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Volume 14, Number 8—August 2008
Volume 14, Number 8—August 2008 PDF Version [PDF - 6.15 MB - 179 pages]
Bacterial Pneumonia and Pandemic Influenza Planning
PDF Version [PDF - 195 KB - 5 pages]
R. K. Gupta et al.View Abstract
Pandemic influenza planning is well under way across the globe. Antiviral drugs and vaccines have dominated the therapeutic agenda. Far less work has been conducted on stockpiling and planning for deployment of antimicrobial drugs against secondary bacterial pneumonia, a cause of substantial illness and death in previous pandemics and epidemics. In the event of a pandemic, effective antimicrobial drug measures are expected to substantially benefit public health. We address issues regarding use of antimicrobial drugs as stocks of individual agents are diminished and the role of resistance surveillance in informing such policy. Furthermore, vaccination with polysaccharide and conjugate pneumococcal vaccines is considered as part of a pandemic strategy. Most illness and death from influenza are likely to occur in developing countries, where neuraminidase inhibitors and vaccines may be neither affordable nor available; thus, compared with industrialized countries, the benefits of treating bacterial complications in developing countries may be substantially greater.
Diverse Contexts of Zoonotic Transmission of Simian Foamy Viruses in Asia
PDF Version [PDF - 559 KB - 9 pages]
L. Jones-Engel et al.View Abstract
In Asia, contact between persons and nonhuman primates is widespread in multiple occupational and nonoccupational contexts. Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) are retroviruses that are prevalent in all species of nonhuman primates. To determine SFV prevalence in humans, we tested 305 persons who lived or worked around nonhuman primates in several South and Southeast Asian countries; 8 (2.6%) were confirmed SFV positive by Western blot and, for some, by PCR. The interspecies interactions that likely resulted in virus transmission were diverse; 5 macaque taxa were implicated as a potential source of infection. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SFV from 3 infected persons was similar to that from the nonhuman primate populations with which the infected persons reported contact. Thus, SFV infections are likely to be prevalent among persons who live or work near nonhuman primates in Asia.
Puumala Hantavirus Excretion Kinetics in Bank Voles (Myodes glareolus)
PDF Version [PDF - 329 KB - 7 pages]
J. Hardestam et al.View Abstract
Puumala hantavirus is present in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and is believed to be spread mainly by contaminated excretions. In this study, we subcutaneously inoculated 10 bank voles with Puumala virus and sampled excretions until day 133 postinfection. Levels of shed viral RNA peaked within 11–28, 14–21, and 11–28 days postinfection for saliva, urine, and feces, respectively. The latest detection of viral RNA was 84, 44, and 44 days postinfection in saliva, urine, and feces, respectively. In contrast, blood of 5 of 6 animals contained viral RNA at day 133 postinfection, suggesting that bank voles secrete virus only during a limited time of the infection. Intranasal inoculations with bank vole saliva, urine, or feces were all infectious for virus-negative bank voles, indicating that these 3 transmission routes may occur in nature and that rodent saliva might play a role in transmission to humans.
Community Strains of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus as Potential Cause of Healthcare-associated Infections, Uruguay, 2002–2004
PDF Version [PDF - 271 KB - 8 pages]
S. R. Benoit et al.View Abstract
Community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains have emerged in Uruguay. We reviewed Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a large healthcare facility in Montevideo (center A) and obtained information from 3 additional hospitals on patients infected with CA-MRSA. An infection was defined as healthcare-onset if the culture was obtained >48 hours after hospital admission. At center A, the proportion of S. aureus infections caused by CA-MRSA increased from 4% to 23% over 2 years; the proportion caused by healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) decreased from 25% to 5%. Of 182 patients infected with CA-MRSA, 38 (21%) had healthcare-onset infections. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis determined that 22 (92%) of 24 isolates were USA1100, a community strain. CA-MRSA has emerged in Uruguay and appears to have replaced HA-MRSA strains at 1 healthcare facility. In addition, CA-MRSA appears to cause healthcare-onset infections, a finding that emphasizes the need for infection control measures to prevent transmission within healthcare settings.
Medscape CME Activity
Systematic Literature Review of Role of Noroviruses in Sporadic Gastroenteritis PDF Version [PDF - 219 KB - 8 pages]M. M. Patel et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Noroviruses accounted for 12% of severe gastroenteritis cases among children <5 years of age.
