We estimate that each year NoVs cause 64,000 episodes of diarrhea requiring hospitalization and 900,000 clinic visits among children in industrialized countries, and up to 200,000 deaths of children <5 years of age in developing countries. Future efforts should focus on developing targeted strategies, possibly even vaccines, for preventing NoV disease and better documenting their impact among children living in developing countries, where >95% of the deaths from diarrhea occur.

        Cite This Article
    EID Patel MM, Widdowson M, Glass RI, Akazawa K, Vinjé J, Parashar UD, et al. Systematic Literature Review of Role of Noroviruses in Sporadic Gastroenteritis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1224-1231. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.071114
    AMA Patel MM, Widdowson M, Glass RI, et al. Systematic Literature Review of Role of Noroviruses in Sporadic Gastroenteritis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1224-1231. doi:10.3201/eid1408.071114.
    APA Patel, M. M., Widdowson, M., Glass, R. I., Akazawa, K., Vinjé, J., & Parashar, U. D. (2008). Systematic Literature Review of Role of Noroviruses in Sporadic Gastroenteritis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1224-1231. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.071114.
  • Genetic and Serologic Properties of Zika Virus Associated with an Epidemic, Yap State, Micronesia, 2007 PDF Version [PDF - 198 KB - 8 pages]
    R. S. Lanciotti et al.
        View Abstract

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda from a sentinel monkey in 1947. Mosquito and sentinel animal surveillance studies have demonstrated that ZIKV is endemic to Africa and Southeast Asia, yet reported human cases are rare, with <10 cases reported in the literature. In June 2007, an epidemic of fever and rash associated with ZIKV was detected in Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia. We report the genetic and serologic properties of the ZIKV associated with this epidemic.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lanciotti RS, Kosoy OL, Laven JJ, Velez JO, Lambert AJ, Johnson AJ, et al. Genetic and Serologic Properties of Zika Virus Associated with an Epidemic, Yap State, Micronesia, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1232-1239. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080287
    AMA Lanciotti RS, Kosoy OL, Laven JJ, et al. Genetic and Serologic Properties of Zika Virus Associated with an Epidemic, Yap State, Micronesia, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1232-1239. doi:10.3201/eid1408.080287.
    APA Lanciotti, R. S., Kosoy, O. L., Laven, J. J., Velez, J. O., Lambert, A. J., Johnson, A. J....Duffy, M. R. (2008). Genetic and Serologic Properties of Zika Virus Associated with an Epidemic, Yap State, Micronesia, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1232-1239. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080287.
  • Interepidemic Rift Valley Fever Virus Seropositivity, Northeastern Kenya PDF Version [PDF - 187 KB - 7 pages]
    A. D. LaBeaud et al.
        View Abstract

    Most outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF) occur in remote locations after floods. To determine environmental risk factors and long-term sequelae of human RVF, we examined rates of previous Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) exposure by age and location during an interepidemic period in 2006. In a randomized household cluster survey in 2 areas of Ijara District, Kenya, we examined 248 residents of 2 sublocations, Gumarey (village) and Sogan-Godud (town). Overall, the RVFV seropositivity rate was 13% according to immunoglobulin G ELISA; evidence of interepidemic RVFV transmission was detected. Increased seropositivity was found among older persons, those who were male, those who lived in the rural village (Gumarey), and those who had disposed of animal abortus. Rural Gumarey reported more mosquito and animal exposure than Sogan-Godud. Seropositive persons were more likely to have visual impairment and retinal lesions; other physical findings did not differ.

        Cite This Article
    EID LaBeaud AD, Muchiri EM, Ndzovu M, Mwanje MT, Muiruri S, Peters CJ, et al. Interepidemic Rift Valley Fever Virus Seropositivity, Northeastern Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1240-1246. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080082
    AMA LaBeaud AD, Muchiri EM, Ndzovu M, et al. Interepidemic Rift Valley Fever Virus Seropositivity, Northeastern Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1240-1246. doi:10.3201/eid1408.080082.
    APA LaBeaud, A. D., Muchiri, E. M., Ndzovu, M., Mwanje, M. T., Muiruri, S., Peters, C. J....King, C. H. (2008). Interepidemic Rift Valley Fever Virus Seropositivity, Northeastern Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1240-1246. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080082.
  • Aquatic Invertebrates as Unlikely Vectors of Buruli Ulcer Disease PDF Version [PDF - 397 KB - 8 pages]
    M. E. Benbow et al.
        View Abstract

    Buruli ulcer is a necrotizing skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans and associated with exposure to aquatic habitats. To assess possible transmission of M. ulcerans by aquatic biting insects, we conducted a field examination of biting water bugs (Hemiptera: Naucoridae, Belostomatidae, Nepidae) in 15 disease-endemic and 12 non–disease-endemic areas of Ghana, Africa. From collections of 22,832 invertebrates, we compared composition, abundance, and associated M. ulcerans positivity among sites. Biting hemipterans were rare and represented a small percentage (usually <2%) of invertebrate communities. No significant differences were found in hemipteran abundance or pathogen positivity between disease-endemic and non–disease-endemic sites, and between abundance of biting hemipterans and M. ulcerans positivity. Therefore, although infection through insect bites is possible, little field evidence supports the assumption that biting hemipterans are primary vectors of M. ulcerans.

