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Volume 4, Number 3—September 1998

Volume 4, Number 3—September 1998   PDF Version [PDF - 9.44 MB - 168 pages]

THEME ISSUE
ICEID 1998

Introduction

  • About the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases PDF Version [PDF - 202 KB - 1 page]
    S. A. Morse
            Cite This Article
    EID Morse SA. About the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):353. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980301
    AMA Morse SA. About the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):353. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980301.
    APA Morse, S. A. (1998). About the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 353. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980301.

About Emerging Infectious Diseases

  • Collaboration in the Fight Against Infectious Diseases PDF Version [PDF - 212 KB - 4 pages]
    D. E. Shalala
            Cite This Article
    EID Shalala DE. Collaboration in the Fight Against Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):354-357. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980302
    AMA Shalala DE. Collaboration in the Fight Against Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):354-357. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980302.
    APA Shalala, D. E. (1998). Collaboration in the Fight Against Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 354-357. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980302.
  • Effective Global Response to Emerging Infectious Diseases PDF Version [PDF - 459 KB - 2 pages]
    C. Broome
            Cite This Article
    EID Broome C. Effective Global Response to Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):358-359. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980303
    AMA Broome C. Effective Global Response to Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):358-359. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980303.
    APA Broome, C. (1998). Effective Global Response to Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 358-359. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980303.
  • Addressing Emerging Infectious Disease Threats – Accomplishments and Future Plans PDF Version [PDF - 432 KB - 2 pages]
    J. M. Hughes
            Cite This Article
    EID Hughes JM. Addressing Emerging Infectious Disease Threats – Accomplishments and Future Plans. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):360-361. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980304
    AMA Hughes JM. Addressing Emerging Infectious Disease Threats – Accomplishments and Future Plans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):360-361. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980304.
    APA Hughes, J. M. (1998). Addressing Emerging Infectious Disease Threats – Accomplishments and Future Plans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 360-361. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980304.
  • Global Surveillance of Communicable Diseases PDF Version [PDF - 245 KB - 4 pages]
    D. L. Heymann and G. R. Rodier
            Cite This Article
    EID Heymann DL, Rodier GR. Global Surveillance of Communicable Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):362-365. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980305
    AMA Heymann DL, Rodier GR. Global Surveillance of Communicable Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):362-365. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980305.
    APA Heymann, D. L., & Rodier, G. R. (1998). Global Surveillance of Communicable Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 362-365. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980305.
  • Emerging Infections: An Evolutionary Perspective PDF Version [PDF - 521 KB - 6 pages]
    J. Lederberg
            Cite This Article
    EID Lederberg J. Emerging Infections: An Evolutionary Perspective. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):366-371. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980306
    AMA Lederberg J. Emerging Infections: An Evolutionary Perspective. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):366-371. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980306.
    APA Lederberg, J. (1998). Emerging Infections: An Evolutionary Perspective. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 366-371. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980306.
  • Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Brief Biographical Heritage PDF Version [PDF - 517 KB - 2 pages]
    D. P. Drotman
            Cite This Article
    EID Drotman DP. Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Brief Biographical Heritage. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):372-373. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980307
    AMA Drotman DP. Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Brief Biographical Heritage. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):372-373. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980307.
    APA Drotman, D. P. (1998). Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Brief Biographical Heritage. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 372-373. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980307.
  • New and Reemerging Diseases: The Importance of Biomedical Research PDF Version [PDF - 473 KB - 5 pages]
    A. S. Fauci
            Cite This Article
    EID Fauci AS. New and Reemerging Diseases: The Importance of Biomedical Research. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):374-378. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980308
    AMA Fauci AS. New and Reemerging Diseases: The Importance of Biomedical Research. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):374-378. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980308.
    APA Fauci, A. S. (1998). New and Reemerging Diseases: The Importance of Biomedical Research. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 374-378. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980308.
  • Health Policy Implications of Emerging Infections PDF Version [PDF - 2.04 MB - 3 pages]
    K. Hein
            Cite This Article
    EID Hein K. Health Policy Implications of Emerging Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):379-381. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980309
    AMA Hein K. Health Policy Implications of Emerging Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):379-381. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980309.
    APA Hein, K. (1998). Health Policy Implications of Emerging Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 379-381. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980309.

