Volume 20, Number 9—September 2014
Volume 20, Number 9—September 2014 PDF Version [PDF - 17.75 MB - 179 pages]
Molecular Epidemiology of Reemergent Rabies in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China
PDF Version [PDF - 888 KB - 10 pages]
H. Zhang et al.View SummaryView Abstract
This province is a focal point for spread of rabies between Southeast Asia and China.
Yunnan Province in China borders 3 countries (Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar) in Southeast Asia. In the 1980s, a large-scale rabies epidemic occurred in this province, which subsided by the late 1990s. However, 3 human cases of rabies in 2000 indicated reemergence of the disease in 1 county. In 2012, rabies was detected in 77 counties; 663 persons died of rabies during this new epidemic. Fifty two rabies virus strains obtained during 2008–2012 were identified and analyzed phylogenetically by sequencing the nucleoprotein gene. Of the 4 clades identified, clades YN-A and YN-C were closely related to strains from neighboring provinces, and clade YN-B was closely related to strains from Southeast Asia, but formed a distinct branch. Rabies virus diversity might be attributed to dog movements among counties, provinces, and neighboring countries. These findings suggest that Yunnan Province is a focal point for spread of rabies between Southeast Asia and China.
Encephalitis Caused by Pathogens Transmitted through Organ Transplants, United States, 2002–2013
PDF Version [PDF - 532 KB - 9 pages]
S. V. Basavaraju et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Donor-derived infectious encephalitis among transplant recipients is rare and may not be recognized by clinicians.
The cause of encephalitis among solid organ transplant recipients may be multifactorial; the disease can result from infectious or noninfectious etiologies. During 2002–2013, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated several encephalitis clusters among transplant recipients. Cases were caused by infections from transplant-transmitted pathogens: West Nile virus, rabies virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, and Balamuthia mandrillaris amebae. In many of the clusters, identification of the cause was complicated by delayed diagnosis due to the rarity of the disease, geographic distance separating transplant recipients, and lack of prompt recognition and reporting systems. Establishment of surveillance systems to detect illness among organ recipients, including communication among transplant center physicians, organ procurement organizations, and public health authorities, may enable the rapid discovery and investigation of infectious encephalitis clusters. These transplant-transmitted pathogen clusters highlight the need for greater awareness among clinicians, pathologists, and public health workers, of emerging infectious agents causing encephalitis among organ recipients.
Medscape CME Activity
Confirmed Bacillus anthracis Infection among Persons Who Inject Drugs, Scotland, 2009–2010 PDF Version [PDF - 736 KB - 12 pages]M. Booth et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Patients who died had an increased sequential organ failure assessment score and need for vasopressors.
In Scotland, the 2009 outbreak of Bacillus anthracis infection among persons who inject drugs resulted in a 28% death rate. To compare nonsurvivors and survivors, we obtained data on 11 nonsurvivors and 16 survivors. Time from B. anthracis exposure to symptoms or hospitalization and skin and limb findings at presentation did not differ between nonsurvivors and survivors. Proportionately more nonsurvivors had histories of excessive alcohol use (p = 0.05) and required vasopressors and/or mechanical ventilation (p<0.01 for each individually). Nonsurvivors also had higher sequential organ failure assessment scores (mean + SEM) (7.3 + 0.9 vs. 1.2 + 0.4, p<0.0001). Antibacterial drug administration, surgery, and anthrax polyclonal immune globulin treatments did not differ between nonsurvivors and survivors. Of the 14 patients who required vasopressors during hospitalization, 11 died. Sequential organ failure assessment score or vasopressor requirement during hospitalization might identify patients with injectional anthrax for whom limited adjunctive therapies might be beneficial.
