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Volume 2, Number 1—January 1996

Volume 2, Number 1—January 1996   PDF Version [PDF - 1.55 MB - 80 pages]

Perspective

  • Molecular Population Genetic Analysis of Emerged Bacterial Pathogens: Selected Insights PDF Version [PDF - 163 KB - 17 pages]
    J. M. Musser
        View Abstract

    Research in bacterial population genetics has increased in the last 10 years. Population genetic theory and tools and related strategies have been used to investigate bacterial pathogens that have contributed to recent episodes of temporal variation in disease frequency and severity. A common theme demonstrated by these analyses is that distinct bacterial clones are responsible for disease outbreaks and increases in infection frequency. Many of these clones are characterized by unique combinations of virulence genes or alleles of virulence genes. Because substantial interclonal variance exists in relative virulence, molecular population genetic studies have led to the concept that the unit of bacterial pathogenicity is the clone or cell line. Continued new insights into host-parasite interactions at the molecular level will be achieved by combining clonal analysis of bacterial pathogens with large-scale comparative sequencing of virulence genes.

        Cite This Article
    EID Musser JM. Molecular Population Genetic Analysis of Emerged Bacterial Pathogens: Selected Insights. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(1):1-17. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960101
    AMA Musser JM. Molecular Population Genetic Analysis of Emerged Bacterial Pathogens: Selected Insights. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(1):1-17. doi:10.3201/eid0201.960101.
    APA Musser, J. M. (1996). Molecular Population Genetic Analysis of Emerged Bacterial Pathogens: Selected Insights. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(1), 1-17. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960101.

Synopses

  • Emergence of the Ehrlichioses as Human Health Problems PDF Version [PDF - 191 KB - 12 pages]
    D. H. Walker and J. Dumler
        View Abstract

    Ehrlichiae are small, gram-negative, obligately intracellular bacteria that reside within a phagosome. The first human ehrlichial infection was recognized in the United States in 1987. It was later shown to be caused by a new species, Ehrlichia chaffeensis. In 1994, an ehrlichial pathogen within neutrophils that is closely related to the known veterinary pathogens E. equi and E. phagocytophila was found to infect humans. Molecular methods were required to detect, characterize, and identify these fastidious and uncultivated bacteria. Subsequently, E. chaffeensis infection was documented in more than 400 patients in 30 states, Europe, and Africa. Likewise, approximately 170 cases of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis have been diagnosed, most since 1994, predominantly in the upper midwestern and northeastern states, but also in northern California. The disease caused by ehrlichiae is generally undifferentiated but is often associated with leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated serum hepatic transaminase levels in tick-exposed patients. Infection ranges from subclinical to fatal; tetracycline appears to be an effective therapy. The emergence of these two newly recognized tickborne infections as threats to human health is probably due to increased clinical cognizance, but as in other emerging tickborne infections, it is likely that the rapid increase in identified cases signals a true emergence of disease associated with a changing vector-host ecology.

        Cite This Article
    EID Walker DH, Dumler J. Emergence of the Ehrlichioses as Human Health Problems. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(1):18-29. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960102
    AMA Walker DH, Dumler J. Emergence of the Ehrlichioses as Human Health Problems. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(1):18-29. doi:10.3201/eid0201.960102.
    APA Walker, D. H., & Dumler, J. (1996). Emergence of the Ehrlichioses as Human Health Problems. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(1), 18-29. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960102.
  • Surveillance for Pneumonic Plague in the United States During an International Emergency: A Model for Control of Imported Emerging Diseases PDF Version [PDF - 333 KB - 7 pages]
    C. L. Fritz et al.
        View Abstract

    In September 1994, in response to a reported epidemic of plague in India, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) enhanced surveillance in the United States for imported pneumonic plague. Plague information materials were rapidly developed and distributed to U.S. public health officials by electronic mail, facsimile, and expedited publication. Information was also provided to medical practitioners and the public by recorded telephone messages and facsimile transmission. Existing quarantine protocols were modified to effect active surveillance for imported plague cases at U.S. airports. Private physicians and state and local health departments were relied on in a passive surveillance system to identify travelers with suspected plague not detected at airports. From September 27 to October 27, the surveillance system identified 13 persons with suspected plague; no case was confirmed. This coordinated response to an international health emergency may serve as a model for detecting other emerging diseases and preventing their importation.

