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Volume 6, Number 3—June 2000

Volume 6, Number 3—June 2000   PDF Version [PDF - 4.65 MB - 106 pages]

Perspective

  • Remote Sensing and Human Health: New Sensors and New Opportunities PDF Version [PDF - 811 KB - 11 pages]
    L. R. Beck et al.
        View Abstract

    Since the launch of Landsat-1 28 years ago, remotely sensed data have been used to map features on the earth's surface. An increasing number of health studies have used remotely sensed data for monitoring, surveillance, or risk mapping, particularly of vector-borne diseases. Nearly all studies used data from Landsat, the French Système Pour l'Observation de la Terre, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. New sensor systems are in orbit, or soon to be launched, whose data may prove useful for characterizing and monitoring the spatial and temporal patterns of infectious diseases. Increased computing power and spatial modeling capabilities of geographic information systems could extend the use of remote sensing beyond the research community into operational disease surveillance and control. This article illustrates how remotely sensed data have been used in health applications and assesses earth-observing satellites that could detect and map environmental variables related to the distribution of vector-borne and other diseases.

        Cite This Article
    EID Beck LR, Lobitz BM, Wood BL. Remote Sensing and Human Health: New Sensors and New Opportunities. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(3):217-227. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000301
    AMA Beck LR, Lobitz BM, Wood BL. Remote Sensing and Human Health: New Sensors and New Opportunities. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(3):217-227. doi:10.3201/eid0603.000301.
    APA Beck, L. R., Lobitz, B. M., & Wood, B. L. (2000). Remote Sensing and Human Health: New Sensors and New Opportunities. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(3), 217-227. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000301.
  • A Dynamic Transmission Model for Predicting Trends in Helicobacter pylori and Associated Diseases in the United States PDF Version [PDF - 211 KB - 10 pages]
    M. F. Rupnow et al.
        View Abstract

    To assess the benefits of intervention programs against Helicobacter pylori infection, we estimated the baseline curves of its incidence and prevalence. We developed a mathematical (compartmental) model of the intrinsic dynamics of H. pylori, which represents the natural history of infection and disease progression. Our model divided the population according to age, infection status, and clinical state. Case-patients were followed from birth to death. A proportion of the population acquired H. pylori infection and became ill with gastritis, duodenal ulcer, chronic atrophic gastritis, or gastric cancer. We simulated the change in transmissibility consistent with the incidence of gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer over time, as well as current H. pylori prevalence. In the United States, transmissibility of H. pylori has decreased to values so low that, should this trend continue, the organism will disappear from the population without targeted intervention; this process, however, will take more than a century.

        Cite This Article
    EID Rupnow MF, Shachter RD, Owens DK, Parsonnet J. A Dynamic Transmission Model for Predicting Trends in Helicobacter pylori and Associated Diseases in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(3):228-237. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000302
    AMA Rupnow MF, Shachter RD, Owens DK, et al. A Dynamic Transmission Model for Predicting Trends in Helicobacter pylori and Associated Diseases in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(3):228-237. doi:10.3201/eid0603.000302.
    APA Rupnow, M. F., Shachter, R. D., Owens, D. K., & Parsonnet, J. (2000). A Dynamic Transmission Model for Predicting Trends in Helicobacter pylori and Associated Diseases in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(3), 228-237. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000302.

Research

  • Using Remotely Sensed Data To Identify Areas at Risk for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome PDF Version [PDF - 81 KB - 10 pages]
    G. E. Glass et al.
        View Abstract

    The 1993 U.S. hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) outbreak was attributed to environmental conditions and increased rodent populations caused by unusual weather in 1991-92. In a case-control study to test this hypothesis, we estimated precipitation at 28 HPS and 170 control sites during the springs of 1992 and 1993 and compared it with precipitation during the previous 6 years by using rainfall patterns at 196 weather stations. We also used elevation data and Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite imagery collected the year before the outbreak to estimate HPS risk by logistic regression analysis. Rainfall at case sites was not higher during 1992-93 than in previous years. However, elevation, as well as satellite data, showed association between environmental conditions and HPS risk the following year. Repeated analysis using satellite imagery from 1995 showed substantial decrease in medium- to high-risk areas. Only one case of HPS was identified in 1996.