Passive Surveillance for Azole-Resistant Aspergillus fumigatus, United States, 2011–2013
PDF Version [PDF - 414 KB - 6 pages]
C. D. Pham et al.View SummaryView Abstract
A. fumigatus cyp51A–mediated resistance to azole drugs is rare in the United States.
Emergence of Aspergillus fumigatus strains containing mutations that lead to azole resistance has become a serious public health threat in many countries. Nucleotide polymorphisms leading to amino acid substitutions in the lanosterol demethylase gene (cyp51A) are associated with reduced susceptibility to azole drugs. The most widely recognized mutation is a lysine to histidine substitution at aa 98 (L98H) and a duplication of the untranscribed promoter region, together known as TR34/L98H. This mechanism of resistance has been reported in Europe, Asia, and the Middle East, and is associated with resistance to all azole drugs and subsequent treatment failures. To determine whether isolates with this mutation are spreading into the United States, we conducted a passive surveillance–based study of 1,026 clinical isolates of A. fumigatus from 22 US states during 2011–2013. No isolates harboring the TR34/L98H mutation were detected, and MICs of itraconazole were generally low.
Swine-to-Human Transmission of Influenza A(H3N2) Virus at Agricultural Fairs, Ohio, USA, 2012
PDF Version [PDF - 751 KB - 9 pages]
A. S. Bowman et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Local health care providers should be alerted to the possibility of human infection with variant influenza A viruses, especially during fairs.
Agricultural fairs provide an opportunity for bidirectional transmission of influenza A viruses. We sought to determine influenza A virus activity among swine at fairs in the United States. As part of an ongoing active influenza A virus surveillance project, nasal swab samples were collected from exhibition swine at 40 selected Ohio agricultural fairs during 2012. Influenza A(H3N2) virus was isolated from swine at 10 of the fairs. According to a concurrent public health investigation, 7 of the 10 fairs were epidemiologically linked to confirmed human infections with influenza A(H3N2) variant virus. Comparison of genome sequences of the subtype H3N2 isolates recovered from humans and swine from each fair revealed nucleotide identities of >99.7%, confirming zoonotic transmission between swine and humans. All influenza A(H3N2) viruses isolated in this study, regardless of host species or fair, were >99.5% identical, indicating that 1 virus strain was widely circulating among exhibition swine in Ohio during 2012.
Feeding Period Required by Amblyomma aureolatum Ticks for Transmission of Rickettsia rickettsii to Vertebrate Hosts
PDF Version [PDF - 997 KB - 7 pages]
D. G. Saraiva et al.View SummaryView Abstract
As opposed to unfed ticks, transmission of R. rickettsii occurred in <10 minutes of attachment by adult fed ticks.
Feeding by A. aureolatum and Transmission of R. rickettsii
Rocky Mountain spotted fever is endemic to the São Paulo metropolitan area, Brazil, where the etiologic agent, Rickettsia rickettsii, is transmitted to humans by adult Amblyomma aureolatum ticks. We determined the minimal feeding period required by A. aureolatum nymphs and adults to transmit R. rickettsii to guinea pigs. Unfed nymphs and unfed adult ticks had to be attached to the host for >10 hours to transmit R. rickettsii. In contrast, fed ticks needed a minimum of 10 minutes of attachment to transmit R. rickettsii to hosts. Most confirmed infections of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in humans in the São Paulo metropolitan area have been associated with contact with domestic dogs, the main host of A. aureolatum adult ticks. The typical expectation that transmission of tickborne bacteria to humans as well as to dogs requires ≥2 hours of tick attachment may discourage persons from immediately removing them and result in transmission of this lethal bacterium.
Distance from Construction Site and Risk for Coccidioidomycosis, Arizona, USA
PDF Version [PDF - 510 KB - 8 pages]
J. E. Blair et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Working adjacent to a project involving excavation of desert soil did not increase the risk for infection.
Coccidioides spp. fungi, which are present in soil in the southwestern United States, can become airborne when the soil is disrupted, and humans who inhale the spores can become infected. In 2012, our institution in Maricopa County, Arizona, USA, began a building project requiring extensive excavation of soil. One year after construction began, we compared the acquisition of coccidioidomycosis in employees working adjacent to the construction site (campus A) with that of employees working 13 miles away (campus B). Initial testing indicated prior occult coccidioidal infection in 20 (11.4%) of 176 campus A employees and in 19 (13.6%) of 140 campus B employees (p = 0.55). At the 1-year follow-up, 3 (2.5%) of 120 employees from campus A and 8 (8.9%) of 90 from campus B had flow cytometric evidence of new coccidioidal infection (p = 0.04). The rate of coccidioidal acquisition differed significantly between campuses, but was not higher on the campus with construction.
