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Volume 7, Number 7—June 2001

Volume 7, Number 7—June 2001   PDF Version [PDF - 2.24 MB - 122 pages]

THEME ISSUE
International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases 2000

Conference Presentations

  • About the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases 2000 PDF Version [PDF - 352 KB - 1 page]
    D. Drotman et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Drotman D, Jaffe HW, Schable CA, Feinman L. About the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases 2000. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):493. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017701
    AMA Drotman D, Jaffe HW, Schable CA, et al. About the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):493. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017701.
    APA Drotman, D., Jaffe, H. W., Schable, C. A., & Feinman, L. (2001). About the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 493. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017701.
  • Emerging Infectious Diseases: A CDC Perspective PDF Version [PDF - 508 KB - 3 pages]
    J. M. Hughes
            Cite This Article
    EID Hughes JM. Emerging Infectious Diseases: A CDC Perspective. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):494-496. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017702
    AMA Hughes JM. Emerging Infectious Diseases: A CDC Perspective. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):494-496. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017702.
    APA Hughes, J. M. (2001). Emerging Infectious Diseases: A CDC Perspective. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 494-496. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017702.
  • Emerging Viral Diseases of Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific PDF Version [PDF - 410 KB - 8 pages]
    J. Mackenzie et al.
        View Abstract

    Over the past 6 years, a number of zoonotic and vectorborne viral diseases have emerged in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. Vectorborne disease agents discussed in this article include Japanese encephalitis, Barmah Forest, Ross River, and Chikungunya viruses. However, most emerging viruses have been zoonotic, with fruit bats, including the flying fox species as the probable wildlife hosts, and these will be discussed as well. The first of these disease agents to emerge was Hendra virus, formerly called equine morbillivirus. This was followed by outbreaks caused by a rabies-related virus, Australian bat lyssavirus, and a virus associated with porcine stillbirths and malformations, Menangle virus. Nipah virus caused an outbreak of fatal pneumonia in pigs and encephalitis in humans in the Malay Peninsula. Most recently, Tioman virus has been isolated from flying foxes, but it has not yet been associated with animal or human disease. Of nonzoonotic viruses, the most important regionally have been enterovirus 71 and HIV.

        Cite This Article
    EID Mackenzie J, Chua K, Daniels P, Eaton B, Field H, Hall R, et al. Emerging Viral Diseases of Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):497-504. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017703
    AMA Mackenzie J, Chua K, Daniels P, et al. Emerging Viral Diseases of Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):497-504. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017703.
    APA Mackenzie, J., Chua, K., Daniels, P., Eaton, B., Field, H., Hall, R....Williams, D. (2001). Emerging Viral Diseases of Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 497-504. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017703.
  • Epidemiology, Evolution, and Future of the HIV/AIDS Pandemic PDF Version [PDF - 457 KB - 7 pages]
    B. R. Levin et al.
        View Abstract

    We used mathematical models to address several questions concerning the epidemiologic and evolutionary future of HIV/AIDS in human populations. Our analysis suggests that 1) when HIV first enters a human population, and for many subsequent years, the epidemic is driven by early transmissions, possibly occurring before donors have seroconverted to HIV-positive status; 2) new HIV infections in a subpopulation (risk group) may decline or level off due to the saturation of the susceptible hosts rather than to evolution of the virus or to the efficacy of intervention, education, and public health measures; 3) evolution in humans for resistance to HIV infection or for the infection to engender a lower death rate will require thousands of years and will be achieved only after vast numbers of persons die of AIDS; 4) evolution is unlikely to increase the virulence of HIV; and 5) if HIV chemotherapy reduces the transmissibility of the virus, treating individual patients can reduce the frequency of HIV infections and AIDS deaths in the general population.

        Cite This Article
    EID Levin BR, Bull J, Stewart FM. Epidemiology, Evolution, and Future of the HIV/AIDS Pandemic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):505-511. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017704
    AMA Levin BR, Bull J, Stewart FM. Epidemiology, Evolution, and Future of the HIV/AIDS Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):505-511. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017704.
    APA Levin, B. R., Bull, J., & Stewart, F. M. (2001). Epidemiology, Evolution, and Future of the HIV/AIDS Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 505-511. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017704.
  • Antibacterial Household Products: Cause for Concern PDF Version [PDF - 375 KB - 4 pages]
    S. B. Levy
        View Abstract

    The recent entry of products containing antibacterial agents into healthy households has escalated from a few dozen products in the mid-1990s to more than 700 today. Antibacterial products were developed and have been successfully used to prevent transmission of disease-causing microorganisms among patients, particularly in hospitals. They are now being added to products used in healthy households, even though an added health benefit has not been demonstrated. Scientists are concerned that the antibacterial agents will select bacteria resistant to them and cross-resistant to antibiotics. Moreover, if they alter a person's microflora, they may negatively affect the normal maturation of the T helper cell response of the immune system to commensal flora antigens; this change could lead to a greater chance of allergies in children. As with antibiotics, prudent use of these products is urged. Their designated purpose is to protect vulnerable patients.