        Cite This Article
    EID Benbow ME, Williamson H, Kimbirauskas R, McIntosh MD, Kolar R, Quaye C, et al. Aquatic Invertebrates as Unlikely Vectors of Buruli Ulcer Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1247-1254. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.071503
    AMA Benbow ME, Williamson H, Kimbirauskas R, et al. Aquatic Invertebrates as Unlikely Vectors of Buruli Ulcer Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1247-1254. doi:10.3201/eid1408.071503.
    APA Benbow, M. E., Williamson, H., Kimbirauskas, R., McIntosh, M. D., Kolar, R., Quaye, C....Merritt, R. W. (2008). Aquatic Invertebrates as Unlikely Vectors of Buruli Ulcer Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1247-1254. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.071503.

Historical Review

  • Deaths from Bacterial Pneumonia during 1918–19 Influenza Pandemic PDF Version [PDF - 138 KB - 7 pages]
    J. F. Brundage and G. Shanks
        View Abstract

    Deaths during the 1918–19 influenza pandemic have been attributed to a hypervirulent influenza strain. Hence, preparations for the next pandemic focus almost exclusively on vaccine prevention and antiviral treatment for infections with a novel influenza strain. However, we hypothesize that infections with the pandemic strain generally caused self-limited (rarely fatal) illnesses that enabled colonizing strains of bacteria to produce highly lethal pneumonias. This sequential-infection hypothesis is consistent with characteristics of the 1918–19 pandemic, contemporaneous expert opinion, and current knowledge regarding the pathophysiologic effects of influenza viruses and their interactions with respiratory bacteria. This hypothesis suggests opportunities for prevention and treatment during the next pandemic (e.g., with bacterial vaccines and antimicrobial drugs), particularly if a pandemic strain–specific vaccine is unavailable or inaccessible to isolated, crowded, or medically underserved populations.

        Cite This Article
    EID Brundage JF, Shanks G. Deaths from Bacterial Pneumonia during 1918–19 Influenza Pandemic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1193-1199. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.071313
    AMA Brundage JF, Shanks G. Deaths from Bacterial Pneumonia during 1918–19 Influenza Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1193-1199. doi:10.3201/eid1408.071313.
    APA Brundage, J. F., & Shanks, G. (2008). Deaths from Bacterial Pneumonia during 1918–19 Influenza Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1193-1199. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.071313.

Dispatches

  • Cutaneous Infrared Thermometry for Detecting Febrile Patients PDF Version [PDF - 420 KB - 4 pages]
    P. Hausfater et al.
        View Abstract

    We assessed the accuracy of cutaneous infrared thermometry, which measures temperature on the forehead, for detecting patients with fever in patients admitted to an emergency department. Although negative predictive value was excellent (0.99), positive predictive value was low (0.10). Therefore, we question mass detection of febrile patients by using this method.

        Cite This Article
    EID Hausfater P, Zhao Y, Defrenne S, Bonnet P, Riou B. Cutaneous Infrared Thermometry for Detecting Febrile Patients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1255-1258. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080059
    AMA Hausfater P, Zhao Y, Defrenne S, et al. Cutaneous Infrared Thermometry for Detecting Febrile Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1255-1258. doi:10.3201/eid1408.080059.
    APA Hausfater, P., Zhao, Y., Defrenne, S., Bonnet, P., & Riou, B. (2008). Cutaneous Infrared Thermometry for Detecting Febrile Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1255-1258. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080059.
  • Increased Amoxicillin–Clavulanic Acid Resistance in Escherichia coli Blood Isolates, Spain PDF Version [PDF - 384 KB - 4 pages]
    J. Oteo et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine the evolution and trends of amoxicillin–clavulanic acid resistance among Escherichia coli isolates in Spain, we tested 9,090 blood isolates from 42 Spanish hospitals and compared resistance with trends in outpatient consumption. These isolates were collected by Spanish hospitals that participated in the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System network from April 2003 through December 2006.