Genomic Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis based on Population Structure of Prevalent Lineages
PDF Version [PDF - 629 KB - 9 pages]
X. Deng et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Major lineages emerged during the 17th–18th centuries and diversified during the 1920s and 1950s.
Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is one of the most commonly reported causes of human salmonellosis. Its low genetic diversity, measured by fingerprinting methods, has made subtyping a challenge. We used whole-genome sequencing to characterize 125 S. enterica Enteritidis and 3 S. enterica serotype Nitra strains. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were filtered to identify 4,887 reliable loci that distinguished all isolates from each other. Our whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism typing approach was robust for S. enterica Enteritidis subtyping with combined data for different strains from 2 different sequencing platforms. Five major genetic lineages were recognized, which revealed possible patterns of geographic and epidemiologic distribution. Analyses on the population dynamics and evolutionary history estimated that major lineages emerged during the 17th–18th centuries and diversified during the 1920s and 1950s.
Medscape CME Activity
Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Patients with or without AIDS, France PDF Version [PDF - 517 KB - 8 pages]A. Roux et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Immunosuppressed patients without AIDS had longer time to treatment and a higher rate of death than did patients with AIDS.
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in patients without AIDS is increasingly common. We conducted a prospective cohort study of consecutive patients with proven PCP; of 544 patients, 223 (41%) had AIDS (AIDS patients) and 321 (59%) had other immunosuppressive disorders (non-AIDS patients). Fewer AIDS than non-AIDS patients required intensive care or ventilation, and the rate of hospital deaths—17.4% overall—was significantly lower for AIDS versus non-AIDS patients (4% vs. 27%; p<0.0001). Multivariable analysis showed the odds of hospital death increased with older age, receipt of allogeneic bone marrow transplant, immediate use of oxygen, need for mechanical ventilation, and longer time to treatment; HIV-positive status or receipt of a solid organ transplant decreased odds for death. PCP is more often fatal in non-AIDS patients, but time to diagnosis affects survival and is longer for non-AIDS patients. Clinicians must maintain a high index of suspicion for PCP in immunocompromised patients who do not have AIDS.
Asymptomatic, Mild, and Severe Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infection in Humans, Guangzhou, China
PDF Version [PDF - 652 KB - 5 pages]
Z. Chen et al.View Abstract
Targeted surveillance for influenza A(H7N9) identified 21 cases of infection with this virus in Guangzhou, China, during April 1, 2013–March 7, 2014. The spectrum of illness ranged from severe pneumonia to asymptomatic infection. Epidemiologic findings for a family cluster of 1 severe and 1 mild case suggested limited person-to-person transmission of this virus.
Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus CC398 in Intensive Care Unit, France
PDF Version [PDF - 527 KB - 5 pages]
A. Brunel et al.View Abstract
During testing for Staphylococcus aureus in an intensive care unit in France in 2011, we found that methicillin-sensitive S. aureus clonal complex 398 was the most frequent clone (29/125, 23.2%). It was isolated from patients (5/89, 5.6%), health care workers (2/63, 3.2%), and environmental sites (15/864,1.7%). Results indicate emergence of this clone in a hospital setting.
Factors Contributing to Decline in Foodborne Disease Outbreak Reports, United States
PDF Version [PDF - 317 KB - 3 pages]
M. Imanishi et al.View Abstract
The number of foodborne disease outbreaks reported in the United States declined substantially in 2009, when the surveillance system transitioned from reporting only foodborne disease outbreaks to reporting all enteric disease outbreaks. A 2013 survey found that some outbreaks that would have been previously reported as foodborne are now reported as having other transmission modes.