        Cite This Article
    EID Levy SB. Antibacterial Household Products: Cause for Concern. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):512-515. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017705
    AMA Levy SB. Antibacterial Household Products: Cause for Concern. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):512-515. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017705.
    APA Levy, S. B. (2001). Antibacterial Household Products: Cause for Concern. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 512-515. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017705.
  • Food Safety and Irradiation: Protecting the Public from Foodborne Infections PDF Version [PDF - 393 KB - 6 pages]
    R. V. Tauxe
            Cite This Article
    EID Tauxe RV. Food Safety and Irradiation: Protecting the Public from Foodborne Infections . Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):516-521. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017706
    AMA Tauxe RV. Food Safety and Irradiation: Protecting the Public from Foodborne Infections . Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):516-521. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017706.
    APA Tauxe, R. V. (2001). Food Safety and Irradiation: Protecting the Public from Foodborne Infections . Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 516-521. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017706.
  • Public/Private Sector Partnership For Emerging Infections PDF Version [PDF - 391 KB - 4 pages]
    E. C. Bond
        View Abstract

    This paper gives examples of public/private partnerships that support research, support drug development and that advance policy development, suggesting that such partnerships can advance our understanding and control of emerging infections. The investment in emerging infectious diseases from government and from industry is currently much larger than that from philanthropy. Nevertheless philanthropy, even with limited dollars, is able to play a catalytic function and provide risk capital for innovative partnerships and could in the future play an even larger role if the value of such investment is better defined and argued to recruit additional dollars to this area.

        Cite This Article
    EID Bond EC. Public/Private Sector Partnership For Emerging Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):522-525. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017707
    AMA Bond EC. Public/Private Sector Partnership For Emerging Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):522-525. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017707.
    APA Bond, E. C. (2001). Public/Private Sector Partnership For Emerging Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 522-525. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017707.
  • Adaptation of Bordetella pertussis to Vaccination: A Cause for Its Reemergence? PDF Version [PDF - 401 KB - 3 pages]
    F. R. Mooi et al.
        View Abstract

    In The Netherlands, as in many other western countries, pertussis vaccines have been used extensively for more than 40 years. Therefore, it is conceivable that vaccine-induced immunity has affected the evolution of B. pertussis. Consistent with this notion, pertussis has reemerged in The Netherlands, despite high vaccination coverage. Further, a notable change in the population structure of B. pertussis was observed in The Netherlands subsequent to the introduction of vaccination in the 1950s. Finally, we observed antigenic divergence between clinical isolates and vaccine strains, in particular with respect to the surface-associated proteins pertactin and pertussis toxin. Adaptation may have allowed B. pertussis to remain endemic despite widespread vaccination and may have contributed to the reemergence of pertussis in The Netherlands.

        Cite This Article
    EID Mooi FR, van Loo I, King A. Adaptation of Bordetella pertussis to Vaccination: A Cause for Its Reemergence?. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):526-528. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017708
    AMA Mooi FR, van Loo I, King A. Adaptation of Bordetella pertussis to Vaccination: A Cause for Its Reemergence?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):526-528. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017708.
    APA Mooi, F. R., van Loo, I., & King, A. (2001). Adaptation of Bordetella pertussis to Vaccination: A Cause for Its Reemergence?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 526-528. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017708.