New Agents and Disease Associations

  • Detection and Identification of Previously Unrecognized Microbial Pathogens PDF Version [PDF - 570 KB - 8 pages]
    D. A. Relman
        View Abstract

    Features of a number of important but poorly explained human clinical syndromes strongly indicate a microbial etiology. In these syndromes, the failure of cultivation-dependent microbial detection methods reveals our ignorance of microbial growth requirements. Sequence-based molecular methods, however, offer alternative approaches for microbial identification directly from host specimens found in the setting of unexplained acute illnesses, chronic inflammatory disease, and from anatomic sites that contain commensal microflora. The rapid expansion of genome sequence databases and advances in biotechnology present opportunities and challenges: identification of consensus sequences from which reliable, specific phylogenetic information can be inferred for all taxonomic groups of pathogens, broad-range pathogen identification on the basis of virulence-associated gene families, and use of host gene expression response profiles as specific signatures of microbial infection.

        Cite This Article
    EID Relman DA. Detection and Identification of Previously Unrecognized Microbial Pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):382-389. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980310
    AMA Relman DA. Detection and Identification of Previously Unrecognized Microbial Pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):382-389. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980310.
    APA Relman, D. A. (1998). Detection and Identification of Previously Unrecognized Microbial Pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 382-389. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980310.
  • The Emergence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Related Diseases PDF Version [PDF - 217 KB - 5 pages]
    S. J. Pattison
        View Abstract

    Since 1986, approximately 170,000 cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) have occurred among approximately one million animals infected by contaminated feed in the United Kingdom. A ruminant feed ban in 1988 resulted in the rapid decline of the epidemic. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies due to agents indistinguishable from BSE have appeared in small numbers of exotic zoo animals; a small outbreak among domestic cats is declining. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) has been intensively monitored since 1990 because of the risk BSE could pose to public health. In 1995, two adolescents in the United Kingdom died of CJD, and through the early part of 1996, other relatively young people had cases of what became known as new variant CJD, whose transmissible agent (indistinguishable from that of BSE) is responsible for 26 cases in the United Kingdom and one in France. Areas of concern include how many cases will appear in the future and whether or not use of human blood and blood products may cause a second cycle of human infections.

        Cite This Article
    EID Pattison SJ. The Emergence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Related Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):390-394. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980311
    AMA Pattison SJ. The Emergence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Related Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):390-394. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980311.
    APA Pattison, S. J. (1998). The Emergence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Related Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 390-394. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980311.
  • Explaining the Unexplained in Clinical Infectious Diseases: Looking Forward PDF Version [PDF - 241 KB - 3 pages]
    B. A. Perkins and D. Relman
            Cite This Article
    EID Perkins BA, Relman D. Explaining the Unexplained in Clinical Infectious Diseases: Looking Forward. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):395-397. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980312
    AMA Perkins BA, Relman D. Explaining the Unexplained in Clinical Infectious Diseases: Looking Forward. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):395-397. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980312.
    APA Perkins, B. A., & Relman, D. (1998). Explaining the Unexplained in Clinical Infectious Diseases: Looking Forward. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 395-397. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980312.

The Global Threat

  • Malaria: A Reemerging Disease in Africa PDF Version [PDF - 253 KB - 6 pages]
    T. C. Nchinda
        View Abstract

    A recent upsurge of malaria in endemic-disease areas with explosive epidemics in many parts of Africa is probably caused by many factors, including rapidly spreading resistance to antimalarial drugs, climatic changes, and population movements. In Africa, malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum and is transmitted by Anopheles gambiae complex. Control efforts have been piecemeal and not coordinated. Strategies for control should have a solid research base both for developing antimalarial drugs and vaccines and for better understanding the pathogenesis, vector dynamics, epidemiology, and socioeconomic aspects of the disease. An international collaborative approach is needed to build appropriate research in a national context and to effectively translate research results into practical applications in the field. The Multilateral Initiative for Malaria in Africa can combine all of the above strategies to plan and coordinate partnerships, networking, and innovative approaches between African scientists and their Northern partners.

