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Volume 8, Number 3—March 2002

Volume 8, Number 3—March 2002   PDF Version [PDF - 2.89 MB - 225 pages]

Perspective

  • Feasibility of National Surveillance of Health-Care-Associated Infections in Home-Care Settings PDF Version [PDF - 125 KB - 4 pages]
    L. P. Manangan et al.
        View Abstract

    This article examines the rationale and strategies for surveillance of health-care-associated infections in home-care settings, the challenges of nonhospital-based surveillance, and the feasibility of developing a national surveillance system.

        Cite This Article
    EID Manangan LP, Pearson ML, Tokars JI, Miller E, Jarvis WR. Feasibility of National Surveillance of Health-Care-Associated Infections in Home-Care Settings. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8(3):233-236. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010098
    AMA Manangan LP, Pearson ML, Tokars JI, et al. Feasibility of National Surveillance of Health-Care-Associated Infections in Home-Care Settings. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(3):233-236. doi:10.3201/eid0803.010098.
    APA Manangan, L. P., Pearson, M. L., Tokars, J. I., Miller, E., & Jarvis, W. R. (2002). Feasibility of National Surveillance of Health-Care-Associated Infections in Home-Care Settings. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(3), 233-236. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010098.

Synopses

  • Human Campylobacteriosis in Developing Countries PDF Version [PDF - 212 KB - 7 pages]
    A. O. Coker et al.
        View Abstract

    Campylobacteriosis is a collective description for infectious diseases caused by members of the bacterial genus Campylobacter. The only form of campylobacteriosis of major public health importance is Campylobacter enteritis due to C. jejuni and C. coli. Research and control efforts on the disease have been conducted more often in developed countries than developing countries. However, because of the increasing incidence, expanding spectrum of infections, potential of HIV-related deaths due to Campylobacter, and the availability of the complete genome sequence of C. jejuni NCTC 11168, interest in campylobacteriosis research and control in developing countries is growing. We present the distinguishing epidemiologic and clinical features of Campylobacter enteritis in developing countries relative to developed countries. National surveillance programs and international collaborations are needed to address the substantial gaps in the knowledge about the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis in developing countries.

        Cite This Article
    EID Coker AO, Isokpehi RD, Thomas BN, Amisu KO, Obi CL. Human Campylobacteriosis in Developing Countries. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8(3):237-243. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010233
    AMA Coker AO, Isokpehi RD, Thomas BN, et al. Human Campylobacteriosis in Developing Countries. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(3):237-243. doi:10.3201/eid0803.010233.
    APA Coker, A. O., Isokpehi, R. D., Thomas, B. N., Amisu, K. O., & Obi, C. L. (2002). Human Campylobacteriosis in Developing Countries. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(3), 237-243. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010233.

Research

  • Immunization with Heterologous Flaviviruses Protective Against Fatal West Nile Encephalitis PDF Version [PDF - 216 KB - 7 pages]
    R. B. Tesh et al.
        View Abstract

    Prior immunization of hamsters with three heterologous flaviviruses (Japanese encephalitis virus [JEV] SA14-2-8 vaccine, wild-type St. Louis encephalitis virus [SLEV], and Yellow fever virus [YFV] 17D vaccine) reduces the severity of subsequent West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Groups of adult hamsters were immunized with each of the heterologous flaviviruses; approximately 30 days later, the animals were injected intraperitoneally with a virulent New York strain of WNV. Subsequent levels of viremia, antibody response, and deaths were compared with those in nonimmune (control) hamsters. Immunity to JEV and SLEV was protective against clinical encephalitis and death after challenge with WNV. The antibody response in the sequentially infected hamsters also illustrates the difficulty in making a serologic diagnosis of WNV infection in animals (or humans) with preexisting Flavivirus immunity.