Genetic Variation among African Swine Fever Genotype II Viruses, Eastern and Central Europe
PDF Version [PDF - 508 KB - 4 pages]
C. Gallardo et al.View Abstract
African swine fever virus (ASFV) was first reported in eastern Europe/Eurasia in 2007. Continued spread of ASFV has placed central European countries at risk, and in 2014, ASFV was detected in Lithuania and Poland. Sequencing showed the isolates are identical to a 2013 ASFV from Belarus but differ from ASFV isolated in Georgia in 2007.
Family Cluster of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infections, Tunisia, 2013
PDF Version [PDF - 480 KB - 4 pages]
F. Abroug et al.View Abstract
In 2013 in Tunisia, 3 persons in 1 family were infected with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The index case-patient’s respiratory tract samples were negative for MERS-CoV by reverse transcription PCR, but diagnosis was retrospectively confirmed by PCR of serum. Sequences clustered with those from Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates.
Mutations of Novel Influenza A(H10N8) Virus in Chicken Eggs and MDCK Cells
PDF Version [PDF - 393 KB - 3 pages]
J. Yang et al.View Abstract
The recent emergence of human infection with influenza A(H10N8) virus is an urgent public health concern. Genomic analysis showed that the virus was conserved in chicken eggs but presented substantial adaptive mutations in MDCK cells. Our results provide additional evidence for the avian origin of this influenza virus.
Novel Circovirus from Mink, China
PDF Version [PDF - 349 KB - 3 pages]
H. Lian et al.View Abstract
A long-established epidemic of enteritis, caused by an unidentified pathogen distinct from parvovirus, has now been recognized in mink. In 2013, we identified a novel circovirus by degenerate PCR and fully sequenced its genome. This virus differs substantially from currently known members of the genus Circovirus and represents a new species.
Risk Factors for Severe Influenza A–Related Pneumonia in Adult Cohort, Mexico, 2013–14
PDF Version [PDF - 457 KB - 5 pages]
A. Gómez-Gómez et al.View Abstract
During the 2013–14 influenza season, we assessed characteristics of 102 adults with suspected influenza pneumonia in a hospital in Mexico; most were unvaccinated. More comorbidities and severity of illness were found than for patients admitted during the 2009–10 influenza pandemic. Vaccination policies should focus on risk factors.
Incidence of Cronobacter spp. Infections, United States, 2003–2009
PDF Version [PDF - 509 KB - 4 pages]
M. E. Patrick et al.View Abstract
During 2003–2009, we identified 544 cases of Cronobacter spp. infection from 6 US states. The highest percentage of invasive infections occurred among children <5 years of age; urine isolates predominated among adults. Rates of invasive infections among infants approximate earlier estimates. Overall incidence of 0.66 cases/100,000 population was higher than anticipated.
Investigation and Control of Anthrax Outbreak at the Human–Animal Interface, Bhutan, 2010
PDF Version [PDF - 310 KB - 3 pages]
N. K. Thapa et al.View Abstract
In 2010, we investigated anthrax outbreak in Bhutan. A total of 43 domestic animals died, and cutaneous anthrax developed in 9 persons, and 1 died. All affected persons had contact with the carcasses of infected animals. Comprehensive preparedness and response guidelines are needed to increase public awareness of anthrax in Bhutan.
Pork Consumption and Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus,Thailand, 2007–2008
PDF Version [PDF - 592 KB - 4 pages]
S. Gonwong et al.View Abstract
The nationwide seroprevalence of hepatitis E IgG was determined among young men in Thailand. Overall seroprevalence was 14% (95% CI 13%–15%); range by province was 3%–26%. Seroprevalence was lowest in the south, an area predominantly occupied by persons of the Islam religion, whose dietary laws proscribe pork.
Enhanced MERS Coronavirus Surveillance of Travelers from the Middle East to England
PDF Version [PDF - 739 KB - 3 pages]
H. Thomas et al.View Abstract
During the first year of enhanced MERS coronavirus surveillance in England, 77 persons traveling from the Middle East had acute respiratory illness and were tested for the virus. Infection was confirmed in 2 travelers with acute respiratory distress syndrome and 2 of their contacts. Patients with less severe manifestations tested negative.