Conference Panel Summaries

  • Strengthening Capability for Malaria Research in Africa PDF Version [PDF - 355 KB - 2 pages]
    F. Zicker
            Cite This Article
    EID Zicker F. Strengthening Capability for Malaria Research in Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):529-530. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017709
    AMA Zicker F. Strengthening Capability for Malaria Research in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):529-530. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017709.
    APA Zicker, F. (2001). Strengthening Capability for Malaria Research in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 529-530. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017709.
  • Toward a National Laboratory System for Public Health PDF Version [PDF - 347 KB - 1 page]
    M. R. Skeels
            Cite This Article
    EID Skeels MR. Toward a National Laboratory System for Public Health. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):531. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017710
    AMA Skeels MR. Toward a National Laboratory System for Public Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):531. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017710.
    APA Skeels, M. R. (2001). Toward a National Laboratory System for Public Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 531. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017710.
  • Early Opportunities for Prevention: Infections of Pregnant Women and Young Infants PDF Version [PDF - 353 KB - 1 page]
    A. Schuchat et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Schuchat A, Hillier S, Edwards K, Schrag S, Labbok M. Early Opportunities for Prevention: Infections of Pregnant Women and Young Infants. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):532. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017711
    AMA Schuchat A, Hillier S, Edwards K, et al. Early Opportunities for Prevention: Infections of Pregnant Women and Young Infants. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):532. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017711.
    APA Schuchat, A., Hillier, S., Edwards, K., Schrag, S., & Labbok, M. (2001). Early Opportunities for Prevention: Infections of Pregnant Women and Young Infants. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 532. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017711.
  • Teaming Up to Prevent Foodborne Disease PDF Version [PDF - 358 KB - 1 page]
    A. P. Liang et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Liang AP, Koopmans M, Doyle MP, Bernard DT, Brewer CE. Teaming Up to Prevent Foodborne Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):533. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017712
    AMA Liang AP, Koopmans M, Doyle MP, et al. Teaming Up to Prevent Foodborne Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):533. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017712.
    APA Liang, A. P., Koopmans, M., Doyle, M. P., Bernard, D. T., & Brewer, C. E. (2001). Teaming Up to Prevent Foodborne Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 533. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017712.
  • Ethical and Legal Issues in Infectious Disease Research and Control PDF Version [PDF - 353 KB - 1 page]
    C. Grady et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Grady C, Ramjee G, Pape JW, Hofman K, Speers M. Ethical and Legal Issues in Infectious Disease Research and Control. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):534. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017713
    AMA Grady C, Ramjee G, Pape JW, et al. Ethical and Legal Issues in Infectious Disease Research and Control. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):534. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017713.
    APA Grady, C., Ramjee, G., Pape, J. W., Hofman, K., & Speers, M. (2001). Ethical and Legal Issues in Infectious Disease Research and Control. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 534. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017713.
  • Injection Safety PDF Version [PDF - 344 KB - 1 page]
    S. Luby
            Cite This Article
    EID Luby S. Injection Safety. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):535. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017714
    AMA Luby S. Injection Safety. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):535. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017714.
    APA Luby, S. (2001). Injection Safety. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 535. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017714.
  • West Nile Virus: A Newly Emergent Epidemic Disease PDF Version [PDF - 350 KB - 1 page]
    V. Deubel et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Deubel V, Gubler DJ, Layton M, Malkinson M. West Nile Virus: A Newly Emergent Epidemic Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):536. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017715
    AMA Deubel V, Gubler DJ, Layton M, et al. West Nile Virus: A Newly Emergent Epidemic Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):536. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017715.
    APA Deubel, V., Gubler, D. J., Layton, M., & Malkinson, M. (2001). West Nile Virus: A Newly Emergent Epidemic Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 536. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017715.
  • Emerging Zoonotic Diseases PDF Version [PDF - 354 KB - 1 page]
    G. R. Hansen et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Hansen GR, Woodall J, Brown C, Jaax N, McNamara T, Ruiz A, et al. Emerging Zoonotic Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):537. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017716
    AMA Hansen GR, Woodall J, Brown C, et al. Emerging Zoonotic Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):537. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017716.
    APA Hansen, G. R., Woodall, J., Brown, C., Jaax, N., McNamara, T., & Ruiz, A. (2001). Emerging Zoonotic Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 537. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017716.
  • Electronic Laboratory-Based Reporting: Opportunities and Challenges for Surveillance
    D. B. Jernigan
            Cite This Article
    EID Jernigan DB. Electronic Laboratory-Based Reporting: Opportunities and Challenges for Surveillance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):538. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017717
    AMA Jernigan DB. Electronic Laboratory-Based Reporting: Opportunities and Challenges for Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):538. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017717.
    APA Jernigan, D. B. (2001). Electronic Laboratory-Based Reporting: Opportunities and Challenges for Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 538. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017717.
  • Plague in the Americas PDF Version [PDF - 366 KB - 1 page]
    A. Ruiz
            Cite This Article
    EID Ruiz A. Plague in the Americas. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):539. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017718
    AMA Ruiz A. Plague in the Americas. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):539. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017718.
    APA Ruiz, A. (2001). Plague in the Americas. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 539. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017718.
  • Intercontinental Transmission of West Nile Virus by Migrating White Storks PDF Version [PDF - 358 KB - 1 page]