        Cite This Article
    EID Oteo J, Campos J, Lázaro E, Cuevas Ó, García-Cobos S, Pérez-Vázquez M, et al. Increased Amoxicillin–Clavulanic Acid Resistance in Escherichia coli Blood Isolates, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1259-1262. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.071059
    AMA Oteo J, Campos J, Lázaro E, et al. Increased Amoxicillin–Clavulanic Acid Resistance in Escherichia coli Blood Isolates, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1259-1262. doi:10.3201/eid1408.071059.
    APA Oteo, J., Campos, J., Lázaro, E., Cuevas, Ó., García-Cobos, S., Pérez-Vázquez, M.... (2008). Increased Amoxicillin–Clavulanic Acid Resistance in Escherichia coli Blood Isolates, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1259-1262. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.071059.
  • Endemic Circulation of European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 in Serotine Bats, Spain PDF Version [PDF - 277 KB - 4 pages]
    S. Vázquez-Morón et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine the presence of European bat lyssavirus type 1 in southern Spain, we studied 19 colonies of serotine bats (Eptesicus isabellinus), its main reservoir, during 1998–2003. Viral genome and antibodies were detected in healthy bats, which suggests subclinical infection. The different temporal patterns of circulation found in each colony indicate independent endemic circulation.

        Cite This Article
    EID Vázquez-Morón S, Juste J, Ibáñez C, Ruiz-Villamor E, Avellón A, Vera M, et al. Endemic Circulation of European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 in Serotine Bats, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1263-1266. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080068
    AMA Vázquez-Morón S, Juste J, Ibáñez C, et al. Endemic Circulation of European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 in Serotine Bats, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1263-1266. doi:10.3201/eid1408.080068.
    APA Vázquez-Morón, S., Juste, J., Ibáñez, C., Ruiz-Villamor, E., Avellón, A., Vera, M....Echevarría, J. E. (2008). Endemic Circulation of European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 in Serotine Bats, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1263-1266. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080068.
  • Pathogenicity of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Adult Mute Swans PDF Version [PDF - 357 KB - 4 pages]
    D. Kalthoff et al.
        View Abstract

    Adult, healthy mute swans were experimentally infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/Cygnus cygnus/Germany/R65/2006 subtype H5N1. Immunologically naive birds died, whereas animals with preexisting, naturally acquired avian influenza virus–specific antibodies became infected asymptomatically and shed virus. Adult mute swans are highly susceptible, excrete virus, and can be clinically protected by preexposure immunity.

        Cite This Article
    EID Kalthoff D, Breithaupt A, Teifke JP, Globig A, Harder T, Mettenleiter TC, et al. Pathogenicity of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Adult Mute Swans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1267-1270. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080078
    AMA Kalthoff D, Breithaupt A, Teifke JP, et al. Pathogenicity of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Adult Mute Swans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1267-1270. doi:10.3201/eid1408.080078.
    APA Kalthoff, D., Breithaupt, A., Teifke, J. P., Globig, A., Harder, T., Mettenleiter, T. C....Beer, M. (2008). Pathogenicity of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Adult Mute Swans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1267-1270. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080078.
  • Infection with Panton-Valentine Leukocidin–Positive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus t034 PDF Version [PDF - 134 KB - 2 pages]
    C. Welinder-Olsson et al.
        View Abstract

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)–positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), sequence type 398 is believed to be of animal origin. We report 2 cases of infection due to PVL–positive MRSA, spa type t034, in patients in Sweden who had had no animal contact.

        Cite This Article
    EID Welinder-Olsson C, Florén-Johansson K, Larsson L, Öberg S, Karlsson L, Åhrén C, et al. Infection with Panton-Valentine Leukocidin–Positive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus t034. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1271-1272. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.071427
    AMA Welinder-Olsson C, Florén-Johansson K, Larsson L, et al. Infection with Panton-Valentine Leukocidin–Positive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus t034. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1271-1272. doi:10.3201/eid1408.071427.
    APA Welinder-Olsson, C., Florén-Johansson, K., Larsson, L., Öberg, S., Karlsson, L., & Åhrén, C. (2008). Infection with Panton-Valentine Leukocidin–Positive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus t034. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1271-1272. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.071427.
  • Identification of Residual Blood Proteins in Ticks by Mass Spectrometry Proteomics PDF Version [PDF - 176 KB - 3 pages]
    S. Wickramasekara et al.
        View Abstract

    Mass spectrometry–based proteomics of individual ticks demonstrated persistence of mammalian host blood components, including α- and β-globin chains, histones, and mitochondrial enzymes, in Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum ticks for months after molting. Residual host proteins may identify sources of infection for ticks.