        Cite This Article
    EID Glass GE, Cheek JE, Patz JA, Shields TM, Doyle TJ, Thoroughman DA, et al. Using Remotely Sensed Data To Identify Areas at Risk for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(3):238-247. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000303
    AMA Glass GE, Cheek JE, Patz JA, et al. Using Remotely Sensed Data To Identify Areas at Risk for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(3):238-247. doi:10.3201/eid0603.000303.
    APA Glass, G. E., Cheek, J. E., Patz, J. A., Shields, T. M., Doyle, T. J., Thoroughman, D. A....Bryan, R. (2000). Using Remotely Sensed Data To Identify Areas at Risk for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(3), 238-247. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000303.
  • Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems: Charting Sin Nombre Virus Infections in Deer Mice PDF Version [PDF - 1.85 MB - 11 pages]
    J. D. Boone et al.
        View Abstract

    We tested environmental data from remote sensing and geographic information system maps as indicators of Sin Nombre virus (SNV) infections in deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) populations in the Walker River Basin, Nevada and California. We determined by serologic testing the presence of SNV infections in deer mice from 144 field sites. We used remote sensing and geographic information systems data to characterize the vegetation type and density, elevation, slope, and hydrologic features of each site. The data retroactively predicted infection status of deer mice with up to 80% accuracy. If models of SNV temporal dynamics can be integrated with baseline spatial models, human risk for infection may be assessed with reasonable accuracy.

        Cite This Article
    EID Boone JD, McGwire KC, Otteson EW, DeBaca RS, Kuhn EA, Villard P, et al. Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems: Charting Sin Nombre Virus Infections in Deer Mice. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(3):248-258. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000304
    AMA Boone JD, McGwire KC, Otteson EW, et al. Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems: Charting Sin Nombre Virus Infections in Deer Mice. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(3):248-258. doi:10.3201/eid0603.000304.
    APA Boone, J. D., McGwire, K. C., Otteson, E. W., DeBaca, R. S., Kuhn, E. A., Villard, P....St. Jeor, S. C. (2000). Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems: Charting Sin Nombre Virus Infections in Deer Mice. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(3), 248-258. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000304.
  • Potential Human Exposure to Australian Bat Lyssavirus, Queensland, 1996-1999 PDF Version [PDF - 53 KB - 6 pages]
    B. J. McCall et al.
        View Abstract

    Two human deaths caused by Australian bat lyssavirus (ABL) infection have been reported since 1996. Information was obtained from 205 persons (mostly adults from south Brisbane and the South Coast of Queensland), who reported potential ABL exposure to the Brisbane Southside Public Health Unit from November 1,1996, to January 31, 1999. Volunteer animal handlers accounted for 39% of potential exposures, their family members for 12%, professional animal handlers for 14%, community members who intentionally handled bats for 31%, and community members with contacts initiated by bats for 4%. The prevalence of Lyssavirus detected by fluorescent antibody test in 366 sick, injured, or orphaned bats from the area was 6%. Sequelae of exposure, including the requirement for expensive postexposure prophylaxis, may be reduced by educating bat handlers and the public of the risks involved in handling Australian bats.

        Cite This Article
    EID McCall BJ, Epstein JH, Neill AS, Heel K, Field HE, Barrett J, et al. Potential Human Exposure to Australian Bat Lyssavirus, Queensland, 1996-1999. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(3):259-264. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000305
    AMA McCall BJ, Epstein JH, Neill AS, et al. Potential Human Exposure to Australian Bat Lyssavirus, Queensland, 1996-1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(3):259-264. doi:10.3201/eid0603.000305.
    APA McCall, B. J., Epstein, J. H., Neill, A. S., Heel, K., Field, H. E., Barrett, J....Lunt, R. (2000). Potential Human Exposure to Australian Bat Lyssavirus, Queensland, 1996-1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(3), 259-264. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000305.
  • Genetic Variation in Pneumocystis carinii Isolates from Different Geographic Regions: Implications for Transmission PDF Version [PDF - 61 KB - 8 pages]
    C. B. Beard et al.
        View Abstract

    To study transmission patterns of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in persons with AIDS, we evaluated P. carinii isolates from patients in five U.S. cities for variation at two independent genetic loci, the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA and dihydropteroate synthase. Fourteen unique multilocus genotypes were observed in 191 isolates that were examined at both loci. Mixed infections, accounting for 17.8% of cases, were associated with primary PCP. Genotype frequency distribution patterns varied by patients' place of diagnosis but not by place of birth. Genetic variation at the two loci suggests three probable characteristics of transmission: that most cases of PCP do not result from infections acquired early in life, that infections are actively acquired from a relatively common source (humans or the environment), and that humans, while not necessarily involved in direct infection of other humans, are nevertheless important in the transmission cycle of P. carinii f. sp. hominis.