        Cite This Article
    EID Tesh RB, Travassos da Rosa AP, Guzman H, Araujo TP, Xiao S. Immunization with Heterologous Flaviviruses Protective Against Fatal West Nile Encephalitis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8(3):245-251. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010238
    AMA Tesh RB, Travassos da Rosa AP, Guzman H, et al. Immunization with Heterologous Flaviviruses Protective Against Fatal West Nile Encephalitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(3):245-251. doi:10.3201/eid0803.010238.
    APA Tesh, R. B., Travassos da Rosa, A. P., Guzman, H., Araujo, T. P., & Xiao, S. (2002). Immunization with Heterologous Flaviviruses Protective Against Fatal West Nile Encephalitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(3), 245-251. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010238.
  • Associations between Indicators of Livestock Farming Intensity and Incidence of Human Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli Infection PDF Version [PDF - 280 KB - 6 pages]
    J. E. Valcour et al.
        View Abstract

    The impact of livestock farming on the incidence of human Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection was assessed by using several livestock density indicators (LDI) that were generated in a systematic approach. A total of 80 LDI were considered suitable proxy measures for livestock density. Multivariate Poisson regression identified several LDI as having a significant spatial association with the incidence of human STEC infection. The strongest associations with human STEC infection were the ratio of beef cattle number to human population and the application of manure to the surface of agricultural land by a solid spreader and by a liquid spreader showed. This study demonstrates the value of using a systematic approach in identifying LDI and other spatial predictors of disease.

        Cite This Article
    EID Valcour JE, Michel P, McEwen SA, Wilson JB. Associations between Indicators of Livestock Farming Intensity and Incidence of Human Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8(3):252-257. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010159
    AMA Valcour JE, Michel P, McEwen SA, et al. Associations between Indicators of Livestock Farming Intensity and Incidence of Human Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(3):252-257. doi:10.3201/eid0803.010159.
    APA Valcour, J. E., Michel, P., McEwen, S. A., & Wilson, J. B. (2002). Associations between Indicators of Livestock Farming Intensity and Incidence of Human Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(3), 252-257. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010159.
  • Serologic Evidence of Lyssavirus Infections among Bats, the Philippines PDF Version [PDF - 64 KB - 5 pages]
    P. M. Arguin et al.
        View Abstract

    Active surveillance for lyssaviruses was conducted among populations of bats in the Philippines. The presence of past or current Lyssavirus infection was determined by use of direct fluorescent antibody assays on bat brains and virus neutralization assays on bat sera. Although no bats were found to have active infection with a Lyssavirus, 22 had evidence of neutralizing antibody against the Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV). Seropositivity was statistically associated with one species of bat, Miniopterus schreibersi. Results from the virus neutralization assays are consistent with the presence in the Philippines of a naturally occurring Lyssavirus related to ABLV.

        Cite This Article
    EID Arguin PM, Murray-Lillibridge K, Miranda ME, Smith JS, Calaor AB, Rupprecht CE, et al. Serologic Evidence of Lyssavirus Infections among Bats, the Philippines. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8(3):258-262. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010330
    AMA Arguin PM, Murray-Lillibridge K, Miranda ME, et al. Serologic Evidence of Lyssavirus Infections among Bats, the Philippines. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(3):258-262. doi:10.3201/eid0803.010330.
    APA Arguin, P. M., Murray-Lillibridge, K., Miranda, M. E., Smith, J. S., Calaor, A. B., & Rupprecht, C. E. (2002). Serologic Evidence of Lyssavirus Infections among Bats, the Philippines. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(3), 258-262. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010330.
  • Novel Cryptosporidium Genotypes in Sporadic Cryptosporidiosis Cases: First Report of Human Infections with a Cervine Genotype PDF Version [PDF - 426 KB - 6 pages]
    C. S. Ong et al.
        View Abstract

    In this study, we genotyped parasites from the fecal specimens of sporadic cryptosporidiosis cases in British Columbia from 1995 to 1999. Genotyping was conducted by polymerase chain amplification of the internal transcribed spacer region, a hypervariable region in the 18S rRNA gene and the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein gene. Subsequent analysis was by restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing. We identified two new Cryptosporidium genotypes in humans. One of these genotypes has been found recently in deer in New York state. The other genotype has not been identified in humans or animals. These results have important implications for drinking water quality strategies, especially for communities that obtain drinking water supplies from surface sources located in forested regions with deer populations.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ong CS, Eisler DL, Alikhani A, Fung VW, Tomblin J, Bowie WR, et al. Novel Cryptosporidium Genotypes in Sporadic Cryptosporidiosis Cases: First Report of Human Infections with a Cervine Genotype. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8(3):263-268. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010194
    AMA Ong CS, Eisler DL, Alikhani A, et al. Novel Cryptosporidium Genotypes in Sporadic Cryptosporidiosis Cases: First Report of Human Infections with a Cervine Genotype. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(3):263-268. doi:10.3201/eid0803.010194.
    APA Ong, C. S., Eisler, D. L., Alikhani, A., Fung, V. W., Tomblin, J., Bowie, W. R....Isaac-Renton, J. L. (2002). Novel Cryptosporidium Genotypes in Sporadic Cryptosporidiosis Cases: First Report of Human Infections with a Cervine Genotype. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(3), 263-268. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010194.
  • Molecular Epidemiology of Adenovirus Type 7 in the United States, 1966–2000 PDF Version [PDF - 394 KB - 9 pages]
    D. D. Erdman et al.
        View Abstract