        Cite This Article
    EID Wickramasekara S, Bunikis J, Wysocki V, Barbour AG. Identification of Residual Blood Proteins in Ticks by Mass Spectrometry Proteomics. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1273-1275. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080227
    AMA Wickramasekara S, Bunikis J, Wysocki V, et al. Identification of Residual Blood Proteins in Ticks by Mass Spectrometry Proteomics. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1273-1275. doi:10.3201/eid1408.080227.
    APA Wickramasekara, S., Bunikis, J., Wysocki, V., & Barbour, A. G. (2008). Identification of Residual Blood Proteins in Ticks by Mass Spectrometry Proteomics. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1273-1275. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080227.
  • Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Banna Virus from Mosquitoes, Vietnam PDF Version [PDF - 281 KB - 4 pages]
    T. Nabeshima et al.
        View Abstract

    We isolated and characterized a Banna virus from mosquitoes in Vietnam; 5 strains were isolated from field-caught mosquitoes at various locations; Banna virus was previously isolated from encephalitis patients in Yunnan, China, in 1987. Together, these findings suggest widespread distribution of this virus throughout Southeast Asia.

        Cite This Article
    EID Nabeshima T, Nga PT, Guillermo P, Parquet Md, Yu F, Thuy NT, et al. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Banna Virus from Mosquitoes, Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1276-1279. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080100
    AMA Nabeshima T, Nga PT, Guillermo P, et al. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Banna Virus from Mosquitoes, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1276-1279. doi:10.3201/eid1408.080100.
    APA Nabeshima, T., Nga, P. T., Guillermo, P., Parquet, M. d., Yu, F., Thuy, N. T....Morita, K. (2008). Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Banna Virus from Mosquitoes, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1276-1279. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080100.
  • Oseltamivir Prescribing in Pharmacy-Benefits Database, United States, 2004–2005 PDF Version [PDF - 215 KB - 4 pages]
    J. R. Ortiz et al.
        View Abstract

    We reviewed information from a US pharmacy benefits manager database from 2004 through 2005 during periods with little influenza activity. We calculated rates of oseltamivir prescriptions to enrollees. Prescription rates increased significantly from 27.3/100,000 in 2004 to 134/100,000 in 2005 (p<0.05), which suggested that personal stockpiling of oseltamivir occurred.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ortiz JR, Kamimoto L, Aubert RE, Yao J, Shay DK, Bresee JS, et al. Oseltamivir Prescribing in Pharmacy-Benefits Database, United States, 2004–2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1280-1283. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080074
    AMA Ortiz JR, Kamimoto L, Aubert RE, et al. Oseltamivir Prescribing in Pharmacy-Benefits Database, United States, 2004–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1280-1283. doi:10.3201/eid1408.080074.
    APA Ortiz, J. R., Kamimoto, L., Aubert, R. E., Yao, J., Shay, D. K., Bresee, J. S....Epstein, R. S. (2008). Oseltamivir Prescribing in Pharmacy-Benefits Database, United States, 2004–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1280-1283. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080074.
  • Cluster of Falciparum Malaria Cases in UK Airport PDF Version [PDF - 173 KB - 3 pages]
    A. J. Rodger et al.
        View Abstract

    A cluster of 6 cases of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in a UK airport among 30 travelers returning to the United States from East Africa. Molecular genotyping analysis indicated that all had been exposed to different parasites. The travelers’ use of chemoprophylaxis was poor; their perception of risk was limited.

        Cite This Article
    EID Rodger AJ, Cooke GS, Ord R, Sutherland CJ, Pasvol G. Cluster of Falciparum Malaria Cases in UK Airport. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1284-1286. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080031
    AMA Rodger AJ, Cooke GS, Ord R, et al. Cluster of Falciparum Malaria Cases in UK Airport. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1284-1286. doi:10.3201/eid1408.080031.
    APA Rodger, A. J., Cooke, G. S., Ord, R., Sutherland, C. J., & Pasvol, G. (2008). Cluster of Falciparum Malaria Cases in UK Airport. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1284-1286. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080031.
  • Analysis of Collection of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome–associated Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli PDF Version [PDF - 142 KB - 4 pages]
    A. Mellmann et al.
        View Abstract

    Multilocus sequence typing of 169 non-O157 enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) isolated from patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) demonstrated 29 different sequence types (STs); 78.1% of these strains clustered in 5 STs. From all STs and serotypes identified, we established a reference panel of EHEC associated with HUS (HUSEC collection).

        Cite This Article
    EID Mellmann A, Bielaszewska M, Köck R, Friedrich AW, Fruth A, Middendorf B, et al. Analysis of Collection of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome–associated Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1287-1290. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.071082
    AMA Mellmann A, Bielaszewska M, Köck R, et al. Analysis of Collection of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome–associated Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1287-1290. doi:10.3201/eid1408.071082.
    APA Mellmann, A., Bielaszewska, M., Köck, R., Friedrich, A. W., Fruth, A., Middendorf, B....Karch, H. (2008). Analysis of Collection of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome–associated Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1287-1290. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.071082.
  • Virus Transfer from Personal Protective Equipment to Healthcare Employees’ Skin and Clothing PDF Version [PDF - 181 KB - 3 pages]
    L. Casanova et al.
        View Abstract

    We evaluated a personal protective equipment removal protocol designed to minimize wearer contamination with pathogens. Following this protocol often resulted in virus transfer to hands and clothing. An altered protocol or other measures are needed to prevent healthcare worker contamination.