        Cite This Article
    EID Beard CB, Carter JL, Keely SP, Huang L, Pieniazek NJ, Moura IN, et al. Genetic Variation in Pneumocystis carinii Isolates from Different Geographic Regions: Implications for Transmission. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(3):265-272. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000306
    AMA Beard CB, Carter JL, Keely SP, et al. Genetic Variation in Pneumocystis carinii Isolates from Different Geographic Regions: Implications for Transmission. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(3):265-272. doi:10.3201/eid0603.000306.
    APA Beard, C. B., Carter, J. L., Keely, S. P., Huang, L., Pieniazek, N. J., Moura, I. N....Navin, T. R. (2000). Genetic Variation in Pneumocystis carinii Isolates from Different Geographic Regions: Implications for Transmission. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(3), 265-272. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000306.
  • Rhinosporidium seeberi: A Human Pathogen from a Novel Group of Aquatic Protistan Parasites PDF Version [PDF - 289 KB - 10 pages]
    D. N. Fredricks et al.
        View Abstract

    Rhinosporidium seeberi, a microorganism that can infect the mucosal surfaces of humans and animals, has been classified as a fungus on the basis of morphologic and histochemical characteristics. Using consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we amplified a portion of the R. seeberi 18S rRNA gene directly from infected tissue. Analysis of the aligned sequence and inference of phylogenetic relationships showed that R. seeberi is a protist from a novel clade of parasites that infect fish and amphibians. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and R. seeberi-specific PCR showed that this unique 18S rRNA sequence is also present in other tissues infected with R. seeberi. Our data support the R. seeberi phylogeny recently suggested by another group. R. seeberi is not a classic fungus, but rather the first known human pathogen from the DRIPs clade, a novel clade of aquatic protistan parasites (Ichthyosporea).

        Cite This Article
    EID Fredricks DN, Jolley JA, Lepp PW, Kosek JC, Relman DA. Rhinosporidium seeberi: A Human Pathogen from a Novel Group of Aquatic Protistan Parasites. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(3):273-282. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000307
    AMA Fredricks DN, Jolley JA, Lepp PW, et al. Rhinosporidium seeberi: A Human Pathogen from a Novel Group of Aquatic Protistan Parasites. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(3):273-282. doi:10.3201/eid0603.000307.
    APA Fredricks, D. N., Jolley, J. A., Lepp, P. W., Kosek, J. C., & Relman, D. A. (2000). Rhinosporidium seeberi: A Human Pathogen from a Novel Group of Aquatic Protistan Parasites. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(3), 273-282. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000307.
  • High Prevalence of Penicillin-Nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae at a Community Hospital in Oklahoma PDF Version [PDF - 34 KB - 7 pages]
    R. L. Moolenaar et al.
        View Abstract

    During 1997, Oklahoma City's Hospital A reported penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in almost 67% of isolates. To confirm this finding, all Hospital A S. pneumoniae isolates from October 23, 1997, through February 19, 1998, were tested for antibiotic susceptibility and repeat-tested at two other hospital laboratories. Medical records of Hospital A patients with invasive S. pneumoniae infections during 1994 through 1997 were also reviewed. These data were compared with 1998 statewide sentinel hospital surveillance data for invasive S. pneumoniae. Of 48 S. pneumoniae isolates from Hospital A during October 23, 1997, through February 19, 1998, 31 (65%) were penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae, and 23 (48%) were highly penicillin resistant. Similar prevalences were confirmed at the other hospital laboratories; however, significant interlaboratory differences were noted in the determination of third-generation cephalosporin susceptibility. During 1994 through 1997, a trend toward increasing penicillin nonsusceptibility (p <0.05) was noted among S. pneumoniae isolates from nursing home patients. During 1998, 85 (30%) of 282 invasive isolates reported to the state surveillance system were penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae; 33 (12%) were highly resistant. The increase in resistance observed is notable; the interlaboratory discrepancies are unexplained. To respond, a vaccination program was implemented at Hospital A, and vaccination efforts were initiated at nursing homes.

        Cite This Article
    EID Moolenaar RL, Pasley-Shaw R, Harkess JR, Lee A, Crutcher JM. High Prevalence of Penicillin-Nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae at a Community Hospital in Oklahoma. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(3):283-289. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000308
    AMA Moolenaar RL, Pasley-Shaw R, Harkess JR, et al. High Prevalence of Penicillin-Nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae at a Community Hospital in Oklahoma. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(3):283-289. doi:10.3201/eid0603.000308.
    APA Moolenaar, R. L., Pasley-Shaw, R., Harkess, J. R., Lee, A., & Crutcher, J. M. (2000). High Prevalence of Penicillin-Nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae at a Community Hospital in Oklahoma. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(3), 283-289. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000308.