    Genetic variation among 166 isolates of human adenovirus 7 (Ad7) obtained from 1966 to 2000 from the United States and Eastern Ontario, Canada, was determined by genome restriction analysis. Most (65%) isolates were identified as Ad7b. Two genome types previously undocumented in North America were also identified: Ad7d2 (28%), which first appeared in 1993 and was later identified throughout the Midwest and Northeast of the United States and in Canada; and Ad7h (2%), which was identified only in the U.S. Southwest in 1998 and 2000. Since 1996, Ad7d2 has been responsible for several civilian outbreaks of Ad7 disease and was the primary cause of a large outbreak of respiratory illness at a military recruit training center. The appearance of Ad7d2 and Ad7h in North America represents recent introduction of these viruses from previously geographically restricted areas and may herald a shift in predominant genome type circulating in the United States.

        Cite This Article
    EID Erdman DD, Xu W, Gerber SI, Gray GC, Schnurr D, Kajon AE, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Adenovirus Type 7 in the United States, 1966–2000. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8(3):269-277. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010190
    AMA Erdman DD, Xu W, Gerber SI, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Adenovirus Type 7 in the United States, 1966–2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(3):269-277. doi:10.3201/eid0803.010190.
    APA Erdman, D. D., Xu, W., Gerber, S. I., Gray, G. C., Schnurr, D., Kajon, A. E....Anderson, L. J. (2002). Molecular Epidemiology of Adenovirus Type 7 in the United States, 1966–2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(3), 269-277. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010190.
  • The Relationship between Antimicrobial Use and Antimicrobial Resistance in Europe PDF Version [PDF - 219 KB - 5 pages]
    S. L. Bronzwaer et al.
        View Abstract

    In Europe, antimicrobial resistance has been monitored since 1998 by the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS). We examined the relationship between penicillin nonsusceptibility of invasive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (an indicator organism) and antibiotic sales. Information was collected on 1998-99 resistance data for invasive isolates of S. pneumoniae to penicillin, based on surveillance data from EARSS and on outpatient sales during 1997 for beta-lactam antibiotics and macrolides. Our results show that in Europe antimicrobial resistance is correlated with use of beta-lactam antibiotics and macrolides.

        Cite This Article
    EID Bronzwaer SL, Cars O, Buchholz U, Mölstad S, Goettsch W, Veldhuijzen IK, et al. The Relationship between Antimicrobial Use and Antimicrobial Resistance in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8(3):278-282. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010192
    AMA Bronzwaer SL, Cars O, Buchholz U, et al. The Relationship between Antimicrobial Use and Antimicrobial Resistance in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(3):278-282. doi:10.3201/eid0803.010192.
    APA Bronzwaer, S. L., Cars, O., Buchholz, U., Mölstad, S., Goettsch, W., Veldhuijzen, I. K....Degener, J. E. (2002). The Relationship between Antimicrobial Use and Antimicrobial Resistance in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(3), 278-282. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010192.
  • Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Infection in a Horse from California PDF Version [PDF - 245 KB - 6 pages]
    R. P. Franklin et al.
        View Abstract

    A yearling quarter horse, which was raised in southern California, received routine vaccinations for prevention of infection by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV). One week later, severe neurologic signs developed, and the horse was humanely destroyed because vaccine-related encephalomyelitis was suspected. A final diagnosis of EEEV infection was established on the basis of acute onset of the neurologic signs, histopathologic and serologic testing, and isolation and molecular characterization of EEEV from brain tissue. The vaccine was extensively tested for viral inactivation. Nucleotide sequences from the vaccine and the virus isolated in the affected horse were also compared. In California, arboviral encephalomyelitides are rarely reported, and EEEV infection has not previously been documented. This report describes the occurrence of EEEV infection in the horse and the investigation to determine the source of infection, which was not definitively identified.