    M. Malkinson et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Malkinson M, Banet C, Weisman Y, Pokamonski S, King R, Deubel V, et al. Intercontinental Transmission of West Nile Virus by Migrating White Storks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):540. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017719
    AMA Malkinson M, Banet C, Weisman Y, et al. Intercontinental Transmission of West Nile Virus by Migrating White Storks. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):540. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017719.
    APA Malkinson, M., Banet, C., Weisman, Y., Pokamonski, S., King, R., & Deubel, V. (2001). Intercontinental Transmission of West Nile Virus by Migrating White Storks. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 540. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017719.
  • Opportunistic Infections in Persons with HIV or Other Immunocompromising Conditions PDF Version [PDF - 350 KB - 1 page]
    J. E. Kaplan et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Kaplan JE, Sepkowitz K, Masur H, Sirisanthana T, Russo M, Chapman L, et al. Opportunistic Infections in Persons with HIV or Other Immunocompromising Conditions. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):541. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017720
    AMA Kaplan JE, Sepkowitz K, Masur H, et al. Opportunistic Infections in Persons with HIV or Other Immunocompromising Conditions. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):541. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017720.
    APA Kaplan, J. E., Sepkowitz, K., Masur, H., Sirisanthana, T., Russo, M., & Chapman, L. (2001). Opportunistic Infections in Persons with HIV or Other Immunocompromising Conditions. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 541. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017720.
  • International Partnerships in Infectious Diseases Research Training and Control PDF Version [PDF - 357 KB - 1 page]
    J. Breman and J. LeDuc
            Cite This Article
    EID Breman J, LeDuc J. International Partnerships in Infectious Diseases Research Training and Control. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):542. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017721
    AMA Breman J, LeDuc J. International Partnerships in Infectious Diseases Research Training and Control. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):542. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017721.
    APA Breman, J., & LeDuc, J. (2001). International Partnerships in Infectious Diseases Research Training and Control. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 542. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017721.
  • Emerging Infectious Diseases and the Law PDF Version [PDF - 347 KB - 1 page]
    E. P. Richards
            Cite This Article
    EID Richards EP. Emerging Infectious Diseases and the Law. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):543. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017722
    AMA Richards EP. Emerging Infectious Diseases and the Law. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):543. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017722.
    APA Richards, E. P. (2001). Emerging Infectious Diseases and the Law. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 543. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017722.
  • Panel on Waterborne Diseases PDF Version [PDF - 357 KB - 1 page]
    P. R. Hunter et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Hunter PR, Colford JM, LeChevallier MW, Binder S, Berger PS. Panel on Waterborne Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):544. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017723
    AMA Hunter PR, Colford JM, LeChevallier MW, et al. Panel on Waterborne Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):544. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017723.
    APA Hunter, P. R., Colford, J. M., LeChevallier, M. W., Binder, S., & Berger, P. S. (2001). Panel on Waterborne Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 544. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017723.
  • Xenotransplantation: Benefits and Risks PDF Version [PDF - 352 KB - 1 page]
    D. r. Chapman
            Cite This Article
    EID Chapman Dr. Xenotransplantation: Benefits and Risks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):545. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017724
    AMA Chapman Dr. Xenotransplantation: Benefits and Risks. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):545. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017724.
    APA Chapman, D. r. (2001). Xenotransplantation: Benefits and Risks. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 545. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017724.
  • Malaria PDF Version [PDF - 358 KB - 1 page]
    A. Teklehaimanot et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Teklehaimanot A, Keusch G, Binder S. Malaria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):546. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017725
    AMA Teklehaimanot A, Keusch G, Binder S. Malaria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):546. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017725.
    APA Teklehaimanot, A., Keusch, G., & Binder, S. (2001). Malaria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 546. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017725.
  • Institutional Review Boards: Developing Countries Consideration PDF Version [PDF - 352 KB - 1 page]
    J. Pape
            Cite This Article
    EID Pape J. Institutional Review Boards: Developing Countries Consideration. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):547. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017726
    AMA Pape J. Institutional Review Boards: Developing Countries Consideration. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):547. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017726.
    APA Pape, J. (2001). Institutional Review Boards: Developing Countries Consideration. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 547. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017726.
  • Antimicrobial Resistance Symposium at ICEID 2000 PDF Version [PDF - 353 KB - 1 page]
    T. Naimi et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Naimi T, Ringwald P, Besser R, Thompson S. Antimicrobial Resistance Symposium at ICEID 2000. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):548. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017727
    AMA Naimi T, Ringwald P, Besser R, et al. Antimicrobial Resistance Symposium at ICEID 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):548. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017727.
    APA Naimi, T., Ringwald, P., Besser, R., & Thompson, S. (2001). Antimicrobial Resistance Symposium at ICEID 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 548. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017727.
  • Preventing Polio from Becoming a Reemerging Disease PDF Version [PDF - 357 KB - 1 page]
    W. R. Dowdle et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Dowdle WR, Cochi SL, Oberste S, Sutter RW. Preventing Polio from Becoming a Reemerging Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):549. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017728
    AMA Dowdle WR, Cochi SL, Oberste S, et al. Preventing Polio from Becoming a Reemerging Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):549. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017728.