Dispatches

  • Rickettsia mongolotimonae: A Rare Pathogen in France PDF Version [PDF - 31 KB - 3 pages]
    P. Fournier et al.
        View Abstract

    We report a second case of laboratory-confirmed infection caused by Rickettsia mongolotimonae in Marseille, France. This rickettsiosis may represent a new clinical entity; moreover, its geographic distribution may be broader than previously documented. This pathogen should be systematically considered in the differential diagnosis of atypical rickettsioses, especially rashless fevers with lymphangitis and lymphadenopathy, in southern France and perhaps elsewhere.

        Cite This Article
    EID Fournier P, Tissot-Dupont H, Gallais H, Raoult D. Rickettsia mongolotimonae: A Rare Pathogen in France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(3):290-292. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000309
    AMA Fournier P, Tissot-Dupont H, Gallais H, et al. Rickettsia mongolotimonae: A Rare Pathogen in France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(3):290-292. doi:10.3201/eid0603.000309.
    APA Fournier, P., Tissot-Dupont, H., Gallais, H., & Raoult, D. (2000). Rickettsia mongolotimonae: A Rare Pathogen in France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(3), 290-292. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000309.
  • Costs and Benefits of a Subtype-Specific Surveillance System for Identifying Escherichia coli O157:H7 Outbreaks PDF Version [PDF - 42 KB - 5 pages]
    E. H. Elbasha et al.
        View Abstract

    We assessed the societal costs and benefits of a subtype-specific surveillance system for identifying outbreak-associated Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections. Using data from Colorado, we estimated that if it averted five cases annually, the system would recover all its costs.

        Cite This Article
    EID Elbasha EH, Fitzsimmons TD, Meltzer MI. Costs and Benefits of a Subtype-Specific Surveillance System for Identifying Escherichia coli O157:H7 Outbreaks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(3):293-297. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000310
    AMA Elbasha EH, Fitzsimmons TD, Meltzer MI. Costs and Benefits of a Subtype-Specific Surveillance System for Identifying Escherichia coli O157:H7 Outbreaks. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(3):293-297. doi:10.3201/eid0603.000310.
    APA Elbasha, E. H., Fitzsimmons, T. D., & Meltzer, M. I. (2000). Costs and Benefits of a Subtype-Specific Surveillance System for Identifying Escherichia coli O157:H7 Outbreaks. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(3), 293-297. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000310.
  • Dengue Epidemic in Belém, Pará, Brazil, 1996-97 PDF Version [PDF - 26 KB - 4 pages]
    A. P. Travassos da Rosa et al.
        View Abstract

    We describe clinical and epidemiologic findings during the first epidemic of dengue fever in Belém, Pará State, Brazil, in 1996-97. Of 40,237 serum samples, 17,440 (43%) were positive for dengue by virus isolation or serologic testing. No hemorrhagic cases or deaths were reported.

        Cite This Article
    EID Travassos da Rosa AP, Vasconcelos P, Travassos da Rosa ES, Rodrigues SG, Mondet B, Cruz AC, et al. Dengue Epidemic in Belém, Pará, Brazil, 1996-97. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(3):298-301. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000311
    AMA Travassos da Rosa AP, Vasconcelos P, Travassos da Rosa ES, et al. Dengue Epidemic in Belém, Pará, Brazil, 1996-97. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(3):298-301. doi:10.3201/eid0603.000311.
    APA Travassos da Rosa, A. P., Vasconcelos, P., Travassos da Rosa, E. S., Rodrigues, S. G., Mondet, B., Cruz, A. C....Travassos da Rosa, J. F. (2000). Dengue Epidemic in Belém, Pará, Brazil, 1996-97. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(3), 298-301. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000311.
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Genotype Emerging in Vietnam PDF Version [PDF - 23 KB - 4 pages]
    D. D. Anh et al.
        View Abstract

    To assess whether the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype is emerging in Vietnam, we analyzed 563 isolates from new cases by spoligotyping and examined the association between the genotype and age, resistance, and BCG vaccination status. Three hundred one (54%) patients were infected with Beijing genotype strains. The genotype was associated with younger age (and hence with active transmission) and with isoniazid and streptomycin resistance, but not with BCG vaccination.

