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Volume 16, Number 5—May 2010

Volume 16, Number 5—May 2010   PDF Version [PDF - 4.36 MB - 159 pages]

Research

  • Latent Tuberculosis among Persons at Risk for Infection with HIV, Tijuana, Mexico PDF Version [PDF - 210 KB - 7 pages]
    R. S. Garfein et al.
       View Abstract

    Because there is little routine tuberculosis (TB) screening in Mexico, the prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI) is unknown. In the context of an increasing HIV epidemic in Tijuana, Mexico, understanding prevalence of LTBI to anticipate emergence of increased LTBI reactivation is critical. Therefore, we recruited injection drug users, noninjection drug users, female sex workers, and homeless persons for a study involving risk assessment, rapid HIV testing, and TB screening. Of 503 participants, the overall prevalences of TB infection, HIV infection, and TB/HIV co-infection were 57%, 4.2%, and 2.2%, respectively; no significant differences by risk group (p>0.05) were observed. Two participants had TB (prevalence 398/100,000). Incarceration in Mexico (odds ratio [OR] 2.28), age (OR 1.03 per year), and years lived in Tijuana (OR 1.02 per year) were independently associated with TB infection (p<0.05). Frequent LTBI in marginalized persons may lead to increases in TB as HIV spreads.

  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum from Rodents and Sheep, China PDF Version [PDF - 230 KB - 5 pages]
    L. Zhan et al.
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    To characterize the strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in wild and domestic animals in China, we isolated the organism from rodents and sheep in northeastern China. We isolated 3 strains (2 from rodents and 1 from sick sheep) through propagation in BALB/c mice and then cell culture in HL60 cells. The 3 isolates were identified by Wright-Giemsa staining, immunofluorescence, and electronic microscopy and were characterized by sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, partial citrate synthase gene, major surface protein 4 gene, and heat shock protein gene. The multiple sequences of the 3 isolates were identical to each other but different from all known strains from other countries. The public health and veterinary relevance of the isolates deserves further investigation.

  • Spread of Adenovirus to Geographically Dispersed Military Installations, May–October 2007 PDF Version [PDF - 282 KB - 7 pages]
    J. S. Trei et al.
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    In mid-May 2007, a respiratory disease outbreak associated with adenovirus, serotype B14 (Ad14), was recognized at a large military basic training facility in Texas. The affected population was highly mobile; after the 6-week basic training course, trainees immediately dispersed to advanced training sites worldwide. Accordingly, enhanced surveillance and control efforts were instituted at sites receiving the most trainees. Specimens from patients with pneumonia or febrile respiratory illness were tested for respiratory pathogens by using cultures and reverse transcription–PCR. During May through October 2007, a total of 959 specimens were collected from 21 sites; 43.1% were adenovirus positive; the Ad14 serotype accounted for 95.3% of adenovirus isolates. Ad14 was identified at 8 sites in California, Florida, Mississippi, Texas, and South Korea. Ad14 spread readily to secondary sites after the initial outbreak. Military and civilian planners must consider how best to control the spread of infectious respiratory diseases in highly mobile populations traveling between diverse geographic locations.

  • Medscape CME Activity
    Tropheryma whipplei in Children with Gastroenteritis PDF Version [PDF - 340 KB - 7 pages]
    D. Raoult et al.
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    Tropheryma whipplei, which causes Whipple disease, is found in human feces and may cause gastroenteritis. To show that T. whipplei causes gastroenteritis, PCRs for T. whipplei were conducted with feces from children 2–4 years of age. Western blotting was performed for samples from children with diarrhea who had positive or negative results for T. whipplei. T. whipplei was found in samples from 36 (15%) of 241 children with gastroenteritis and associated with other diarrheal pathogens in 13 (33%) of 36. No positive specimen was detected for controls of the same age (0/47; p = 0.008). Bacterial loads in case-patients were as high as those in patients with Whipple disease and significantly higher than those in adult asymptomatic carriers (p = 0.002). High incidence in patients and evidence of clonal circulation suggests that some cases of gastroenteritis are caused or exacerbated by T. whipplei, which may be co-transmitted with other intestinal pathogens.

  • Contagious Period for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 PDF Version [PDF - 262 KB - 6 pages]
    G. De Serres et al.
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    We estimated the proportion of persons with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 who were shedding infectious virus at diagnosis and on day 8 of illness. In households with confirmed cases, nasopharyngeal swabs were collected on all members and tested by PCR and virus culture. Of 47 cases confirmed by PCR at <7 days of illness, virus culture was positive in 92% (11/12) of febrile and 63% (22/35) of afebrile persons. Of 43 persons with PCR-confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009 from whom a second specimen was collected on day 8, 74% remained PCR positive and 19% were culture positive. If the 73 symptomatic household members without PCR-confirmed illness are assumed to have pandemic (H1N1) 2009, a minimum of 8% (6/73) of case-patients shed replicating virus on day 8. Self-isolation only until fever abates appears insufficient to limit transmission. Self-isolation for a week may be more effective, although some case-patients still would shed infectious virus.