        Cite This Article
    EID Franklin RP, Kinde H, Jay MT, Kramer LD, Green EN, Chiles RE, et al. Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Infection in a Horse from California. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8(3):283-288. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010199
    AMA Franklin RP, Kinde H, Jay MT, et al. Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Infection in a Horse from California. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(3):283-288. doi:10.3201/eid0803.010199.
    APA Franklin, R. P., Kinde, H., Jay, M. T., Kramer, L. D., Green, E. N., Chiles, R. E....Parker, M. D. (2002). Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Infection in a Horse from California. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(3), 283-288. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010199.
  • Predicting the Risk of Lyme Disease: Habitat Suitability for Ixodes scapularis in the North Central United States PDF Version [PDF - 363 KB - 9 pages]
    M. Guerra et al.
        View Abstract

    The distribution and abundance of Ixodes scapularis were studied in Wisconsin, northern Illinois, and portions of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan by inspecting small mammals for ticks and by collecting questing ticks at 138 locations in state parks and natural areas. Environmental data were gathered at a local level (i.e., micro and meso levels), and a geographic information system (GIS) was used with several digitized coverages of environmental data to create a habitat profile for each site and a grid map for Wisconsin and Illinois. Results showed that the presence and abundance of I. scapularis varied, even when the host population was adequate. Tick presence was positively associated with deciduous, dry to mesic forests and alfisol-type soils of sandy or loam-sand textures overlying sedimentary rock. Tick absence was associated with grasslands, conifer forests, wet to wet/mesic forests, acidic soils of low fertility and a clay soil texture, and Precambrian bedrock. We performed a discriminant analysis to determine environmental differences between positive and negative tick sites and a regression equation to examine the probability of I. scapularis presence per grid. Both analyses indicated that soil order and land cover were the dominant contributors to tick presence. We then constructed a risk map indicating suitable habitats within areas where I. scapularis is already established. The risk map also shows areas of high probability the tick will become established if introduced. Thus, this risk analysis has both explanatory power and predictive capability.

        Cite This Article
    EID Guerra M, Walker ED, Jones C, Paskewitz S, Cortinas MR, Stancil A, et al. Predicting the Risk of Lyme Disease: Habitat Suitability for Ixodes scapularis in the North Central United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8(3):289-297. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010166
    AMA Guerra M, Walker ED, Jones C, et al. Predicting the Risk of Lyme Disease: Habitat Suitability for Ixodes scapularis in the North Central United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(3):289-297. doi:10.3201/eid0803.010166.
    APA Guerra, M., Walker, E. D., Jones, C., Paskewitz, S., Cortinas, M. R., Stancil, A....Kitron, U. (2002). Predicting the Risk of Lyme Disease: Habitat Suitability for Ixodes scapularis in the North Central United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(3), 289-297. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010166.
  • Molecular Classification of Enteroviruses Not Identified by Neutralization Tests PDF Version [PDF - 176 KB - 7 pages]
    H. Kubo et al.
        View Abstract

    We isolated six viruses from patients diagnosed with aseptic meningitis or hand, foot, and mouth disease. The cytopathic effect of these viruses on cultured cells was like that of enteroviruses. However, viral neutralization tests against standard antisera were negative. Phylogenetic analysis with the complete VP4 nucleotide sequences of these 6 viruses and 29 serotypes of enteroviruses classified 3 of the viruses as serotype echovirus type 18 (EV18) and 3 as serotype human enterovirus 71 (HEV71). These results were confirmed by remicroneutralization tests with HEV-monospecific antisera or an additional phylogenetic analysis with the complete VP4 nucleotide sequences. Phylogenetic analysis with complete VP4 genes is more useful than neutralization tests with enterovirus serotype-specific antisera in identifying enterovirus serotypes.

        Cite This Article
    EID Kubo H, Iritani N, Seto Y. Molecular Classification of Enteroviruses Not Identified by Neutralization Tests. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8(3):298-304. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010200
    AMA Kubo H, Iritani N, Seto Y. Molecular Classification of Enteroviruses Not Identified by Neutralization Tests. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(3):298-304. doi:10.3201/eid0803.010200.
    APA Kubo, H., Iritani, N., & Seto, Y. (2002). Molecular Classification of Enteroviruses Not Identified by Neutralization Tests. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(3), 298-304. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010200.
  • Listeria monocytogenes Infection in Israel and Review of Cases Worldwide PDF Version [PDF - 192 KB - 6 pages]
    Y. Siegman-Igra et al.
        View Abstract