Household-Level Spatiotemporal Patterns of Incidence of Cholera, Haiti, 2011
PDF Version [PDF - 403 KB - 4 pages]
J. K. Blackburn et al.View Abstract
A cholera outbreak began in Haiti during October, 2010. Spatiotemporal patterns of household-level cholera in Ouest Department showed that the initial clusters tended to follow major roadways; subsequent clusters occurred further inland. Our data highlight transmission pathway complexities and the need for case and household-level analysis to understand disease spread and optimize interventions.
Common Exposure to STL Polyomavirus During Childhood
PDF Version [PDF - 403 KB - 3 pages]
E. S. Lim et al.View Abstract
STL polyomavirus (STLPyV) was recently identified in human specimens. To determine seropositivity for STLPyV, we developed an ELISA and screened patient samples from 2 US cities (Denver, Colorado ; St. Louis, Missouri ). Overall seropositivity was 68%–70%. The age-stratified data suggest that STLPyV infection is widespread and commonly acquired during childhood.
Reemergence of Brucella melitensis Infection in Wildlife, France
PDF Version [PDF - 231 KB - 2 pages]
B. Garin-Bastuji et al.
Antibody against Arenaviruses in Humans, Southwestern United States
PDF Version [PDF - 242 KB - 2 pages]
M. L. Milazzo et al.
Porcine Coronavirus HKU15 Detected in 9 US States, 2014
PDF Version [PDF - 299 KB - 2 pages]
L. Wang et al.
Genetic Changes of Reemerged Influenza A(H7N9) Viruses, China
PDF Version [PDF - 249 KB - 2 pages]
J. Lu et al.
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus from Waterfowl, South Korea, 2014
PDF Version [PDF - 262 KB - 2 pages]
K. Ku et al.
Schistosomiasis Haematobium, Corsica, France
PDF Version [PDF - 415 KB - 3 pages]
A. Berry et al.
Live Poultry Market Closure and Control of Avian Influenza A(H7N9), Shanghai, China
PDF Version [PDF - 283 KB - 2 pages]
Y. He et al.
Shiga Toxin 2A–Encoding Bacteriophages in Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O104:H4 Strains
PDF Version [PDF - 241 KB - 2 pages]
L. Beutin et al.
Rio Mamore Virus and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Brazil
PDF Version [PDF - 295 KB - 3 pages]
R. Carvalho de Oliveira et al.
Clostridium tetani Osteitis without Tetanus
PDF Version [PDF - 278 KB - 3 pages]
P. Levy et al.
Invasive Infection Caused by Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter soli, Japan
PDF Version [PDF - 284 KB - 3 pages]
H. Kitanaka et al.
Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacter cloacae Isolates Producing KPC-3, North Dakota, USA
PDF Version [PDF - 331 KB - 3 pages]
L. M. Kiedrowski et al.
Spread of Vaccinia Virus to Cattle Herds, Argentina, 2011
PDF Version [PDF - 392 KB - 3 pages]
A. Franco-Luiz et al.
Urethritis Caused by Novel Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W in Man Who Has Sex with Men, Japan
PDF Version [PDF - 311 KB - 3 pages]
K. Hayakawa et al.
Rate of Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Large Integrated Health Care Setting, California, USA, 1998–2012
PDF Version [PDF - 242 KB - 2 pages]
J. L. Jones et al.View Summary
Rate of Congenital Toxoplasmosis, California
Cerebellitis Associated with Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, United States, 2013
PDF Version [PDF - 363 KB - 3 pages]
M. M. Sfeir and C. E. Najem
Potential Human Adaptation Mutation of Influenza A(H5N1) Virus, Canada
PDF Version [PDF - 247 KB - 3 pages]
S. Maurer-Stroh et al.
Worker Health and Safety Practices in Research Facilities Using Nonhuman Primates, North America
PDF Version [PDF - 251 KB - 2 pages]
E. W. Lankau et al.
Mortierella wolfii–Associated Invasive Disease
PDF Version [PDF - 294 KB - 2 pages]
N. Layios et al.
About the Cover
The Art of Intertwining Life and Work
PDF Version [PDF - 4.71 MB - 2 pages]
B. Breedlove and K. Chuengsatiansup
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