    APA Dowdle, W. R., Cochi, S. L., Oberste, S., & Sutter, R. W. (2001). Preventing Polio from Becoming a Reemerging Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 549. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017728.
  • GIDEON: A Computer Program for Diagnosis, Simulation, and Informatics in the Fields of Geographic Medicine and Emerging Diseases PDF Version [PDF - 347 KB - 1 page]
    S. A. Berger
            Cite This Article
    EID Berger SA. GIDEON: A Computer Program for Diagnosis, Simulation, and Informatics in the Fields of Geographic Medicine and Emerging Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):550. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017729
    AMA Berger SA. GIDEON: A Computer Program for Diagnosis, Simulation, and Informatics in the Fields of Geographic Medicine and Emerging Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):550. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017729.
    APA Berger, S. A. (2001). GIDEON: A Computer Program for Diagnosis, Simulation, and Informatics in the Fields of Geographic Medicine and Emerging Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 550. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017729.
  • Migrating Populations—A Closer View of Who, Why, and So What PDF Version [PDF - 347 KB - 1 page]
    S. T. Cookson et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Cookson ST, Carballo M, Nolan CM, Keystone JS, Jong EC. Migrating Populations—A Closer View of Who, Why, and So What. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):551. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017730
    AMA Cookson ST, Carballo M, Nolan CM, et al. Migrating Populations—A Closer View of Who, Why, and So What. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):551. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017730.
    APA Cookson, S. T., Carballo, M., Nolan, C. M., Keystone, J. S., & Jong, E. C. (2001). Migrating Populations—A Closer View of Who, Why, and So What. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 551. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017730.
  • Emerging Infectious Disease Issues in Blood Safety PDF Version [PDF - 363 KB - 2 pages]
    M. E. Chamberland et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Chamberland ME, Alter HJ, Busch MP, Nemo G, Ricketts M. Emerging Infectious Disease Issues in Blood Safety. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):552-553. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017731
    AMA Chamberland ME, Alter HJ, Busch MP, et al. Emerging Infectious Disease Issues in Blood Safety. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):552-553. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017731.
    APA Chamberland, M. E., Alter, H. J., Busch, M. P., Nemo, G., & Ricketts, M. (2001). Emerging Infectious Disease Issues in Blood Safety. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 552-553. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017731.
  • Emerging Infectious Diseases Among Indigenous Peoples PDF Version [PDF - 358 KB - 2 pages]
    J. C. Butler et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Butler JC, Crengle S, Cheek JE, Leach AJ, Lennon D, O'Brien KL, et al. Emerging Infectious Diseases Among Indigenous Peoples. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):554-555. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017732
    AMA Butler JC, Crengle S, Cheek JE, et al. Emerging Infectious Diseases Among Indigenous Peoples. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):554-555. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017732.
    APA Butler, J. C., Crengle, S., Cheek, J. E., Leach, A. J., Lennon, D., O'Brien, K. L....Santosham, M. (2001). Emerging Infectious Diseases Among Indigenous Peoples. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 554-555. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017732.
  • Migration, Refugees, and Health Risks PDF Version [PDF - 371 KB - 5 pages]
    M. Carballo and A. Nerurkar
            Cite This Article
    EID Carballo M, Nerurkar A. Migration, Refugees, and Health Risks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):556-560. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017733
    AMA Carballo M, Nerurkar A. Migration, Refugees, and Health Risks. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):556-560. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017733.
    APA Carballo, M., & Nerurkar, A. (2001). Migration, Refugees, and Health Risks. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 556-560. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017733.
  • Penicillium marneffei Infection in Patients with AIDS PDF Version [PDF - 353 KB - 1 page]
    T. Sirisanthana
            Cite This Article
    EID Sirisanthana T. Penicillium marneffei Infection in Patients with AIDS. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):561. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017734
    AMA Sirisanthana T. Penicillium marneffei Infection in Patients with AIDS. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):561. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017734.
    APA Sirisanthana, T. (2001). Penicillium marneffei Infection in Patients with AIDS. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 561. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017734.
  • Adventitious Agents and Vaccines PDF Version [PDF - 344 KB - 1 page]
    P. R. Krause
            Cite This Article
    EID Krause PR. Adventitious Agents and Vaccines. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):562. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017735
    AMA Krause PR. Adventitious Agents and Vaccines. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):562. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017735.
    APA Krause, P. R. (2001). Adventitious Agents and Vaccines. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 562. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017735.
  • ProMED-mail: Background and Purpose PDF Version [PDF - 344 KB - 1 page]
    J. Woodall and C. H. Calisher
            Cite This Article
    EID Woodall J, Calisher CH. ProMED-mail: Background and Purpose. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):563. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017736
    AMA Woodall J, Calisher CH. ProMED-mail: Background and Purpose. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):563. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017736.
    APA Woodall, J., & Calisher, C. H. (2001). ProMED-mail: Background and Purpose. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 563. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017736.
  • The Wellcome Trust/Burroughs Wellcome Fund Joint Program in Infectious Diseases of the Tropical Developing World PDF Version [PDF - 344 KB - 1 page]
    V. McGovern
            Cite This Article
    EID McGovern V. The Wellcome Trust/Burroughs Wellcome Fund Joint Program in Infectious Diseases of the Tropical Developing World. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):564. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017737
    AMA McGovern V. The Wellcome Trust/Burroughs Wellcome Fund Joint Program in Infectious Diseases of the Tropical Developing World. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):564. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017737.
    APA McGovern, V. (2001). The Wellcome Trust/Burroughs Wellcome Fund Joint Program in Infectious Diseases of the Tropical Developing World. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 564. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017737.