        Cite This Article
    EID Fritz CL, Dennis DT, Tipple MA, Campbell GL, McCance CR, Gubler DJ, et al. Surveillance for Pneumonic Plague in the United States During an International Emergency: A Model for Control of Imported Emerging Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(1):30-36. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960103
    AMA Fritz CL, Dennis DT, Tipple MA, et al. Surveillance for Pneumonic Plague in the United States During an International Emergency: A Model for Control of Imported Emerging Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(1):30-36. doi:10.3201/eid0201.960103.
    APA Fritz, C. L., Dennis, D. T., Tipple, M. A., Campbell, G. L., McCance, C. R., & Gubler, D. J. (1996). Surveillance for Pneumonic Plague in the United States During an International Emergency: A Model for Control of Imported Emerging Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(1), 30-36. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960103.
  • Changing Patterns of Autochthonous Malaria Transmission in the United States: A Review of Recent Outbreaks PDF Version [PDF - 158 KB - 7 pages]
    J. R. Zucker
        View Abstract

    Three recent outbreaks of locally acquired malaria in densely populated areas of the United States demonstrate the continued risk for mosquitoborne transmission of this disease. Increased global travel, immigration, and the presence of competent anopheline vectors throughout the continental United States contribute to the ongoing threat of malaria transmission. The likelihood of mosquitoborne transmission in the United States is dependent on the interactions between the human host, anopheline vector, malaria parasite, and environmental conditions. Recent changes in the epidemiology of locally acquired malaria and possible factors contributing to these changes are discussed.

        Cite This Article
    EID Zucker JR. Changing Patterns of Autochthonous Malaria Transmission in the United States: A Review of Recent Outbreaks. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(1):37-43. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960104
    AMA Zucker JR. Changing Patterns of Autochthonous Malaria Transmission in the United States: A Review of Recent Outbreaks. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(1):37-43. doi:10.3201/eid0201.960104.
    APA Zucker, J. R. (1996). Changing Patterns of Autochthonous Malaria Transmission in the United States: A Review of Recent Outbreaks. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(1), 37-43. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960104.

Dispatches

  • Cluster of Lyme Disease Cases at a Summer Camp in Kent County, Maryland PDF Version [PDF - 29 KB - 3 pages]
    G. T. Strickland et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Strickland GT, Trivedi L, Watkins S, Clothier M, Grant J, Morgan J, et al. Cluster of Lyme Disease Cases at a Summer Camp in Kent County, Maryland. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(1):44-46. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960105
    AMA Strickland GT, Trivedi L, Watkins S, et al. Cluster of Lyme Disease Cases at a Summer Camp in Kent County, Maryland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(1):44-46. doi:10.3201/eid0201.960105.
    APA Strickland, G. T., Trivedi, L., Watkins, S., Clothier, M., Grant, J., Morgan, J....Burkot, T. (1996). Cluster of Lyme Disease Cases at a Summer Camp in Kent County, Maryland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(1), 44-46. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960105.
  • Unexplained Deaths Due to Possibly Infectious Causes in the United States: Defining the Problem and Designing Surveillance and Laboratory Approaches PDF Version [PDF - 63 KB - 7 pages]
    B. A. Perkins et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Perkins BA, Flood JM, Danila RN, Holman RC, Reingold AL, Klug LA, et al. Unexplained Deaths Due to Possibly Infectious Causes in the United States: Defining the Problem and Designing Surveillance and Laboratory Approaches. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(1):47-53. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960106
    AMA Perkins BA, Flood JM, Danila RN, et al. Unexplained Deaths Due to Possibly Infectious Causes in the United States: Defining the Problem and Designing Surveillance and Laboratory Approaches. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(1):47-53. doi:10.3201/eid0201.960106.
    APA Perkins, B. A., Flood, J. M., Danila, R. N., Holman, R. C., Reingold, A. L., Klug, L. A....Khabbaz, R. F. (1996). Unexplained Deaths Due to Possibly Infectious Causes in the United States: Defining the Problem and Designing Surveillance and Laboratory Approaches. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(1), 47-53. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960106.
  • Trends in Bacteremic Infection Due to Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus), 1986-1995 PDF Version [PDF - 45 KB - 3 pages]
    D. M. Musher et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Musher DM, Hamill RJ, Wright CE, Clarridge JE, Ashton CM. Trends in Bacteremic Infection Due to Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus), 1986-1995. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(1):54-56. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960107
    AMA Musher DM, Hamill RJ, Wright CE, et al. Trends in Bacteremic Infection Due to Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus), 1986-1995. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(1):54-56. doi:10.3201/eid0201.960107.
    APA Musher, D. M., Hamill, R. J., Wright, C. E., Clarridge, J. E., & Ashton, C. M. (1996). Trends in Bacteremic Infection Due to Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus), 1986-1995. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(1), 54-56. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960107.