        Cite This Article
    EID Nchinda TC. Malaria: A Reemerging Disease in Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):398-403. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980313
    AMA Nchinda TC. Malaria: A Reemerging Disease in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):398-403. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980313.
    APA Nchinda, T. C. (1998). Malaria: A Reemerging Disease in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 398-403. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980313.
  • Vaccine-Preventable Diseases PDF Version [PDF - 202 KB - 1 page]
    A. C. Mawle
            Cite This Article
    EID Mawle AC. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):404. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980314
    AMA Mawle AC. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):404. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980314.
    APA Mawle, A. C. (1998). Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 404. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980314.
  • Travelers' Health PDF Version [PDF - 239 KB - 3 pages]
    M. S. Cetron et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Cetron MS, Keystone JS, Shlim D, Steffen R. Travelers' Health. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):405-407. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980315
    AMA Cetron MS, Keystone JS, Shlim D, et al. Travelers' Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):405-407. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980315.
    APA Cetron, M. S., Keystone, J. S., Shlim, D., & Steffen, R. (1998). Travelers' Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 405-407. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980315.
  • Global Tuberculosis Challenges PDF Version [PDF - 237 KB - 2 pages]
    K. G. Castro
            Cite This Article
    EID Castro KG. Global Tuberculosis Challenges. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):408-409. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980316
    AMA Castro KG. Global Tuberculosis Challenges. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):408-409. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980316.
    APA Castro, K. G. (1998). Global Tuberculosis Challenges. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 408-409. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980316.
  • Blood Safety PDF Version [PDF - 239 KB - 2 pages]
    M. E. Chamberland et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Chamberland ME, Epstein J, Dodd RY, Persing D, Will RG, DeMaria A, et al. Blood Safety. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):410-411. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980317
    AMA Chamberland ME, Epstein J, Dodd RY, et al. Blood Safety. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):410-411. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980317.
    APA Chamberland, M. E., Epstein, J., Dodd, R. Y., Persing, D., Will, R. G., DeMaria, A....Khabbaz, R. (1998). Blood Safety. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 410-411. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980317.
  • Confronting Emerging Infections: Lessons from the Smallpox Eradication Campaign PDF Version [PDF - 202 KB - 2 pages]
    W. H. Foege
            Cite This Article
    EID Foege WH. Confronting Emerging Infections: Lessons from the Smallpox Eradication Campaign. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):412-413. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980018
    AMA Foege WH. Confronting Emerging Infections: Lessons from the Smallpox Eradication Campaign. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):412-413. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980018.
    APA Foege, W. H. (1998). Confronting Emerging Infections: Lessons from the Smallpox Eradication Campaign. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 412-413. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980018.
  • The Guinea Worm Eradication Effort: Lessons for the Future PDF Version [PDF - 203 KB - 2 pages]
    D. R. Hopkins
            Cite This Article
    EID Hopkins DR. The Guinea Worm Eradication Effort: Lessons for the Future. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):414-415. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980319
    AMA Hopkins DR. The Guinea Worm Eradication Effort: Lessons for the Future. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):414-415. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980319.
    APA Hopkins, D. R. (1998). The Guinea Worm Eradication Effort: Lessons for the Future. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 414-415. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980319.

Populations at Risk

  • Nosocomial Infection Update PDF Version [PDF - 424 KB - 5 pages]
    R. A. Weinstein
        View Abstract

    Historically, staphylococci, pseudomonads, and Escherichia coli have been the nosocomial infection troika; nosocomial pneumonia, surgical wound infections, and vascular accessrelated bacteremia have caused the most illness and death in hospitalized patients; and intensive care units have been the epicenters of antibiotic resistance. Acquired antimicrobial resistance is the major problem, and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen of greatest concern. The shift to outpatient care is leaving the most vulnerable patients in hospitals. Aging of our population and increasingly aggressive medical and surgical interventions, including implanted foreign bodies, organ transplantations, and xenotransplantation, create a cohort of particularly susceptible persons. Renovation of aging hospitals increases risk of airborne fungal and other infections. To prevent and control these emerging nosocomial infections, we need to increase national surveillance, "risk adjust" infection rates so that interhospital comparisons are valid, develop more noninvasive infection-resistant devices, and work with health-care workers on better implementation of existing control measures such as hand washing.