Volume 7, Number 7—June 2001 - Continued

Synopses

  • Yellow Fever in Pará State, Amazon Region of Brazil, 1998-1999: Entomologic and Epidemiologic Findings PDF Version [PDF - 462 KB - 5 pages]
    P. Vasconcelos et al.
        View Abstract

    Yellow fever (YF) is frequently associated with high severity and death rates in the Amazon region of Brazil. During the rainy seasons of 1998 and 1999, 23 (eight deaths) and 34 (eight deaths) human cases of YF were reported, respectively, in different geographic areas of Pará State; most cases were on Marajó Island. Patients were 1 to 46 years of age. Epidemiologic and ecological studies were conducted in Afuá and Breves on Marajó Island; captured insects yielded isolates of 4 and 11 YF strains, respectively, from Haemagogus janthinomys pooled mosquitoes. The cases on Marajó Island in 1999 resulted from lack of vaccination near the focus of the disease and intense migration, which brought many nonimmune people to areas where infected vectors were present. We hypothesize that YF virus remains in an area after an outbreak by vertical transmission among Haemagogus mosquitoes.

        Cite This Article
    EID Vasconcelos P, Rosa A, Rodrigues SG, Rosa E, Monteiro H, Cruz A, et al. Yellow Fever in Pará State, Amazon Region of Brazil, 1998-1999: Entomologic and Epidemiologic Findings. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):565-569. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017738
    AMA Vasconcelos P, Rosa A, Rodrigues SG, et al. Yellow Fever in Pará State, Amazon Region of Brazil, 1998-1999: Entomologic and Epidemiologic Findings. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):565-569. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017738.
    APA Vasconcelos, P., Rosa, A., Rodrigues, S. G., Rosa, E., Monteiro, H., Cruz, A....Rosa, J. (2001). Yellow Fever in Pará State, Amazon Region of Brazil, 1998-1999: Entomologic and Epidemiologic Findings. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 565-569. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017738.

Research

  • Tuberculosis in North Carolina: Trends Across Two Decades, 1980-1999 PDF Version [PDF - 393 KB - 5 pages]
    H. M. Salihu et al.
        View Abstract

    In North Carolina, we analyzed cumulative data for tuberculosis (TB) from 1980 through 1999 to determine trends in incidence, population subgroups at risk, and implications for health policy-makers. The overall incidence rates declined significantly over the study period (p = 0.0001). This decline correlates strongly with an increase in TB patients receiving directly observed therapy. Males have approximately twice the risk for disease, and persons 65 years of age are at the highest risk. For every Caucasian with TB, six blacks, six Hispanics, and eight Asians have the disease. TB incidence rates are declining in all other population subgroups but increasing in foreign-born and Hispanic persons.

        Cite This Article
    EID Salihu HM, Naik E, O'Brien WF, Dagne G, Ratard R, Mason T, et al. Tuberculosis in North Carolina: Trends Across Two Decades, 1980-1999. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):570-574. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017739
    AMA Salihu HM, Naik E, O'Brien WF, et al. Tuberculosis in North Carolina: Trends Across Two Decades, 1980-1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):570-574. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017739.
    APA Salihu, H. M., Naik, E., O'Brien, W. F., Dagne, G., Ratard, R., & Mason, T. (2001). Tuberculosis in North Carolina: Trends Across Two Decades, 1980-1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 570-574. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017739.
  • Waterborne Outbreak of Tularemia Associated with Crayfish Fishing PDF Version [PDF - 498 KB - 8 pages]
    P. Anda et al.
        View Abstract

    In 1997, an outbreak of human tularemia associated with hare-hunting in central Spain affected 585 patients. We describe the identification of Francisella tularensis biovar palaearctica in a second outbreak of ulceroglandular tularemia associated with crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) fishing in a contaminated freshwater stream distant from the hare-associated outbreak. The second outbreak occurred 1 year after the first.