        Cite This Article
    EID Anh DD, Borgdorff MW, Van L, Lan N, van Gorkom T, Kremer K, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Genotype Emerging in Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(3):302-305. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000312
    AMA Anh DD, Borgdorff MW, Van L, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Genotype Emerging in Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(3):302-305. doi:10.3201/eid0603.000312.
    APA Anh, D. D., Borgdorff, M. W., Van, L., Lan, N., van Gorkom, T., Kremer, K....van Soolingen, D. (2000). Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Genotype Emerging in Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(3), 302-305. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000312.
  • Bartonella spp. Isolated from Wild and Domestic Ruminants in North America PDF Version [PDF - 78 KB - 6 pages]
    C. Chang et al.
        View Abstract

    Bartonella species were isolated from 49% of 128 cattle from California and Oklahoma, 90% of 42 mule deer from California, and 15% of 100 elk from California and Oregon. Isolates from all 63 cattle, 14 deer, and 1 elk had the same polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles. Our findings indicate potential for inter- and intraspecies transmission among ruminants, as well as risk that these Bartonella spp. could act as zoonotic agents.

        Cite This Article
    EID Chang C, Chomel BB, Kasten RW, Heller R, Kocan KM, Ueno H, et al. Bartonella spp. Isolated from Wild and Domestic Ruminants in North America . Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(3):306-311. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000313
    AMA Chang C, Chomel BB, Kasten RW, et al. Bartonella spp. Isolated from Wild and Domestic Ruminants in North America . Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(3):306-311. doi:10.3201/eid0603.000313.
    APA Chang, C., Chomel, B. B., Kasten, R. W., Heller, R., Kocan, K. M., Ueno, H....Piémont, Y. (2000). Bartonella spp. Isolated from Wild and Domestic Ruminants in North America . Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(3), 306-311. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000313.

Letters

  • Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa with Acquired bla Metallo-ß-Lactamase Determinants, Italy PDF Version [PDF - 18 KB - 2 pages]
    G. Rossolini et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Rossolini G, Riccio ML, Cornaglia G, Pagani L, Lagatolla C, Selan L, et al. Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa with Acquired blavim Metallo-ß-Lactamase Determinants, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(3):312-313. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000314
    AMA Rossolini G, Riccio ML, Cornaglia G, et al. Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa with Acquired blavim Metallo-ß-Lactamase Determinants, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(3):312-313. doi:10.3201/eid0603.000314.
    APA Rossolini, G., Riccio, M. L., Cornaglia, G., Pagani, L., Lagatolla, C., Selan, L....Fontana, R. (2000). Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa with Acquired blavim Metallo-ß-Lactamase Determinants, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(3), 312-313. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000314.
  • Malaria and Global Warming in Perspective? PDF Version [PDF - 17 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Martens
            Cite This Article
    EID Martens P. Malaria and Global Warming in Perspective?. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(3):313-314. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000315
    AMA Martens P. Malaria and Global Warming in Perspective?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(3):313-314. doi:10.3201/eid0603.000315.
    APA Martens, P. (2000). Malaria and Global Warming in Perspective?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(3), 313-314. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000315.
  • Serologic Evidence of Human Monocytic and Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in Israel PDF Version [PDF - 12 KB - 1 page]
    P. Brouqui and J. S. Dumler
            Cite This Article
    EID Brouqui P, Dumler JS. Serologic Evidence of Human Monocytic and Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(3):314. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000316
    AMA Brouqui P, Dumler JS. Serologic Evidence of Human Monocytic and Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(3):314. doi:10.3201/eid0603.000316.
    APA Brouqui, P., & Dumler, J. S. (2000). Serologic Evidence of Human Monocytic and Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(3), 314. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000316.
  • Serologic Evidence of Human Monocytic and Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in Israel PDF Version [PDF - 9 KB - 1 page]
    A. Keysary and T. Waner
            Cite This Article
    EID Keysary A, Waner T. Serologic Evidence of Human Monocytic and Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(3):315. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000317
    AMA Keysary A, Waner T. Serologic Evidence of Human Monocytic and Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(3):315. doi:10.3201/eid0603.000317.
    APA Keysary, A., & Waner, T. (2000). Serologic Evidence of Human Monocytic and Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(3), 315. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000317.

About the Cover

Corrections

  • Erratum Vol. 5, No. 5 PDF Version [PDF - 8 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID Erratum Vol. 5, No. 5. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(3):317. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000318
    AMA Erratum Vol. 5, No. 5. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(3):317. doi:10.3201/eid0603.000318.
    APA (2000). Erratum Vol. 5, No. 5. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(3), 317. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0603.000318.
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