        Cite This Article
    EID Weinstein RA. Nosocomial Infection Update. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):416-420. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980320
    AMA Weinstein RA. Nosocomial Infection Update. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):416-420. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980320.
    APA Weinstein, R. A. (1998). Nosocomial Infection Update. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 416-420. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980320.
  • Opportunistic Infections in Immunodeficient Populations PDF Version [PDF - 236 KB - 2 pages]
    J. E. Kaplan et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Kaplan JE, Roselle G, Sepkowitz K. Opportunistic Infections in Immunodeficient Populations. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):421-422. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980321
    AMA Kaplan JE, Roselle G, Sepkowitz K. Opportunistic Infections in Immunodeficient Populations. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):421-422. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980321.
    APA Kaplan, J. E., Roselle, G., & Sepkowitz, K. (1998). Opportunistic Infections in Immunodeficient Populations. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 421-422. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980321.
  • Host Genes and Infectious Diseases PDF Version [PDF - 246 KB - 4 pages]
    J. McNicholl
            Cite This Article
    EID McNicholl J. Host Genes and Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):423-426. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980322
    AMA McNicholl J. Host Genes and Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):423-426. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980322.
    APA McNicholl, J. (1998). Host Genes and Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 423-426. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980322.
  • Immigrant and Refugee Health PDF Version [PDF - 202 KB - 2 pages]
    S. Cookson et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Cookson S, Waldman R, Gushulak B, MacPherson D, Burkle F, Paquet C, et al. Immigrant and Refugee Health. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):427-428. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980323
    AMA Cookson S, Waldman R, Gushulak B, et al. Immigrant and Refugee Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):427-428. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980323.
    APA Cookson, S., Waldman, R., Gushulak, B., MacPherson, D., Burkle, F., Paquet, C....Walker, P. (1998). Immigrant and Refugee Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 427-428. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980323.

Zoonotic and Vector-borne Issues

  • Emerging Zoonoses PDF Version [PDF - 408 KB - 7 pages]
    F. A. Murphy
        View Abstract

    In the past few years, emergent disease episodes have increased; nearly all have involved zoonotic or species-jumping infectious agents. Because there is no way to predict when or where the next important new zoonotic pathogen will emerge or what its ultimate importance might be, investigation at the first sign of emergence of a new zoonotic disease is particularly important. Such investigation may be described in terms of a discovery-to-control continuum: from recognition of a new disease in a new setting to complex phases involving the hard science disciplines pertaining to discovery, the epidemiologic sciences pertaining to risk assessment, and activities pertaining to risk management. Today, many activities involving zoonotic disease control are at risk because of a failed investigative infrastructure or financial base. Because zoonotic diseases are distinct, their prevention and control will require unique strategies, based more on fundamental research than on traditional approaches. Such strategies require that we rebuild a cadre of career-committed professionals with a holistic appreciation of several medical and biologic sciences.

        Cite This Article
    EID Murphy FA. Emerging Zoonoses. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):429-435. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980324
    AMA Murphy FA. Emerging Zoonoses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):429-435. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980324.
    APA Murphy, F. A. (1998). Emerging Zoonoses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 429-435. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980324.
  • Influenza: An Emerging Disease PDF Version [PDF - 255 KB - 6 pages]
    R. G. Webster
        View Abstract

    Because all known influenza A subtypes exist in the aquatic bird reservoir, influenza is not an eradicable disease; prevention and control are the only realistic goals. If people, pigs, and aquatic birds are the principal variables associated with interspecies transfer of influenza virus and the emergence of new human pandemic strains, influenza surveillance in these species is indicated. Live-bird markets housing a wide variety of avian species together (chickens, ducks, geese, pigeon, turkeys, pheasants, guinea fowl), occasionally with pigs, for sale directly to the public provide outstanding conditions for genetic mixing and spreading of influenza viruses; therefore, these birds should be monitored for influenza viruses. Moreover, if pigs are the mixing vessel for influenza viruses, surveillance in this population may also provide an early warning system for humans.

        Cite This Article
    EID Webster RG. Influenza: An Emerging Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):436-441. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980325
    AMA Webster RG. Influenza: An Emerging Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):436-441. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980325.
    APA Webster, R. G. (1998). Influenza: An Emerging Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 436-441. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980325.
  • Resurgent Vector-Borne Diseases as a Global Health Problem PDF Version [PDF - 681 KB - 9 pages]
    D. J. Gubler
        View Abstract

    Vector-borne infectious diseases are emerging or resurging as a result of changes in public health policy, insecticide and drug resistance, shift in emphasis from prevention to emergency response, demographic and societal changes, and genetic changes in pathogens. Effective prevention strategies can reverse this trend. Research on vaccines, environmentally safe insecticides, alternative approaches to vector control, and training programs for health-care workers are needed.