    Listeria monocytogenes, an uncommon foodborne pathogen, is increasingly recognized as a cause of life-threatening disease. A marked increase in reported cases of listeriosis during 1998 motivated a retrospective nationwide survey of the infection in Israel. From 1995 to 1999, 161 cases were identified; 70 (43%) were perinatal infections, with a fetal mortality rate of 45%. Most (74%) of the 91 nonperinatal infections involved immunocompromised patients with malignancies, chronic liver disease, chronic renal failure, or diabetes mellitus. The common clinical syndromes in these patients were primary bacteremia (47%) and meningitis (28%). The crude case-fatality rate in this group was 38%, with a higher death rate in immunocompromised patients.

        Cite This Article
    EID Siegman-Igra Y, Levin R, Weinberger M, Golan Y, Schwartz D, Samra Z, et al. Listeria monocytogenes Infection in Israel and Review of Cases Worldwide. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8(3):305-310. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010195
    AMA Siegman-Igra Y, Levin R, Weinberger M, et al. Listeria monocytogenes Infection in Israel and Review of Cases Worldwide. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(3):305-310. doi:10.3201/eid0803.010195.
    APA Siegman-Igra, Y., Levin, R., Weinberger, M., Golan, Y., Schwartz, D., Samra, Z....Shohat, T. (2002). Listeria monocytogenes Infection in Israel and Review of Cases Worldwide. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(3), 305-310. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010195.

Dispatches

  • Epidemiologic Features of Four Successive Annual Outbreaks of Bubonic Plague in Mahajanga, Madagascar PDF Version [PDF - 232 KB - 6 pages]
    P. Boisier et al.
        View Abstract

    From 1995 to 1998, outbreaks of bubonic plague occurred annually in the coastal city of Mahajanga, Madagascar. A total of 1,702 clinically suspected cases of bubonic plague were reported, including 515 laboratory confirmed by Yersinia pestis isolation (297), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, or both. Incidence was higher in males and young persons. Most buboes were inguinal, but children had a higher frequency of cervical or axillary buboes. Among laboratory-confirmed hospitalized patients, the case-fatality rate was 7.9%, although all Y. pestis isolates were sensitive to streptomycin, the recommended antibiotic. In this tropical city, plague outbreaks occur during the dry and cool season. Most cases are concentrated in the same crowded and insanitary districts, a result of close contact among humans, rats, and shrews. Plague remains an important public health problem in Madagascar, and the potential is substantial for spread to other coastal cities and abroad.

        Cite This Article
    EID Boisier P, Rahalison L, Rasolomaharo M, Ratsitorahina M, Mahafaly M, Razafimahefa M, et al. Epidemiologic Features of Four Successive Annual Outbreaks of Bubonic Plague in Mahajanga, Madagascar. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8(3):311-316. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010250
    AMA Boisier P, Rahalison L, Rasolomaharo M, et al. Epidemiologic Features of Four Successive Annual Outbreaks of Bubonic Plague in Mahajanga, Madagascar. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(3):311-316. doi:10.3201/eid0803.010250.
    APA Boisier, P., Rahalison, L., Rasolomaharo, M., Ratsitorahina, M., Mahafaly, M., Razafimahefa, M....Chanteau, S. (2002). Epidemiologic Features of Four Successive Annual Outbreaks of Bubonic Plague in Mahajanga, Madagascar. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(3), 311-316. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010250.
  • Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides spp. Fleas, Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 275 KB - 3 pages]
    R. P. Oliveira et al.
        View Abstract

    In June 2000, suspected cases of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) occurred in Coronel Fabriciano Municipality, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Pooled fleas collected near two fatal cases contained rickettsial DNA. The nucleotide sequence alignment of the 391-bp segment of the 17-kDa protein gene showed that the products were identical to each other and to the R. felis 17-kDa gene, confirming circulation of R. felis in Brazil.