Commentaries

  • Infectious Diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean: Are They Really Emerging and Increasing? PDF Version [PDF - 28 KB - 3 pages]
    A. D. Brandling-Bennett and F. Pinheiro
            Cite This Article
    EID Brandling-Bennett AD, Pinheiro F. Infectious Diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean: Are They Really Emerging and Increasing?. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(1):59-61. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960109
    AMA Brandling-Bennett AD, Pinheiro F. Infectious Diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean: Are They Really Emerging and Increasing?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(1):59-61. doi:10.3201/eid0201.960109.
    APA Brandling-Bennett, A. D., & Pinheiro, F. (1996). Infectious Diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean: Are They Really Emerging and Increasing?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(1), 59-61. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960109.
  • Microbial Threats and the Global Society PDF Version [PDF - 19 KB - 2 pages]
    S. B. Levy
            Cite This Article
    EID Levy SB. Microbial Threats and the Global Society. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(1):62-63. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960110
    AMA Levy SB. Microbial Threats and the Global Society. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(1):62-63. doi:10.3201/eid0201.960110.
    APA Levy, S. B. (1996). Microbial Threats and the Global Society. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(1), 62-63. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960110.
  • Xenotransplantation: Risks, Clinical Potential, and Future Prospects PDF Version [PDF - 62 KB - 7 pages]
    R. E. Michler
            Cite This Article
    EID Michler RE. Xenotransplantation: Risks, Clinical Potential, and Future Prospects. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(1):64-70. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960111
    AMA Michler RE. Xenotransplantation: Risks, Clinical Potential, and Future Prospects. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(1):64-70. doi:10.3201/eid0201.960111.
    APA Michler, R. E. (1996). Xenotransplantation: Risks, Clinical Potential, and Future Prospects. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(1), 64-70. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960111.

Letters

  • PHLS Surveillance of Antibiotic Resistance, England and Wales: Emerging Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae PDF Version [PDF - 20 KB - 2 pages]
    D. C. Speller et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Speller DC, Johnson AP, Cookson BD, Waight P, George RC. PHLS Surveillance of Antibiotic Resistance, England and Wales: Emerging Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(1):57-58. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960108
    AMA Speller DC, Johnson AP, Cookson BD, et al. PHLS Surveillance of Antibiotic Resistance, England and Wales: Emerging Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(1):57-58. doi:10.3201/eid0201.960108.
    APA Speller, D. C., Johnson, A. P., Cookson, B. D., Waight, P., & George, R. C. (1996). PHLS Surveillance of Antibiotic Resistance, England and Wales: Emerging Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(1), 57-58. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960108.