        Cite This Article
    EID Gubler DJ. Resurgent Vector-Borne Diseases as a Global Health Problem. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):442-450. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980326
    AMA Gubler DJ. Resurgent Vector-Borne Diseases as a Global Health Problem. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):442-450. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980326.
    APA Gubler, D. J. (1998). Resurgent Vector-Borne Diseases as a Global Health Problem. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 442-450. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980326.
  • Global Climate Change and Infectious Diseases PDF Version [PDF - 337 KB - 2 pages]
    R. Colwell et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Colwell R, Epstein P, Gubler D, Hall M, Reiter P, Shukla J, et al. Global Climate Change and Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):451-452. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980327
    AMA Colwell R, Epstein P, Gubler D, et al. Global Climate Change and Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):451-452. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980327.
    APA Colwell, R., Epstein, P., Gubler, D., Hall, M., Reiter, P., Shukla, J....Trtanj, J. (1998). Global Climate Change and Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 451-452. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980327.
  • Emerging Zoonoses PDF Version [PDF - 237 KB - 2 pages]
    J. Childs et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Childs J, Shope RE, Fish D, Meslin FX, Peters CJ, Johnson K, et al. Emerging Zoonoses. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):453-454. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980328
    AMA Childs J, Shope RE, Fish D, et al. Emerging Zoonoses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):453-454. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980328.
    APA Childs, J., Shope, R. E., Fish, D., Meslin, F. X., Peters, C. J., Johnson, K....Jenkins, S. (1998). Emerging Zoonoses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 453-454. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980328.

Emerging Foodborne Pathogens

  • New Approaches to Surveillance and Control of Emerging Foodborne Infectious Diseases PDF Version [PDF - 237 KB - 2 pages]
    R. V. Tauxe
            Cite This Article
    EID Tauxe RV. New Approaches to Surveillance and Control of Emerging Foodborne Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):455-456. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980329
    AMA Tauxe RV. New Approaches to Surveillance and Control of Emerging Foodborne Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):455-456. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980329.
    APA Tauxe, R. V. (1998). New Approaches to Surveillance and Control of Emerging Foodborne Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 455-456. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980329.
  • FoodNet and Enter-net: Emerging Surveillance Programs for Foodborne Diseases PDF Version [PDF - 322 KB - 2 pages]
    S. Yang
            Cite This Article
    EID Yang S. FoodNet and Enter-net: Emerging Surveillance Programs for Foodborne Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):457-458. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980330
    AMA Yang S. FoodNet and Enter-net: Emerging Surveillance Programs for Foodborne Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):457-458. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980330.
    APA Yang, S. (1998). FoodNet and Enter-net: Emerging Surveillance Programs for Foodborne Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 457-458. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980330.
  • Enhancing State Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity for Infectious Diseases PDF Version [PDF - 202 KB - 2 pages]
    D. A. Deppe
            Cite This Article
    EID Deppe DA. Enhancing State Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity for Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):459-460. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980331
    AMA Deppe DA. Enhancing State Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity for Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):459-460. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980331.
    APA Deppe, D. A. (1998). Enhancing State Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity for Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 459-460. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980331.