        Cite This Article
    EID Anda P, Segura del Pozo J, García J, Escudero R, Peña F, Velasco M, et al. Waterborne Outbreak of Tularemia Associated with Crayfish Fishing. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):575-582. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017740
    AMA Anda P, Segura del Pozo J, García J, et al. Waterborne Outbreak of Tularemia Associated with Crayfish Fishing. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):575-582. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017740.
    APA Anda, P., Segura del Pozo, J., García, J., Escudero, R., Peña, F., Velasco, M....Navarro, J. (2001). Waterborne Outbreak of Tularemia Associated with Crayfish Fishing. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 575-582. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017740.
  • Cholera Outbreak in Southern Tanzania: Risk Factors and Patterns of Transmission PDF Version [PDF - 492 KB - 5 pages]
    C. J. Acosta et al.
        View Abstract

    To identify risk factors and describe the pattern of spread of the 1997 cholera epidemic in a rural area (Ifakara) in southern Tanzania, we conducted a prospective hospital-based, matched case-control study, with analysis based on the first 180 cases and 360 matched controls. Bathing in the river, long distance to water source, and eating dried fish were significantly associated with risk for cholera. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1, biotype El Tor, serotype Ogawa, was isolated in samples from Ifakara's main water source and patients' stools. DNA molecular analyses showed identical patterns for all isolates.

        Cite This Article
    EID Acosta CJ, Galindo CM, Kimario J, Senkoro K, Urassa H, Casals C, et al. Cholera Outbreak in Southern Tanzania: Risk Factors and Patterns of Transmission. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):583-587. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017741
    AMA Acosta CJ, Galindo CM, Kimario J, et al. Cholera Outbreak in Southern Tanzania: Risk Factors and Patterns of Transmission. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):583-587. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017741.
    APA Acosta, C. J., Galindo, C. M., Kimario, J., Senkoro, K., Urassa, H., Casals, C....Alonso, P. L. (2001). Cholera Outbreak in Southern Tanzania: Risk Factors and Patterns of Transmission. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 583-587. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017741.
  • A One-Year Study of Foodborne Illnesses in the Municipality of Uppsala, Sweden PDF Version [PDF - 380 KB - 5 pages]
    R. Lindqvist et al.
        View Abstract

    Surveillance was enhanced and a retrospective interview study performed in 1998-99 to determine incidence, causes, and costs of foodborne illnesses in Uppsala, Sweden. Sixty-eight percent of the detected foodborne illness incidents were single cases, and 32% were outbreaks. Most (85%) of the incidents came to the attention of the municipal authorities through telephone calls from affected persons. Calicivirus, Campylobacter spp., and Staphyloccocus aureus were the most common etiological agents; meat, meat products, and mixed dishes were the most implicated food categories. The incidence of foodborne illness was estimated to be 38 cases per 1,000 inhabitants per year. The estimated average costs per illness were 2,164 Swedish Krona (SEK) ($246) to society and 500 SEK ($57) to the patient. The annual cost of foodborne illnesses in Sweden was estimated to be 1,082 million SEK ($123 million).

        Cite This Article
    EID Lindqvist R, Andersson Y, Lindbäck J, Wegscheider M, Eriksson Y, Tideström L, et al. A One-Year Study of Foodborne Illnesses in the Municipality of Uppsala, Sweden. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):588-592. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017742
    AMA Lindqvist R, Andersson Y, Lindbäck J, et al. A One-Year Study of Foodborne Illnesses in the Municipality of Uppsala, Sweden. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):588-592. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017742.
    APA Lindqvist, R., Andersson, Y., Lindbäck, J., Wegscheider, M., Eriksson, Y., Tideström, L....Norinder, A. (2001). A One-Year Study of Foodborne Illnesses in the Municipality of Uppsala, Sweden. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 588-592. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017742.
  • Measles Outbreak in a Community with Very Low Vaccine Coverage, the Netherlands PDF Version [PDF - 375 KB - 5 pages]
    S. van den Hof et al.
        View Abstract

    A 1999-2000 measles epidemic in the Netherlands started with an outbreak in an orthodox reformed elementary school with 7% vaccine coverage. The overall attack rate was 37%: 213 clinical cases among the 255 participating pupils (response 62%) and 327 household members. The attack rate ranged from 0% for the oldest groups of pupils to 88% for the youngest, who had not been exposed in previous measles epidemics. None of 25 vaccinated pupils had clinical symptoms. Among pupils with clinical symptoms, the self-reported complication rate was 25%. These data confirm that measles infection causes severe disease and that vaccination is the most effective means of preventing the disease and its complications. The data also show that clusters of persons refraining from vaccination interfere with measles elimination even in populations with very high overall vaccine coverage (96%).