        Cite This Article
    EID Casanova L, Alfano-Sobsey E, Rutala WA, Weber DJ, Sobsey M. Virus Transfer from Personal Protective Equipment to Healthcare Employees’ Skin and Clothing. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1291-1293. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080085
    AMA Casanova L, Alfano-Sobsey E, Rutala WA, et al. Virus Transfer from Personal Protective Equipment to Healthcare Employees’ Skin and Clothing. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1291-1293. doi:10.3201/eid1408.080085.
    APA Casanova, L., Alfano-Sobsey, E., Rutala, W. A., Weber, D. J., & Sobsey, M. (2008). Virus Transfer from Personal Protective Equipment to Healthcare Employees’ Skin and Clothing. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1291-1293. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080085.
  • Rickettsia felis in Fleas, Germany PDF Version [PDF - 168 KB - 3 pages]
    J. Gilles et al.
        View Abstract

    Among 310 fleas collected from dogs and cats in Germany, Rickettsia felis was detected in all specimens (34) of Archaeopsylla erinacei (hedgehog flea) and in 9% (24/226) of Ctenocephalides felis felis (cat flea). R. helvetica was detected in 1 Ceratophyllus gallinae (hen flea).

        Cite This Article
    EID Gilles J, Just FT, Silaghi C, Pradel I, Passos LM, Lengauer H, et al. Rickettsia felis in Fleas, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1294-1296. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.071546
    AMA Gilles J, Just FT, Silaghi C, et al. Rickettsia felis in Fleas, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1294-1296. doi:10.3201/eid1408.071546.
    APA Gilles, J., Just, F. T., Silaghi, C., Pradel, I., Passos, L. M., Lengauer, H....Pfister, K. (2008). Rickettsia felis in Fleas, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1294-1296. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.071546.
  • Macrolide-Resistant Shigella sonnei PDF Version [PDF - 193 KB - 3 pages]
    L. Boumghar-Bourtchai et al.
        View Abstract

    Shigella sonnei UCN59, isolated during an outbreak of S. sonnei in January 2007, was resistant to azithromycin (MIC 64 mg/L). The isolate contained a plasmid-borne mph(A) gene encoding a macrolide 2′-phosphotransferase that inactivates macrolides. Emergence of the mph(A) gene in S. sonnei may limit usefulness of azithromycin for treatment of shigellosis.

        Cite This Article
    EID Boumghar-Bourtchai L, Mariani-Kurkdjian P, Bingen E, Filliol I, Dhalluin A, Ifrane SA, et al. Macrolide-Resistant Shigella sonnei. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1297-1299. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080147
    AMA Boumghar-Bourtchai L, Mariani-Kurkdjian P, Bingen E, et al. Macrolide-Resistant Shigella sonnei. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1297-1299. doi:10.3201/eid1408.080147.
    APA Boumghar-Bourtchai, L., Mariani-Kurkdjian, P., Bingen, E., Filliol, I., Dhalluin, A., Ifrane, S. A....Leclercq, R. (2008). Macrolide-Resistant Shigella sonnei. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1297-1299. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080147.
  • Genotyping Rickettsia prowazekii Isolates PDF Version [PDF - 150 KB - 3 pages]
    Y. Zhu et al.
        View Abstract

    We developed a typing method that can differentiate 8 strains of Rickettsia prowazekii into 7 genotypes. This method can be used to type and trace the origin of R. prowazekii isolated from samples collected during epidemics after a bioterrorism attack.

        Cite This Article
    EID Zhu Y, Medina-Sanchez A, Bouyer DH, Walker DH, Zhao L. Genotyping Rickettsia prowazekii Isolates. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1300-1302. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080444
    AMA Zhu Y, Medina-Sanchez A, Bouyer DH, et al. Genotyping Rickettsia prowazekii Isolates. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1300-1302. doi:10.3201/eid1408.080444.
    APA Zhu, Y., Medina-Sanchez, A., Bouyer, D. H., Walker, D. H., & Zhao, L. (2008). Genotyping Rickettsia prowazekii Isolates. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1300-1302. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080444.
  • Environmental Contamination during Influenza A Virus (H5N1) Outbreaks, Cambodia, 2006 PDF Version [PDF - 234 KB - 3 pages]
    S. Vong et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine potential risk for bird-to-human transmission during influenza A virus (H5N1) outbreaks among backyard poultry in rural Cambodia, we collected environmental specimens. Viral RNA was detected in 27 (35%) of 77 specimens of mud, pond water, water plants, and soil swabs. Our results underscore the need for regular disinfection of poultry areas.