  • Historical Distribution and Molecular Diversity of Bacillus anthracis, Kazakhstan PDF Version [PDF - 374 KB - 8 pages]
    A. M. Aikembayev et al.
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    To map the distribution of anthrax outbreaks and strain subtypes in Kazakhstan during 1937–2005, we combined geographic information system technology and genetic analysis by using archived cultures and data. Biochemical and genetic tests confirmed the identity of 93 archived cultures in the Kazakhstan National Culture Collection as Bacillus anthracis. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis genotyping identified 12 genotypes. Cluster analysis comparing these genotypes with previously published genotypes indicated that most (n = 78) isolates belonged to the previously described A1.a genetic cluster, 6 isolates belonged to the A3.b cluster, and 2 belonged to the A4 cluster. Two genotypes in the collection appeared to represent novel genetic sublineages; 1 of these isolates was from Krygystan. Our data provide a description of the historical, geographic, and genetic diversity of B. anthracis in this Central Asian region.

  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Carriage and Risk Factors for Skin Infections, Southwestern Alaska, USA PDF Version [PDF - 226 KB - 7 pages]
    A. M. Stevens et al.
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    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections are common in southwestern Alaska. Outbreak strains have been shown to carry the genes for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). To determine if carriage of PVL-positive CA-MRSA increased the risk for subsequent soft tissue infection, we conducted a retrospective cohort study by reviewing the medical records of 316 persons for 3.6 years after their participation in a MRSA nasal colonization survey. Demographic, nasal carriage, and antimicrobial drug use data were analyzed for association with skin infection risk. Skin infections were more likely to develop in MRSA carriers than in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus carriers or noncarriers of S. aureus during the first follow-up year, but not in subsequent years. Repeated skin infections were more common among MRSA carriers. In an area where PVL-containing MRSA is prevalent, skin infection risk was increased among MRSA nasal carriers compared with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus carriers and noncarriers, but risk differential diminished over time.

  • Capacity of Public Health Surveillance to Comply with Revised International Health Regulations, USA PDF Version [PDF - 125 KB - 5 pages]
    K. E. Armstrong et al.
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    Public health surveillance is essential for detecting and responding to infectious diseases and necessary for compliance with the revised International Health Regulations (IHR) 2005. To assess reporting capacities and compliance with IHR of all 50 states and Washington, DC, we sent a questionnaire to respective epidemiologists; 47 of 51 responded. Overall reporting capacity was high. Eighty-one percent of respondents reported being able to transmit notifications about unknown or unexpected events to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) daily. Additionally, 80% of respondents reported use of a risk assessment tool to determine whether CDC should be notified of possible public health emergencies. These findings suggest that most states have systems in place to ensure compliance with IHR. However, full state-level compliance will require additional efforts.

  • Influenza Outbreaks during World Youth Day 2008 Mass Gathering PDF Version [PDF - 304 KB - 7 pages]
    C. C. Blyth et al.
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    Influenza outbreaks during mass gatherings have been rarely described, and detailed virologic assessment is lacking. An influenza outbreak occurred during World Youth Day in Sydney, Australia, July 2008 (WYD2008). We assessed epidemiologic data and respiratory samples collected from attendees who sought treatment for influenza-like illness at emergency clinics in Sydney during this outbreak. Isolated influenza viruses were compared with seasonal influenza viruses from the 2008 influenza season. From 100 infected attendees, numerous strains were identified: oseltamivir-resistant influenza A (H1N1) viruses, oseltamivir-sensitive influenza A (H1N1) viruses, influenza A (H3N2) viruses, and strains from both influenza B lineages (B/Florida/4/2006-like and B/Malaysia/2506/2004-like). Novel viruses were introduced, and pre-WYD2008 seasonal viruses were amplified. Viruses isolated at mass gatherings can have substantial, complex, and unpredictable effects on community influenza activity. Greater flexibility by public health authorities and hospitals is required to appropriately manage and contain these outbreaks.

  • Effects of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine 2 Years after Its Introduction, the Netherlands PDF Version [PDF - 272 KB - 8 pages]
    G. D. Rodenburg et al.
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    In the Netherlands, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) was implemented in a 3+1-dose schedule in the national immunization program for infants born after April 1, 2006. To assess the vaccine’s effectiveness, we compared disease incidence before and after vaccine implementation (June 2004–June 2006 and June 2006–June 2008, respectively). We serotyped 2,552 invasive pneumococcal isolates from throughout the Netherlands, covering 25% of the country’s population. Clinical characteristics were extracted from hospital records. After June 2006, vaccine-serotype invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) decreased 90% (95% confidence interval [CI] 68%–97%) in children age eligible for PCV-7; simultaneously, however, non–vaccine-serotype IPD increased by 71% (not significant), resulting in a 44% total net IPD reduction (95% CI 7%–66%). IPD rates did not change for other age groups. In the Netherlands, PCV-7 offered high protection against vaccine-serotype IPD in vaccinated children, but increases of non–vaccine-serotype IPD reduced net vaccine benefits.

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