        Cite This Article
    EID Oliveira RP, Galvão MA, Mafra CL, Chamone CB, Calic SB, Silva SU, et al. Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides spp. Fleas, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8(3):317-319. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010301
    AMA Oliveira RP, Galvão MA, Mafra CL, et al. Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides spp. Fleas, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(3):317-319. doi:10.3201/eid0803.010301.
    APA Oliveira, R. P., Galvão, M. A., Mafra, C. L., Chamone, C. B., Calic, S. B., Silva, S. U....Walker, D. H. (2002). Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides spp. Fleas, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(3), 317-319. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010301.
  • Severe Ehrlichia chaffeensis Infection in a Lung Transplant Recipient: A Review of Ehrlichiosis in the Immunocompromised Patient PDF Version [PDF - 173 KB - 4 pages]
    N. Safdar et al.
        View Abstract

    We describe a case of human ehrlichiosis in a lung transplant recipient and review published reports on ehrlichiosis in immunocompromised patients. Despite early therapy with doxycycline, our patient had unusually severe illness with features of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Of 23 reported cases of ehrlichiosis in immunocompromised patients, organ failure occurred in all patients and 6 (25%) died.

        Cite This Article
    EID Safdar N, Love RB, Maki DG. Severe Ehrlichia chaffeensis Infection in a Lung Transplant Recipient: A Review of Ehrlichiosis in the Immunocompromised Patient. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8(3):320-323. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010249
    AMA Safdar N, Love RB, Maki DG. Severe Ehrlichia chaffeensis Infection in a Lung Transplant Recipient: A Review of Ehrlichiosis in the Immunocompromised Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(3):320-323. doi:10.3201/eid0803.010249.
    APA Safdar, N., Love, R. B., & Maki, D. G. (2002). Severe Ehrlichia chaffeensis Infection in a Lung Transplant Recipient: A Review of Ehrlichiosis in the Immunocompromised Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(3), 320-323. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010249.
  • Enzootic Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Rats and Snails after an Outbreak of Human Eosinophilic Meningitis, Jamaica PDF Version [PDF - 410 KB - 3 pages]
    J. F. Lindo et al.
        View Abstract

    After an outbreak in 2000 of eosinophilic meningitis in tourists to Jamaica, we looked for Angiostrongylus cantonensis in rats and snails on the island. Overall, 22% (24/109) of rats harbored adult worms, and 8% (4/48) of snails harbored A. cantonensis larvae. This report is the first of enzootic A. cantonensis infection in Jamaica, providing evidence that this parasite is likely to cause human cases of eosinophilic meningitis.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lindo JF, Waugh C, Hall J, Cunningham-Myrie C, Ashley D, Eberhard ML, et al. Enzootic Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Rats and Snails after an Outbreak of Human Eosinophilic Meningitis, Jamaica. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8(3):324-326. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010316
    AMA Lindo JF, Waugh C, Hall J, et al. Enzootic Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Rats and Snails after an Outbreak of Human Eosinophilic Meningitis, Jamaica. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(3):324-326. doi:10.3201/eid0803.010316.
    APA Lindo, J. F., Waugh, C., Hall, J., Cunningham-Myrie, C., Ashley, D., Eberhard, M. L....Robinson, R. D. (2002). Enzootic Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Rats and Snails after an Outbreak of Human Eosinophilic Meningitis, Jamaica. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(3), 324-326. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010316.
  • Recent Increase in Meningitis Caused by Neisseria meningitidis Serogroups A and W135, Yaoundé, Cameroon PDF Version [PDF - 154 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Fonkoua et al.
        View Abstract

    From 1991 to 1998, Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, and C represented 2%-10% of strains isolated from cases of bacterial meningitis in Yaoundé. During 1999 to 2000, the percentage of meningococci reached 17%, a proportion never reported since recordkeeping began in 1984. The increase of serogroup A meningococci and the emergence of W135 strains highlight the need for increased surveillance for better diagnosis and prevention.

        Cite This Article
    EID Fonkoua M, Taha M, Nicolas P, Cunin P, Alonso J, Bercion R, et al. Recent Increase in Meningitis Caused by Neisseria meningitidis Serogroups A and W135, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8(3):327-329. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010308
    AMA Fonkoua M, Taha M, Nicolas P, et al. Recent Increase in Meningitis Caused by Neisseria meningitidis Serogroups A and W135, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(3):327-329. doi:10.3201/eid0803.010308.
    APA Fonkoua, M., Taha, M., Nicolas, P., Cunin, P., Alonso, J., Bercion, R....Martin, P. (2002). Recent Increase in Meningitis Caused by Neisseria meningitidis Serogroups A and W135, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(3), 327-329. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010308.
  • HIV Prevalence in a Gold Mining Camp in the Amazon Region, Guyana PDF Version [PDF - 295 KB - 2 pages]
    C. J. Palmer et al.
        View Abstract

    The prevalence of HIV infection among men in a gold mining camp in the Amazon region of Guyana was 6.5%. This high percentage of HIV infection provides a reservoir for the virus in this region, warranting immediate public health intervention to curb its spread. As malaria is endemic in the Amazon Basin (>30,000 cases/year), the impact of coinfection may be substantial.