        Cite This Article
    EID van den Hof S, Meffre C, Conyn-van Spaendonck M, Woonink F, de Melker HE, van Binnendijk RS, et al. Measles Outbreak in a Community with Very Low Vaccine Coverage, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):593-597. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017743
    AMA van den Hof S, Meffre C, Conyn-van Spaendonck M, et al. Measles Outbreak in a Community with Very Low Vaccine Coverage, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):593-597. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017743.
    APA van den Hof, S., Meffre, C., Conyn-van Spaendonck, M., Woonink, F., de Melker, H. E., & van Binnendijk, R. S. (2001). Measles Outbreak in a Community with Very Low Vaccine Coverage, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 593-597. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017743.

Commentaries

  • Afterthoughts about Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease PDF Version [PDF - 359 KB - 3 pages]
    P. Brown
            Cite This Article
    EID Brown P. Afterthoughts about Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):598-600. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017744
    AMA Brown P. Afterthoughts about Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):598-600. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017744.
    APA Brown, P. (2001). Afterthoughts about Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 598-600. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017744.

Another Dimension

  • An Infected Heart PDF Version [PDF - 383 KB - 2 pages]
    J. Stone
            Cite This Article
    EID Stone J. An Infected Heart. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):601-602. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.AD0707
    AMA Stone J. An Infected Heart. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):601-602. doi:10.3201/eid0707.AD0707.
    APA Stone, J. (2001). An Infected Heart. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 601-602. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.AD0707.

Letters

  • Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-Azar) Outbreak in Somali Refugees and Kenyan Shepherds, Kenya PDF Version [PDF - 359 KB - 2 pages]
    G. Boussery et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Boussery G, Boelaert M, Van Peteghem J, Ejikon P, Henckaerts K. Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-Azar) Outbreak in Somali Refugees and Kenyan Shepherds, Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):603-604. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017746
    AMA Boussery G, Boelaert M, Van Peteghem J, et al. Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-Azar) Outbreak in Somali Refugees and Kenyan Shepherds, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):603-604. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017746.
    APA Boussery, G., Boelaert, M., Van Peteghem, J., Ejikon, P., & Henckaerts, K. (2001). Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-Azar) Outbreak in Somali Refugees and Kenyan Shepherds, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 603-604. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017746.
  • Doxycycline and Eradication of Microfilaremia in Patients with Loiasis PDF Version [PDF - 360 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Brouqui et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Brouqui P, Fournier P, Raoult D. Doxycycline and Eradication of Microfilaremia in Patients with Loiasis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):604-605. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017747
    AMA Brouqui P, Fournier P, Raoult D. Doxycycline and Eradication of Microfilaremia in Patients with Loiasis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):604-605. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017747.
    APA Brouqui, P., Fournier, P., & Raoult, D. (2001). Doxycycline and Eradication of Microfilaremia in Patients with Loiasis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 604-605. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017747.
  • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease PDF Version [PDF - 354 KB - 1 page]
    H. Riemann
            Cite This Article
    EID Riemann H. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):605. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017748
    AMA Riemann H. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):605. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017748.
    APA Riemann, H. (2001). Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 605. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017748.
  • Mad Cow Disease PDF Version [PDF - 354 KB - 1 page]
    W. Slenczka
            Cite This Article
    EID Slenczka W. Mad Cow Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):605. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017749
    AMA Slenczka W. Mad Cow Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):605. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017749.
    APA Slenczka, W. (2001). Mad Cow Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 605. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017749.

About the Cover

  • Georges Rouault, Les Trois Juges (The Three Judges), circa 1936 PDF Version [PDF - 478 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID Georges Rouault, Les Trois Juges (The Three Judges), circa 1936. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):609. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.AC0707
    AMA Georges Rouault, Les Trois Juges (The Three Judges), circa 1936. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):609. doi:10.3201/eid0707.AC0707.
    APA (2001). Georges Rouault, Les Trois Juges (The Three Judges), circa 1936. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 609. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.AC0707.

News and Notes

  • Under the Weather: Climate, Ecosystems, and Infectious Disease PDF Version [PDF - 361 KB - 3 pages]
    L. Geller
            Cite This Article
    EID Geller L. Under the Weather: Climate, Ecosystems, and Infectious Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):606-608. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017750
    AMA Geller L. Under the Weather: Climate, Ecosystems, and Infectious Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):606-608. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017750.
    APA Geller, L. (2001). Under the Weather: Climate, Ecosystems, and Infectious Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 606-608. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017750.
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