We conducted a systematic review of studies that used reverse transcription–PCR to diagnose norovirus (NoV) infections in patients with mild or moderate (outpatient) and severe (hospitalized) diarrhea. NoVs accounted for 12% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10%–15%) of severe gastroenteritis cases among children <5 years of age and 12% (95% CI 9%–15%) of mild and moderate diarrhea cases among persons of all ages. Of 19 studies among children <5 years of age, 7 were in developing countries where pooled prevalence of severe NoV disease (12%) was comparable to that for industrialized countries (12%). We estimate that each year NoVs cause 64,000 episodes of diarrhea requiring hospitalization and 900,000 clinic visits among children in industrialized countries, and up to 200,000 deaths of children <5 years of age in developing countries. Future efforts should focus on developing targeted strategies, possibly even vaccines, for preventing NoV disease and better documenting their impact among children living in developing countries, where >95% of the deaths from diarrhea occur.
Genetic and Serologic Properties of Zika Virus Associated with an Epidemic, Yap State, Micronesia, 2007
PDF Version [PDF - 198 KB - 8 pages]
R. S. Lanciotti et al.View Abstract
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda from a sentinel monkey in 1947. Mosquito and sentinel animal surveillance studies have demonstrated that ZIKV is endemic to Africa and Southeast Asia, yet reported human cases are rare, with <10 cases reported in the literature. In June 2007, an epidemic of fever and rash associated with ZIKV was detected in Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia. We report the genetic and serologic properties of the ZIKV associated with this epidemic.
Interepidemic Rift Valley Fever Virus Seropositivity, Northeastern Kenya
PDF Version [PDF - 187 KB - 7 pages]
A. D. LaBeaud et al.View Abstract
Most outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF) occur in remote locations after floods. To determine environmental risk factors and long-term sequelae of human RVF, we examined rates of previous Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) exposure by age and location during an interepidemic period in 2006. In a randomized household cluster survey in 2 areas of Ijara District, Kenya, we examined 248 residents of 2 sublocations, Gumarey (village) and Sogan-Godud (town). Overall, the RVFV seropositivity rate was 13% according to immunoglobulin G ELISA; evidence of interepidemic RVFV transmission was detected. Increased seropositivity was found among older persons, those who were male, those who lived in the rural village (Gumarey), and those who had disposed of animal abortus. Rural Gumarey reported more mosquito and animal exposure than Sogan-Godud. Seropositive persons were more likely to have visual impairment and retinal lesions; other physical findings did not differ.
Aquatic Invertebrates as Unlikely Vectors of Buruli Ulcer Disease
PDF Version [PDF - 397 KB - 8 pages]
M. E. Benbow et al.View Abstract
Buruli ulcer is a necrotizing skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans and associated with exposure to aquatic habitats. To assess possible transmission of M. ulcerans by aquatic biting insects, we conducted a field examination of biting water bugs (Hemiptera: Naucoridae, Belostomatidae, Nepidae) in 15 disease-endemic and 12 non–disease-endemic areas of Ghana, Africa. From collections of 22,832 invertebrates, we compared composition, abundance, and associated M. ulcerans positivity among sites. Biting hemipterans were rare and represented a small percentage (usually <2%) of invertebrate communities. No significant differences were found in hemipteran abundance or pathogen positivity between disease-endemic and non–disease-endemic sites, and between abundance of biting hemipterans and M. ulcerans positivity. Therefore, although infection through insect bites is possible, little field evidence supports the assumption that biting hemipterans are primary vectors of M. ulcerans.
Deaths from Bacterial Pneumonia during 1918–19 Influenza Pandemic
PDF Version [PDF - 138 KB - 7 pages]
J. F. Brundage and G. ShanksView Abstract
Deaths during the 1918–19 influenza pandemic have been attributed to a hypervirulent influenza strain. Hence, preparations for the next pandemic focus almost exclusively on vaccine prevention and antiviral treatment for infections with a novel influenza strain. However, we hypothesize that infections with the pandemic strain generally caused self-limited (rarely fatal) illnesses that enabled colonizing strains of bacteria to produce highly lethal pneumonias. This sequential-infection hypothesis is consistent with characteristics of the 1918–19 pandemic, contemporaneous expert opinion, and current knowledge regarding the pathophysiologic effects of influenza viruses and their interactions with respiratory bacteria. This hypothesis suggests opportunities for prevention and treatment during the next pandemic (e.g., with bacterial vaccines and antimicrobial drugs), particularly if a pandemic strain–specific vaccine is unavailable or inaccessible to isolated, crowded, or medically underserved populations.
Cutaneous Infrared Thermometry for Detecting Febrile Patients
PDF Version [PDF - 420 KB - 4 pages]
P. Hausfater et al.View Abstract
We assessed the accuracy of cutaneous infrared thermometry, which measures temperature on the forehead, for detecting patients with fever in patients admitted to an emergency department. Although negative predictive value was excellent (0.99), positive predictive value was low (0.10). Therefore, we question mass detection of febrile patients by using this method.