        Cite This Article
    EID Vong S, Ly S, Mardy S, Holl D, Buchy P. Environmental Contamination during Influenza A Virus (H5N1) Outbreaks, Cambodia, 2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1303-1305. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.070912
    AMA Vong S, Ly S, Mardy S, et al. Environmental Contamination during Influenza A Virus (H5N1) Outbreaks, Cambodia, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1303-1305. doi:10.3201/eid1408.070912.
    APA Vong, S., Ly, S., Mardy, S., Holl, D., & Buchy, P. (2008). Environmental Contamination during Influenza A Virus (H5N1) Outbreaks, Cambodia, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1303-1305. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.070912.
  • Detection and Molecular Characterization of a Canine Norovirus PDF Version [PDF - 176 KB - 3 pages]
    V. Martella et al.
        View Abstract

    We identified a novel calicivirus in a pup with enteritis. The isolate was related genetically (90.1% aa identity in the capsid protein) to a lion norovirus strain.

        Cite This Article
    EID Martella V, Lorusso E, Decaro N, Elia G, Radogna A, D’Abramo M, et al. Detection and Molecular Characterization of a Canine Norovirus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1306-1308. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080062
    AMA Martella V, Lorusso E, Decaro N, et al. Detection and Molecular Characterization of a Canine Norovirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1306-1308. doi:10.3201/eid1408.080062.
    APA Martella, V., Lorusso, E., Decaro, N., Elia, G., Radogna, A., D’Abramo, M....Buonavoglia, C. (2008). Detection and Molecular Characterization of a Canine Norovirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1306-1308. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080062.
  • Henipavirus Infection in Fruit Bats (Pteropus giganteus), India PDF Version [PDF - 124 KB - 2 pages]
    J. H. Epstein et al.
        View Abstract

    We tested 41 bats for antibodies against Nipah and Hendra viruses to determine whether henipaviruses circulate in pteropid fruit bats (Pteropus giganteus) in northern India. Twenty bats were seropositive for Nipah virus, which suggests circulation in this species, thereby extending the known distribution of henipaviruses in Asia westward by >1,000 km.

        Cite This Article
    EID Epstein JH, Prakash V, Smith CS, Daszak P, McLaughlin AB, Meehan G, et al. Henipavirus Infection in Fruit Bats (Pteropus giganteus), India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1309-1311. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.071492
    AMA Epstein JH, Prakash V, Smith CS, et al. Henipavirus Infection in Fruit Bats (Pteropus giganteus), India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1309-1311. doi:10.3201/eid1408.071492.
    APA Epstein, J. H., Prakash, V., Smith, C. S., Daszak, P., McLaughlin, A. B., Meehan, G....Cunningham, A. A. (2008). Henipavirus Infection in Fruit Bats (Pteropus giganteus), India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1309-1311. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.071492.