Communicating the Threat

  • International Cooperation PDF Version [PDF - 200 KB - 1 page]
    J. LeDuc
            Cite This Article
    EID LeDuc J. International Cooperation. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):461. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980332
    AMA LeDuc J. International Cooperation. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):461. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980332.
    APA LeDuc, J. (1998). International Cooperation. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 461. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980332.
  • Public Health Surveillance and Information Technology PDF Version [PDF - 207 KB - 3 pages]
    R. W. Pinner
            Cite This Article
    EID Pinner RW. Public Health Surveillance and Information Technology. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):462-464. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980333
    AMA Pinner RW. Public Health Surveillance and Information Technology. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):462-464. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980333.
    APA Pinner, R. W. (1998). Public Health Surveillance and Information Technology. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 462-464. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980333.
  • Innovative Information-Sharing Strategies PDF Version [PDF - 204 KB - 2 pages]
    B. A. Kay et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Kay BA, Timperi RJ, Morse SS, Forslund D, McGowan JJ, O'Brien T, et al. Innovative Information-Sharing Strategies. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):465-466. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980334
    AMA Kay BA, Timperi RJ, Morse SS, et al. Innovative Information-Sharing Strategies. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):465-466. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980334.
    APA Kay, B. A., Timperi, R. J., Morse, S. S., Forslund, D., McGowan, J. J., & O'Brien, T. (1998). Innovative Information-Sharing Strategies. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 465-466. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980334.
  • Getting the Handle off the Proverbial Pump: Communication Works PDF Version [PDF - 206 KB - 3 pages]
    L. F. Folkers et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Folkers LF, Cerqueira MT, Quick RE, Kanu J, Galea G. Getting the Handle off the Proverbial Pump: Communication Works. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):467-469. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980335
    AMA Folkers LF, Cerqueira MT, Quick RE, et al. Getting the Handle off the Proverbial Pump: Communication Works. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):467-469. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980335.
    APA Folkers, L. F., Cerqueira, M. T., Quick, R. E., Kanu, J., & Galea, G. (1998). Getting the Handle off the Proverbial Pump: Communication Works. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 467-469. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980335.
  • Communicating Infectious Disease Information to the Public PDF Version [PDF - 234 KB - 2 pages]
    E. Abrutyn
            Cite This Article
    EID Abrutyn E. Communicating Infectious Disease Information to the Public. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):470-471. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980336
    AMA Abrutyn E. Communicating Infectious Disease Information to the Public. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):470-471. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980336.
    APA Abrutyn, E. (1998). Communicating Infectious Disease Information to the Public. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 470-471. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980336.
  • APEC Emerging Infections Network: Prospects for Comprehensive Information Sharing on Emerging Infections within the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation PDF Version [PDF - 200 KB - 1 page]
    A. M. Kimball et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Kimball AM, Horwitch C, O'Carroll P, Arjoso S, Kunanusont C, Lin Y, et al. APEC Emerging Infections Network: Prospects for Comprehensive Information Sharing on Emerging Infections within the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):472. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980337
    AMA Kimball AM, Horwitch C, O'Carroll P, et al. APEC Emerging Infections Network: Prospects for Comprehensive Information Sharing on Emerging Infections within the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):472. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980337.
    APA Kimball, A. M., Horwitch, C., O'Carroll, P., Arjoso, S., Kunanusont, C., Lin, Y....Dunham, P. (1998). APEC Emerging Infections Network: Prospects for Comprehensive Information Sharing on Emerging Infections within the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 472. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980337.

Critical Issues for the Future

  • Controversies in the Prevention and Control of Antimicrobial Drug Resistance PDF Version [PDF - 204 KB - 2 pages]
    D. Bell
            Cite This Article
    EID Bell D. Controversies in the Prevention and Control of Antimicrobial Drug Resistance. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):473-474. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980338
    AMA Bell D. Controversies in the Prevention and Control of Antimicrobial Drug Resistance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):473-474. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980338.
    APA Bell, D. (1998). Controversies in the Prevention and Control of Antimicrobial Drug Resistance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 473-474. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980338.
  • Infectious Causes of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases and Cancer PDF Version [PDF - 293 KB - 13 pages]
    G. H. Cassell
        View Abstract

    Powerful diagnostic technology, plus the realization that organisms of otherwise unimpressive virulence can produce slowly progressive chronic disease with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and disease outcomes, has resulted in the discovery of new infectious agents and new concepts of infectious diseases. The demonstration that final outcome of infection is as much determined by the genetic background of the patient as by the genetic makeup of the infecting agent is indicating that a number of chronic diseases of unknown etiology are caused by one or more infectious agents. One well-known example is the discovery that stomach ulcers are due to Helicobacter pylori. Mycoplasmas may cause chronic lung disease in newborns and chronic asthma in adults, and Chlamydia pneumoniae, a recently identified common cause of acute respiratory infection, has been associated with atherosclerosis. A number of infectious agents that cause or contribute to neoplastic diseases in humans have been documented in the past 6 years. The association and causal role of infectious agents in chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer have major implications for public health, treatment, and prevention.