Increased Amoxicillin–Clavulanic Acid Resistance in Escherichia coli Blood Isolates, Spain
PDF Version [PDF - 384 KB - 4 pages]
J. Oteo et al.View Abstract
To determine the evolution and trends of amoxicillin–clavulanic acid resistance among Escherichia coli isolates in Spain, we tested 9,090 blood isolates from 42 Spanish hospitals and compared resistance with trends in outpatient consumption. These isolates were collected by Spanish hospitals that participated in the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System network from April 2003 through December 2006.
Endemic Circulation of European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 in Serotine Bats, Spain
PDF Version [PDF - 277 KB - 4 pages]
S. Vázquez-Morón et al.View Abstract
To determine the presence of European bat lyssavirus type 1 in southern Spain, we studied 19 colonies of serotine bats (Eptesicus isabellinus), its main reservoir, during 1998–2003. Viral genome and antibodies were detected in healthy bats, which suggests subclinical infection. The different temporal patterns of circulation found in each colony indicate independent endemic circulation.
Pathogenicity of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Adult Mute Swans
PDF Version [PDF - 357 KB - 4 pages]
D. Kalthoff et al.View Abstract
Adult, healthy mute swans were experimentally infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/Cygnus cygnus/Germany/R65/2006 subtype H5N1. Immunologically naive birds died, whereas animals with preexisting, naturally acquired avian influenza virus–specific antibodies became infected asymptomatically and shed virus. Adult mute swans are highly susceptible, excrete virus, and can be clinically protected by preexposure immunity.
Infection with Panton-Valentine Leukocidin–Positive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus t034
PDF Version [PDF - 134 KB - 2 pages]
C. Welinder-Olsson et al.View Abstract
Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)–positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), sequence type 398 is believed to be of animal origin. We report 2 cases of infection due to PVL–positive MRSA, spa type t034, in patients in Sweden who had had no animal contact.
Identification of Residual Blood Proteins in Ticks by Mass Spectrometry Proteomics
PDF Version [PDF - 176 KB - 3 pages]
S. Wickramasekara et al.View Abstract
Mass spectrometry–based proteomics of individual ticks demonstrated persistence of mammalian host blood components, including α- and β-globin chains, histones, and mitochondrial enzymes, in Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum ticks for months after molting. Residual host proteins may identify sources of infection for ticks.
Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Banna Virus from Mosquitoes, Vietnam
PDF Version [PDF - 281 KB - 4 pages]
T. Nabeshima et al.View Abstract
We isolated and characterized a Banna virus from mosquitoes in Vietnam; 5 strains were isolated from field-caught mosquitoes at various locations; Banna virus was previously isolated from encephalitis patients in Yunnan, China, in 1987. Together, these findings suggest widespread distribution of this virus throughout Southeast Asia.
Oseltamivir Prescribing in Pharmacy-Benefits Database, United States, 2004–2005
PDF Version [PDF - 215 KB - 4 pages]
J. R. Ortiz et al.View Abstract
We reviewed information from a US pharmacy benefits manager database from 2004 through 2005 during periods with little influenza activity. We calculated rates of oseltamivir prescriptions to enrollees. Prescription rates increased significantly from 27.3/100,000 in 2004 to 134/100,000 in 2005 (p<0.05), which suggested that personal stockpiling of oseltamivir occurred.
Cluster of Falciparum Malaria Cases in UK Airport
PDF Version [PDF - 173 KB - 3 pages]
A. J. Rodger et al.View Abstract
A cluster of 6 cases of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in a UK airport among 30 travelers returning to the United States from East Africa. Molecular genotyping analysis indicated that all had been exposed to different parasites. The travelers’ use of chemoprophylaxis was poor; their perception of risk was limited.
Analysis of Collection of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome–associated Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli
PDF Version [PDF - 142 KB - 4 pages]
A. Mellmann et al.View Abstract
Multilocus sequence typing of 169 non-O157 enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) isolated from patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) demonstrated 29 different sequence types (STs); 78.1% of these strains clustered in 5 STs. From all STs and serotypes identified, we established a reference panel of EHEC associated with HUS (HUSEC collection).
Virus Transfer from Personal Protective Equipment to Healthcare Employees’ Skin and Clothing
PDF Version [PDF - 181 KB - 3 pages]
L. Casanova et al.View Abstract
We evaluated a personal protective equipment removal protocol designed to minimize wearer contamination with pathogens. Following this protocol often resulted in virus transfer to hands and clothing. An altered protocol or other measures are needed to prevent healthcare worker contamination.
Rickettsia felis in Fleas, Germany
PDF Version [PDF - 168 KB - 3 pages]
J. Gilles et al.View Abstract
Among 310 fleas collected from dogs and cats in Germany, Rickettsia felis was detected in all specimens (34) of Archaeopsylla erinacei (hedgehog flea) and in 9% (24/226) of Ctenocephalides felis felis (cat flea). R. helvetica was detected in 1 Ceratophyllus gallinae (hen flea).