Letters

  • Pediatric Pneumonia Death Caused by Community-acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Japan PDF Version [PDF - 140 KB - 3 pages]
    T. Ito et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Ito T, Iijima M, Fukushima T, Nonoyama M, Ishii M, Baranovich T, et al. Pediatric Pneumonia Death Caused by Community-acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1312-1314. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.070391
    AMA Ito T, Iijima M, Fukushima T, et al. Pediatric Pneumonia Death Caused by Community-acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1312-1314. doi:10.3201/eid1408.070391.
    APA Ito, T., Iijima, M., Fukushima, T., Nonoyama, M., Ishii, M., Baranovich, T....Yamamoto, T. (2008). Pediatric Pneumonia Death Caused by Community-acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1312-1314. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.070391.
  • Rarity of Influenza A Virus in Spring Shorebirds, Southern Alaska PDF Version [PDF - 152 KB - 3 pages]
    K. Winker et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Winker K, Spackman E, Swayne DE. Rarity of Influenza A Virus in Spring Shorebirds, Southern Alaska. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1314-1316. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080083
    AMA Winker K, Spackman E, Swayne DE. Rarity of Influenza A Virus in Spring Shorebirds, Southern Alaska. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1314-1316. doi:10.3201/eid1408.080083.
    APA Winker, K., Spackman, E., & Swayne, D. E. (2008). Rarity of Influenza A Virus in Spring Shorebirds, Southern Alaska. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1314-1316. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080083.
  • Isolation of Brucella microti from Soil PDF Version [PDF - 133 KB - 2 pages]
    H. C. Scholz et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Scholz HC, Hubalek Z, Nesvadbova J, Tomaso H, Vergnaud G, Le Flèche P, et al. Isolation of Brucella microti from Soil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1316-1317. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080286
    AMA Scholz HC, Hubalek Z, Nesvadbova J, et al. Isolation of Brucella microti from Soil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1316-1317. doi:10.3201/eid1408.080286.
    APA Scholz, H. C., Hubalek, Z., Nesvadbova, J., Tomaso, H., Vergnaud, G., Le Flèche, P....Pfeffer, M. (2008). Isolation of Brucella microti from Soil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1316-1317. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080286.
  • Plasmodium falciparum in Ancient Egypt PDF Version [PDF - 139 KB - 3 pages]
    A. G. Nerlich et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Nerlich AG, Schraut B, Dittrich S, Jelinek T, Zink AR. Plasmodium falciparum in Ancient Egypt. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1317-1319. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080235
    AMA Nerlich AG, Schraut B, Dittrich S, et al. Plasmodium falciparum in Ancient Egypt. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1317-1319. doi:10.3201/eid1408.080235.
    APA Nerlich, A. G., Schraut, B., Dittrich, S., Jelinek, T., & Zink, A. R. (2008). Plasmodium falciparum in Ancient Egypt. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1317-1319. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080235.
  • Brucellosis in Infant after Familial Outbreak PDF Version [PDF - 105 KB - 2 pages]
    A. C. Makis et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Makis AC, Pappas G, Galanakis E, Haliasos N, Siamopoulou A. Brucellosis in Infant after Familial Outbreak. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1319-1320. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080325
    AMA Makis AC, Pappas G, Galanakis E, et al. Brucellosis in Infant after Familial Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1319-1320. doi:10.3201/eid1408.080325.
    APA Makis, A. C., Pappas, G., Galanakis, E., Haliasos, N., & Siamopoulou, A. (2008). Brucellosis in Infant after Familial Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1319-1320. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080325.
  • Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 1, Cuba PDF Version [PDF - 131 KB - 3 pages]
    M. d. Villalba et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Villalba Md, Lay Ld, Chandra V, Corredor MB, Frometa SS, Moreno AG, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 1, Cuba. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1320-1322. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080049
    AMA Villalba Md, Lay Ld, Chandra V, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 1, Cuba. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1320-1322. doi:10.3201/eid1408.080049.
    APA Villalba, M. d., Lay, L. d., Chandra, V., Corredor, M. B., Frometa, S. S., Moreno, A. G....Jameel, S. (2008). Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 1, Cuba. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1320-1322. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080049.
  • Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Neisseria meningitidis, France PDF Version [PDF - 117 KB - 2 pages]
    A. Skoczynska et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Skoczynska A, Alonso J, Taha M. Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Neisseria meningitidis, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1322-1323. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080040
    AMA Skoczynska A, Alonso J, Taha M. Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Neisseria meningitidis, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1322-1323. doi:10.3201/eid1408.080040.
    APA Skoczynska, A., Alonso, J., & Taha, M. (2008). Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Neisseria meningitidis, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1322-1323. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080040.
  • Rare Cryptosporidium hominis Subtype Associated with Aquatic Center Use PDF Version [PDF - 123 KB - 3 pages]
    C. S. Ong et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Ong CS, Chow S, Gustafson R, Plohman C, Parker R, Isaac-Renton JL, et al. Rare Cryptosporidium hominis Subtype Associated with Aquatic Center Use. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1323-1325. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080115
    AMA Ong CS, Chow S, Gustafson R, et al. Rare Cryptosporidium hominis Subtype Associated with Aquatic Center Use. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1323-1325. doi:10.3201/eid1408.080115.
    APA Ong, C. S., Chow, S., Gustafson, R., Plohman, C., Parker, R., Isaac-Renton, J. L....Fyfe, M. W. (2008). Rare Cryptosporidium hominis Subtype Associated with Aquatic Center Use. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1323-1325. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080115.
  • Two Imported Chikungunya Cases, Taiwan PDF Version [PDF - 131 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Shu et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Shu P, Yang C, Su C, Chen C, Chang S, Tsai K, et al. Two Imported Chikungunya Cases, Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1325-1326. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.071304
    AMA Shu P, Yang C, Su C, et al. Two Imported Chikungunya Cases, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1325-1326. doi:10.3201/eid1408.071304.
    APA Shu, P., Yang, C., Su, C., Chen, C., Chang, S., Tsai, K....Huang, J. (2008). Two Imported Chikungunya Cases, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1325-1326. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.071304.
  • Chikungunya-related Fatality Rates, Mauritius, India, and Reunion Island PDF Version [PDF - 105 KB - 1 page]
    P. Renault et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Renault P, Josseran L, Pierre V. Chikungunya-related Fatality Rates, Mauritius, India, and Reunion Island. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1327. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080201
    AMA Renault P, Josseran L, Pierre V. Chikungunya-related Fatality Rates, Mauritius, India, and Reunion Island. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1327. doi:10.3201/eid1408.080201.
    APA Renault, P., Josseran, L., & Pierre, V. (2008). Chikungunya-related Fatality Rates, Mauritius, India, and Reunion Island. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1327. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080201.
  • Aquaculture and Florfenicol Resistance in Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104 PDF Version [PDF - 119 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Smith
            Cite This Article
    EID Smith P. Aquaculture and Florfenicol Resistance in Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1327-1328. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080329
    AMA Smith P. Aquaculture and Florfenicol Resistance in Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1327-1328. doi:10.3201/eid1408.080329.
    APA Smith, P. (2008). Aquaculture and Florfenicol Resistance in Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1327-1328. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080329.
  • Imported Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Europe PDF Version [PDF - 132 KB - 2 pages]
    M. J. Delgado et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Delgado MJ, Gutierrez JM, Radic LB, Maretic T, Zekan S, Avšič-Županc T, et al. Imported Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1329-1330. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080032
    AMA Delgado MJ, Gutierrez JM, Radic LB, et al. Imported Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1329-1330. doi:10.3201/eid1408.080032.
    APA Delgado, M. J., Gutierrez, J. M., Radic, L. B., Maretic, T., Zekan, S., Avšič-Županc, T....Brustenga, J. G. (2008). Imported Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1329-1330. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080032.
  • Mycobacterium setense Infection in Humans PDF Version [PDF - 179 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Toro et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Toro A, Adekambi T, Cheynet F, Fournier P, Drancourt M. Mycobacterium setense Infection in Humans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1330-1332. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080179
    AMA Toro A, Adekambi T, Cheynet F, et al. Mycobacterium setense Infection in Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1330-1332. doi:10.3201/eid1408.080179.
    APA Toro, A., Adekambi, T., Cheynet, F., Fournier, P., & Drancourt, M. (2008). Mycobacterium setense Infection in Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1330-1332. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080179.
  • Human Bocavirus in Tonsillar Lymphocytes PDF Version [PDF - 115 KB - 3 pages]
    X. Lu et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Lu X, Gooding LR, Erdman DD. Human Bocavirus in Tonsillar Lymphocytes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1332-1334. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080300
    AMA Lu X, Gooding LR, Erdman DD. Human Bocavirus in Tonsillar Lymphocytes. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1332-1334. doi:10.3201/eid1408.080300.
    APA Lu, X., Gooding, L. R., & Erdman, D. D. (2008). Human Bocavirus in Tonsillar Lymphocytes. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1332-1334. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080300.
  • Assessment of Reporting Bias for Clostridium difficile Hospitalizations, United States PDF Version [PDF - 137 KB - 1 page]
    M. D. Zilberberg
            Cite This Article
    EID Zilberberg MD. Assessment of Reporting Bias for Clostridium difficile Hospitalizations, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1334. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080446
    AMA Zilberberg MD. Assessment of Reporting Bias for Clostridium difficile Hospitalizations, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1334. doi:10.3201/eid1408.080446.
    APA Zilberberg, M. D. (2008). Assessment of Reporting Bias for Clostridium difficile Hospitalizations, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1334. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080446.
  • Improving Methods for Reporting Spatial Epidemiologic Data PDF Version [PDF - 149 KB - 3 pages]
    A. T. Peterson
            Cite This Article
    EID Peterson AT. Improving Methods for Reporting Spatial Epidemiologic Data. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1335-1337. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080145
    AMA Peterson AT. Improving Methods for Reporting Spatial Epidemiologic Data. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1335-1337. doi:10.3201/eid1408.080145.
    APA Peterson, A. T. (2008). Improving Methods for Reporting Spatial Epidemiologic Data. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1335-1337. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080145.