        Cite This Article
    EID Palmer CJ, Validum L, Loeffke B, Laubach HE, Mitchell C, Cummings R, et al. HIV Prevalence in a Gold Mining Camp in the Amazon Region, Guyana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8(3):330-331. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010261
    AMA Palmer CJ, Validum L, Loeffke B, et al. HIV Prevalence in a Gold Mining Camp in the Amazon Region, Guyana. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(3):330-331. doi:10.3201/eid0803.010261.
    APA Palmer, C. J., Validum, L., Loeffke, B., Laubach, H. E., Mitchell, C., Cummings, R....Cuadrado, R. R. (2002). HIV Prevalence in a Gold Mining Camp in the Amazon Region, Guyana. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(3), 330-331. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010261.
  • Hajj-Related Neisseria Meningitidis Serogroup W135 in Mauritius PDF Version [PDF - 141 KB - 3 pages]
    M. I. Issack and C. Ragavoodoo
        View Abstract

    Meningococcal disease is rare in Mauritius; only one case was reported from 1992 to 1999. However, since June 2000, four cases have occurred. Epidemiologic information and typing results indicate that these recent cases probably followed the introduction of Neisseria meningitidis W135 in Mauritius by pilgrims returning from the Hajj in 2000 and 2001.

        Cite This Article
    EID Issack MI, Ragavoodoo C. Hajj-Related Neisseria Meningitidis Serogroup W135 in Mauritius. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8(3):332-334. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010372
    AMA Issack MI, Ragavoodoo C. Hajj-Related Neisseria Meningitidis Serogroup W135 in Mauritius. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(3):332-334. doi:10.3201/eid0803.010372.
    APA Issack, M. I., & Ragavoodoo, C. (2002). Hajj-Related Neisseria Meningitidis Serogroup W135 in Mauritius. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(3), 332-334. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010372.

Letters

  • Contagion on the Internet PDF Version [PDF - 118 KB - 2 pages]
    T. M. Wassenaar and M. J. Blaser
            Cite This Article
    EID Wassenaar TM, Blaser MJ. Contagion on the Internet. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8(3):335-336. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010286
    AMA Wassenaar TM, Blaser MJ. Contagion on the Internet. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(3):335-336. doi:10.3201/eid0803.010286.
    APA Wassenaar, T. M., & Blaser, M. J. (2002). Contagion on the Internet. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(3), 335-336. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010286.
  • Emergence and Rapid Spread of Tetracycline-Resistant Vibrio cholerae Strains, Madagascar PDF Version [PDF - 280 KB - 2 pages]
    J. Dromigny et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Dromigny J, Rakoto-Alson O, Rajaonatahina D, Migliani R, Ranjalahy J, Mauclère P, et al. Emergence and Rapid Spread of Tetracycline-Resistant Vibrio cholerae Strains, Madagascar. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8(3):336-338. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010258
    AMA Dromigny J, Rakoto-Alson O, Rajaonatahina D, et al. Emergence and Rapid Spread of Tetracycline-Resistant Vibrio cholerae Strains, Madagascar. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(3):336-338. doi:10.3201/eid0803.010258.
    APA Dromigny, J., Rakoto-Alson, O., Rajaonatahina, D., Migliani, R., Ranjalahy, J., & Mauclère, P. (2002). Emergence and Rapid Spread of Tetracycline-Resistant Vibrio cholerae Strains, Madagascar. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(3), 336-338. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.010258.

About the Cover

  • Flying Fox, Vincent van Gogh, 1885 PDF Version [PDF - 332 KB - 1 page]
    P. M. Arguin
            Cite This Article
    EID Arguin PM. Flying Fox, Vincent van Gogh, 1885. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8(3):340. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.AC0803
    AMA Arguin PM. Flying Fox, Vincent van Gogh, 1885. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(3):340. doi:10.3201/eid0803.AC0803.
    APA Arguin, P. M. (2002). Flying Fox, Vincent van Gogh, 1885. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(3), 340. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0803.AC0803.
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