Macrolide-Resistant Shigella sonnei
PDF Version [PDF - 193 KB - 3 pages]
L. Boumghar-Bourtchai et al.View Abstract
Shigella sonnei UCN59, isolated during an outbreak of S. sonnei in January 2007, was resistant to azithromycin (MIC 64 mg/L). The isolate contained a plasmid-borne mph(A) gene encoding a macrolide 2′-phosphotransferase that inactivates macrolides. Emergence of the mph(A) gene in S. sonnei may limit usefulness of azithromycin for treatment of shigellosis.
Genotyping Rickettsia prowazekii Isolates
PDF Version [PDF - 150 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Zhu et al.View Abstract
We developed a typing method that can differentiate 8 strains of Rickettsia prowazekii into 7 genotypes. This method can be used to type and trace the origin of R. prowazekii isolated from samples collected during epidemics after a bioterrorism attack.
Environmental Contamination during Influenza A Virus (H5N1) Outbreaks, Cambodia, 2006
PDF Version [PDF - 234 KB - 3 pages]
S. Vong et al.View Abstract
To determine potential risk for bird-to-human transmission during influenza A virus (H5N1) outbreaks among backyard poultry in rural Cambodia, we collected environmental specimens. Viral RNA was detected in 27 (35%) of 77 specimens of mud, pond water, water plants, and soil swabs. Our results underscore the need for regular disinfection of poultry areas.
Detection and Molecular Characterization of a Canine Norovirus
PDF Version [PDF - 176 KB - 3 pages]
V. Martella et al.View Abstract
We identified a novel calicivirus in a pup with enteritis. The isolate was related genetically (90.1% aa identity in the capsid protein) to a lion norovirus strain.
Henipavirus Infection in Fruit Bats (Pteropus giganteus), India
PDF Version [PDF - 124 KB - 2 pages]
J. H. Epstein et al.View Abstract
We tested 41 bats for antibodies against Nipah and Hendra viruses to determine whether henipaviruses circulate in pteropid fruit bats (Pteropus giganteus) in northern India. Twenty bats were seropositive for Nipah virus, which suggests circulation in this species, thereby extending the known distribution of henipaviruses in Asia westward by >1,000 km.
Pediatric Pneumonia Death Caused by Community-acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Japan
PDF Version [PDF - 140 KB - 3 pages]
T. Ito et al.
Rarity of Influenza A Virus in Spring Shorebirds, Southern Alaska
PDF Version [PDF - 152 KB - 3 pages]
K. Winker et al.
Isolation of Brucella microti from Soil
PDF Version [PDF - 133 KB - 2 pages]
H. C. Scholz et al.
Plasmodium falciparum in Ancient Egypt
PDF Version [PDF - 139 KB - 3 pages]
A. G. Nerlich et al.
Brucellosis in Infant after Familial Outbreak
PDF Version [PDF - 105 KB - 2 pages]
A. C. Makis et al.
Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 1, Cuba
PDF Version [PDF - 131 KB - 3 pages]
M. d. Villalba et al.
Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Neisseria meningitidis, France
PDF Version [PDF - 117 KB - 2 pages]
A. Skoczynska et al.
Rare Cryptosporidium hominis Subtype Associated with Aquatic Center Use
PDF Version [PDF - 123 KB - 3 pages]
C. S. Ong et al.
Two Imported Chikungunya Cases, Taiwan
PDF Version [PDF - 131 KB - 2 pages]
P. Shu et al.
Chikungunya-related Fatality Rates, Mauritius, India, and Reunion Island
PDF Version [PDF - 105 KB - 1 page]
P. Renault et al.
Aquaculture and Florfenicol Resistance in Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104
PDF Version [PDF - 119 KB - 2 pages]
Imported Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Europe
PDF Version [PDF - 132 KB - 2 pages]
M. J. Delgado et al.
Mycobacterium setense Infection in Humans
PDF Version [PDF - 179 KB - 3 pages]
A. Toro et al.
Human Bocavirus in Tonsillar Lymphocytes
PDF Version [PDF - 115 KB - 3 pages]
X. Lu et al.
Assessment of Reporting Bias for Clostridium difficile Hospitalizations, United States
PDF Version [PDF - 137 KB - 1 page]
M. D. Zilberberg
Improving Methods for Reporting Spatial Epidemiologic Data
PDF Version [PDF - 149 KB - 3 pages]
A. T. Peterson
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- Page created: July 13, 2010
- Page last updated: July 13, 2010
- Page last reviewed: July 13, 2010
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