Books and Media

  • Wolbachia: A Bug’s Life in Another Bug PDF Version [PDF - 145 KB - 1 page]
    D. Raoult
            Cite This Article
    EID Raoult D. Wolbachia: A Bug’s Life in Another Bug. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1338. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080497
    AMA Raoult D. Wolbachia: A Bug’s Life in Another Bug. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1338. doi:10.3201/eid1408.080497.
    APA Raoult, D. (2008). Wolbachia: A Bug’s Life in Another Bug. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1338. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080497.

About the Cover

  • “The Rainbow at the Edge of the Shadow of the Egg” PDF Version [PDF - 160 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Potter
            Cite This Article
    EID Potter P. “The Rainbow at the Edge of the Shadow of the Egg”. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1339-1340. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.AC1408
    AMA Potter P. “The Rainbow at the Edge of the Shadow of the Egg”. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1339-1340. doi:10.3201/eid1408.AC1408.
    APA Potter, P. (2008). “The Rainbow at the Edge of the Shadow of the Egg”. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1339-1340. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.AC1408.

Etymologia

  • Brucella PDF Version [PDF - 107 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID Brucella. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(8):1337. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.E11408
    AMA Brucella. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1337. doi:10.3201/eid1408.E11408.
    APA (2008). Brucella. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1337. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.E11408.
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