About the Cover

News and Notes

  • Another Human Case of Equine Morbillivirus Disease in Australia PDF Version [PDF - 25 KB - 2 pages]
            Cite This Article
    EID Another Human Case of Equine Morbillivirus Disease in Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(1):71-72. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960112
    AMA Another Human Case of Equine Morbillivirus Disease in Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(1):71-72. doi:10.3201/eid0201.960112.
    APA (1996). Another Human Case of Equine Morbillivirus Disease in Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(1), 71-72. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960112.
  • Social Science and the Study of Emerging Infectious Diseases PDF Version [PDF - 16 KB - 1 page]
    J. Sommerfeld and S. Lane
            Cite This Article
    EID Sommerfeld J, Lane S. Social Science and the Study of Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(1):72. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960113
    AMA Sommerfeld J, Lane S. Social Science and the Study of Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(1):72. doi:10.3201/eid0201.960113.
    APA Sommerfeld, J., & Lane, S. (1996). Social Science and the Study of Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(1), 72. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960113.
  • WHO Establishes New Rapid-Response Unit for Emerging Infectious Diseases PDF Version [PDF - 24 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Stroot
            Cite This Article
    EID Stroot P. WHO Establishes New Rapid-Response Unit for Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(1):72-73. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960114
    AMA Stroot P. WHO Establishes New Rapid-Response Unit for Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(1):72-73. doi:10.3201/eid0201.960114.
    APA Stroot, P. (1996). WHO Establishes New Rapid-Response Unit for Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(1), 72-73. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960114.
  • Rotavirus Vaccine Workshop Held PDF Version [PDF - 16 KB - 1 page]
    R. I. Glass
            Cite This Article
    EID Glass RI. Rotavirus Vaccine Workshop Held. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(1):73. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960115
    AMA Glass RI. Rotavirus Vaccine Workshop Held. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(1):73. doi:10.3201/eid0201.960115.
    APA Glass, R. I. (1996). Rotavirus Vaccine Workshop Held. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(1), 73. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960115.
  • International Conference Addresses Preparedness for Emerging Strains of Pandemic Influenza PDF Version [PDF - 24 KB - 2 pages]
    D. A. Iacuzio
            Cite This Article
    EID Iacuzio DA. International Conference Addresses Preparedness for Emerging Strains of Pandemic Influenza. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(1):73-74. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960116
    AMA Iacuzio DA. International Conference Addresses Preparedness for Emerging Strains of Pandemic Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(1):73-74. doi:10.3201/eid0201.960116.
    APA Iacuzio, D. A. (1996). International Conference Addresses Preparedness for Emerging Strains of Pandemic Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(1), 73-74. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960116.
  • Course Offered on Clinical and Pathologic Features of Emerging Infections PDF Version [PDF - 16 KB - 1 page]
    C. R. Horsburgh
            Cite This Article
    EID Horsburgh CR. Course Offered on Clinical and Pathologic Features of Emerging Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(1):74. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960117
    AMA Horsburgh CR. Course Offered on Clinical and Pathologic Features of Emerging Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(1):74. doi:10.3201/eid0201.960117.
    APA Horsburgh, C. R. (1996). Course Offered on Clinical and Pathologic Features of Emerging Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(1), 74. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960117.
  • NASA Sponsors Symposium on Remote Sensing and Control of Insect-Transmitted Diseases PDF Version [PDF - 16 KB - 1 page]
    M. Braukus and R. Khanna
            Cite This Article
    EID Braukus M, Khanna R. NASA Sponsors Symposium on Remote Sensing and Control of Insect-Transmitted Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(1):74. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960118
    AMA Braukus M, Khanna R. NASA Sponsors Symposium on Remote Sensing and Control of Insect-Transmitted Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(1):74. doi:10.3201/eid0201.960118.
    APA Braukus, M., & Khanna, R. (1996). NASA Sponsors Symposium on Remote Sensing and Control of Insect-Transmitted Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(1), 74. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960118.
  • CDC Convenes Meeting to Discuss Strategies for Preventing Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections PDF Version [PDF - 17 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID CDC Convenes Meeting to Discuss Strategies for Preventing Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(1):75. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960119
    AMA CDC Convenes Meeting to Discuss Strategies for Preventing Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(1):75. doi:10.3201/eid0201.960119.
    APA (1996). CDC Convenes Meeting to Discuss Strategies for Preventing Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(1), 75. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960119.
  • Regional Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases Sparks Plan for Increased Collaboration PDF Version [PDF - 20 KB - 2 pages]
    B. A. Kay
            Cite This Article
    EID Kay BA. Regional Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases Sparks Plan for Increased Collaboration. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(1):75-76. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960120
    AMA Kay BA. Regional Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases Sparks Plan for Increased Collaboration. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(1):75-76. doi:10.3201/eid0201.960120.
    APA Kay, B. A. (1996). Regional Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases Sparks Plan for Increased Collaboration. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(1), 75-76. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0201.960120.
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