        Cite This Article
    EID Cassell GH. Infectious Causes of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases and Cancer. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):475-487. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980339
    AMA Cassell GH. Infectious Causes of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases and Cancer. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):475-487. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980339.
    APA Cassell, G. H. (1998). Infectious Causes of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases and Cancer. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 475-487. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980339.
  • Bioterrorism as a Public Health Threat PDF Version [PDF - 218 KB - 5 pages]
    D. Henderson
        View Abstract

    The threat of bioterrorism, long ignored and denied, has heightened over the past few years. Recent events in Iraq, Japan, and Russia cast an ominous shadow. Two candidate agents are of special concern: smallpox and anthrax. The magnitude of the problems and the gravity of the scenarios associated with release of these organisms have been vividly portrayed by two epidemics of smallpox in Europe during the 1970s and by an accidental release of aerosolized anthrax from a Russian bioweapons facility in 1979. Efforts in the United States to deal with possible incidents involving bioweapons in the civilian sector have only recently begun and have made only limited progress. Only with substantial additional resources at the federal, state, and local levels can a credible and meaningful response be mounted. For longer-term solutions, the medical community must educate both the public and policy makers about bioterrorism and build a global consensus condemning its use.

        Cite This Article
    EID Henderson D. Bioterrorism as a Public Health Threat. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):488-492. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980340
    AMA Henderson D. Bioterrorism as a Public Health Threat. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):488-492. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980340.
    APA Henderson, D. (1998). Bioterrorism as a Public Health Threat. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 488-492. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980340.
  • Bioterrorism as a Public Health Threat PDF Version [PDF - 622 KB - 2 pages]
    J. E. McDade and D. Franz
            Cite This Article
    EID McDade JE, Franz D. Bioterrorism as a Public Health Threat. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):493-494. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980341
    AMA McDade JE, Franz D. Bioterrorism as a Public Health Threat. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):493-494. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980341.
    APA McDade, J. E., & Franz, D. (1998). Bioterrorism as a Public Health Threat. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 493-494. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980341.
  • Who Speaks for the Microbes? PDF Version [PDF - 336 KB - 3 pages]
    S. Falkow
            Cite This Article
    EID Falkow S. Who Speaks for the Microbes?. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):495-497. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980342
    AMA Falkow S. Who Speaks for the Microbes?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):495-497. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980342.
    APA Falkow, S. (1998). Who Speaks for the Microbes?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 495-497. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980342.
  • Emerging Diseases–What Now? PDF Version [PDF - 209 KB - 3 pages]
    G. A. Alleyne
            Cite This Article
    EID Alleyne GA. Emerging Diseases–What Now?. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):498-500. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980343
    AMA Alleyne GA. Emerging Diseases–What Now?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):498-500. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980343.
    APA Alleyne, G. A. (1998). Emerging Diseases–What Now?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 498-500. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980343.

Summaries from satellite partnership meetings (March 8-12)

  • Plague Diagnostic Workshop PDF Version [PDF - 232 KB - 1 page]
    M. C. Chu
            Cite This Article
    EID Chu MC. Plague Diagnostic Workshop. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):501. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980344
    AMA Chu MC. Plague Diagnostic Workshop. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):501. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980344.
    APA Chu, M. C. (1998). Plague Diagnostic Workshop. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 501. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980344.
  • The U.S.–EU Conference on Extension of the Salm/Enter-net Surveillance System for Human Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157 Infections PDF Version [PDF - 238 KB - 2 pages]
    A. Levitt
            Cite This Article
    EID Levitt A. The U.S.–EU Conference on Extension of the Salm/Enter-net Surveillance System for Human Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157 Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):502-503. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980345
    AMA Levitt A. The U.S.–EU Conference on Extension of the Salm/Enter-net Surveillance System for Human Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157 Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):502-503. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980345.
    APA Levitt, A. (1998). The U.S.–EU Conference on Extension of the Salm/Enter-net Surveillance System for Human Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157 Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 502-503. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980345.
  • ASM/CDC/NIH Training in Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases PDF Version [PDF - 204 KB - 2 pages]
    K. Western
            Cite This Article
    EID Western K. ASM/CDC/NIH Training in Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):504-505. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980346
    AMA Western K. ASM/CDC/NIH Training in Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):504-505. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980346.
    APA Western, K. (1998). ASM/CDC/NIH Training in Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 504-505. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980346.

Volume 4, Number 3—September 1998 - Continued

Letters

  • Outbreak of Suspected Clostridium butyricum Botulism in India PDF Version [PDF - 240 KB - 2 pages]
    R. Chaudhry et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Chaudhry R, Dhawan B, Kumar D, Bhatia R, Gandhi J, Patel R, et al. Outbreak of Suspected Clostridium butyricum Botulism in India. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):506-507. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980347
    AMA Chaudhry R, Dhawan B, Kumar D, et al. Outbreak of Suspected Clostridium butyricum Botulism in India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):506-507. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980347.
    APA Chaudhry, R., Dhawan, B., Kumar, D., Bhatia, R., Gandhi, J., Patel, R....Purohit, B. (1998). Outbreak of Suspected Clostridium butyricum Botulism in India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 506-507. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980347.
  • Molecular Analysis of Salmonella paratyphi A From an Outbreak in New Delhi, India PDF Version [PDF - 241 KB - 2 pages]
    K. Thong et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Thong K, Nair S, Chaudhry R, Seth P, Kapil A, Kumar D, et al. Molecular Analysis of Salmonella paratyphi A From an Outbreak in New Delhi, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):507-508. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980348
    AMA Thong K, Nair S, Chaudhry R, et al. Molecular Analysis of Salmonella paratyphi A From an Outbreak in New Delhi, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):507-508. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980348.
    APA Thong, K., Nair, S., Chaudhry, R., Seth, P., Kapil, A., Kumar, D....Pang, T. (1998). Molecular Analysis of Salmonella paratyphi A From an Outbreak in New Delhi, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 507-508. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980348.
  • Unrecognized Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever at Mosango Hospital during the 1995 Epidemic in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo PDF Version [PDF - 245 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Bonnet et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Bonnet M, Akamituna P, Mazaya A. Unrecognized Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever at Mosango Hospital during the 1995 Epidemic in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):508-510. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980349
    AMA Bonnet M, Akamituna P, Mazaya A. Unrecognized Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever at Mosango Hospital during the 1995 Epidemic in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):508-510. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980349.
    APA Bonnet, M., Akamituna, P., & Mazaya, A. (1998). Unrecognized Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever at Mosango Hospital during the 1995 Epidemic in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 508-510. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980349.
  • Classification of Reactive Arthritides PDF Version [PDF - 244 KB - 3 pages]
    D. R. Blumberg and V. S. Sloan
            Cite This Article
    EID Blumberg DR, Sloan VS. Classification of Reactive Arthritides. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):510-512. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980350
    AMA Blumberg DR, Sloan VS. Classification of Reactive Arthritides. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):510-512. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980350.
    APA Blumberg, D. R., & Sloan, V. S. (1998). Classification of Reactive Arthritides. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 510-512. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980350.
  • Reply to Drs. Blumberg and Sloan PDF Version [PDF - 235 KB - 1 page]
    J. A. Lindsay
            Cite This Article
    EID Lindsay JA. Reply to Drs. Blumberg and Sloan. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):512. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980351
    AMA Lindsay JA. Reply to Drs. Blumberg and Sloan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):512. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980351.
    APA Lindsay, J. A. (1998). Reply to Drs. Blumberg and Sloan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 512. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980351.
  • Cost of Blood Screening PDF Version [PDF - 235 KB - 1 page]
    O. J. Chang
            Cite This Article
    EID Chang OJ. Cost of Blood Screening. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):512. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980352
    AMA Chang OJ. Cost of Blood Screening. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):512. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980352.
    APA Chang, O. J. (1998). Cost of Blood Screening. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 512. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980352.

Books and Media

  • Emerging Infections PDF Version [PDF - 233 KB - 1 page]
    B. W. Mahy
            Cite This Article
    EID Mahy BW. Emerging Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):513. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980353
    AMA Mahy BW. Emerging Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):513. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980353.
    APA Mahy, B. W. (1998). Emerging Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 513. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980353.

About the Cover

Corrections

  • Vol. 4, No. 2 PDF Version [PDF - 167 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID Vol. 4, No. 2. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):515. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980355
    AMA Vol. 4, No. 2. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):515. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980355.
    APA (1998). Vol. 4, No. 2. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 515. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980355.

News and Notes

  • CDC To Release Updated Emerging Infectious Disease Plan PDF Version [PDF - 203 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID CDC To Release Updated Emerging Infectious Disease Plan. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):514. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980354
    AMA CDC To Release Updated Emerging Infectious Disease Plan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):514. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980354.
    APA (1998). CDC To Release Updated Emerging Infectious Disease Plan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 514. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980354.
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