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Volume 8, Number 3—March 2002

Volume 8, Number 3—March 2002   PDF Version [PDF - 2.89 MB - 225 pages]

Perspective

Synopses

  • Human Campylobacteriosis in Developing Countries PDF Version [PDF - 212 KB - 7 pages]
    A. O. Coker et al.
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    Campylobacteriosis is a collective description for infectious diseases caused by members of the bacterial genus Campylobacter. The only form of campylobacteriosis of major public health importance is Campylobacter enteritis due to C. jejuni and C. coli. Research and control efforts on the disease have been conducted more often in developed countries than developing countries. However, because of the increasing incidence, expanding spectrum of infections, potential of HIV-related deaths due to Campylobacter, and the availability of the complete genome sequence of C. jejuni NCTC 11168, interest in campylobacteriosis research and control in developing countries is growing. We present the distinguishing epidemiologic and clinical features of Campylobacter enteritis in developing countries relative to developed countries. National surveillance programs and international collaborations are needed to address the substantial gaps in the knowledge about the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis in developing countries.

Research

  • Immunization with Heterologous Flaviviruses Protective Against Fatal West Nile Encephalitis PDF Version [PDF - 216 KB - 7 pages]
    R. B. Tesh et al.
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    Prior immunization of hamsters with three heterologous flaviviruses (Japanese encephalitis virus [JEV] SA14-2-8 vaccine, wild-type St. Louis encephalitis virus [SLEV], and Yellow fever virus [YFV] 17D vaccine) reduces the severity of subsequent West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Groups of adult hamsters were immunized with each of the heterologous flaviviruses; approximately 30 days later, the animals were injected intraperitoneally with a virulent New York strain of WNV. Subsequent levels of viremia, antibody response, and deaths were compared with those in nonimmune (control) hamsters. Immunity to JEV and SLEV was protective against clinical encephalitis and death after challenge with WNV. The antibody response in the sequentially infected hamsters also illustrates the difficulty in making a serologic diagnosis of WNV infection in animals (or humans) with preexisting Flavivirus immunity.

  • Associations between Indicators of Livestock Farming Intensity and Incidence of Human Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli Infection PDF Version [PDF - 280 KB - 6 pages]
    J. E. Valcour et al.
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    The impact of livestock farming on the incidence of human Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection was assessed by using several livestock density indicators (LDI) that were generated in a systematic approach. A total of 80 LDI were considered suitable proxy measures for livestock density. Multivariate Poisson regression identified several LDI as having a significant spatial association with the incidence of human STEC infection. The strongest associations with human STEC infection were the ratio of beef cattle number to human population and the application of manure to the surface of agricultural land by a solid spreader and by a liquid spreader showed. This study demonstrates the value of using a systematic approach in identifying LDI and other spatial predictors of disease.

  • Serologic Evidence of Lyssavirus Infections among Bats, the Philippines PDF Version [PDF - 64 KB - 5 pages]
    P. M. Arguin et al.
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    Active surveillance for lyssaviruses was conducted among populations of bats in the Philippines. The presence of past or current Lyssavirus infection was determined by use of direct fluorescent antibody assays on bat brains and virus neutralization assays on bat sera. Although no bats were found to have active infection with a Lyssavirus, 22 had evidence of neutralizing antibody against the Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV). Seropositivity was statistically associated with one species of bat, Miniopterus schreibersi. Results from the virus neutralization assays are consistent with the presence in the Philippines of a naturally occurring Lyssavirus related to ABLV.

  • Novel Cryptosporidium Genotypes in Sporadic Cryptosporidiosis Cases: First Report of Human Infections with a Cervine Genotype PDF Version [PDF - 426 KB - 6 pages]
    C. S. Ong et al.
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    In this study, we genotyped parasites from the fecal specimens of sporadic cryptosporidiosis cases in British Columbia from 1995 to 1999. Genotyping was conducted by polymerase chain amplification of the internal transcribed spacer region, a hypervariable region in the 18S rRNA gene and the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein gene. Subsequent analysis was by restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing. We identified two new Cryptosporidium genotypes in humans. One of these genotypes has been found recently in deer in New York state. The other genotype has not been identified in humans or animals. These results have important implications for drinking water quality strategies, especially for communities that obtain drinking water supplies from surface sources located in forested regions with deer populations.

  • Molecular Epidemiology of Adenovirus Type 7 in the United States, 1966–2000 PDF Version [PDF - 394 KB - 9 pages]
    D. D. Erdman et al.
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    Genetic variation among 166 isolates of human adenovirus 7 (Ad7) obtained from 1966 to 2000 from the United States and Eastern Ontario, Canada, was determined by genome restriction analysis. Most (65%) isolates were identified as Ad7b. Two genome types previously undocumented in North America were also identified: Ad7d2 (28%), which first appeared in 1993 and was later identified throughout the Midwest and Northeast of the United States and in Canada; and Ad7h (2%), which was identified only in the U.S. Southwest in 1998 and 2000. Since 1996, Ad7d2 has been responsible for several civilian outbreaks of Ad7 disease and was the primary cause of a large outbreak of respiratory illness at a military recruit training center. The appearance of Ad7d2 and Ad7h in North America represents recent introduction of these viruses from previously geographically restricted areas and may herald a shift in predominant genome type circulating in the United States.

  • The Relationship between Antimicrobial Use and Antimicrobial Resistance in Europe PDF Version [PDF - 219 KB - 5 pages]
    S. L. Bronzwaer et al.
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    In Europe, antimicrobial resistance has been monitored since 1998 by the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS). We examined the relationship between penicillin nonsusceptibility of invasive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (an indicator organism) and antibiotic sales. Information was collected on 1998-99 resistance data for invasive isolates of S. pneumoniae to penicillin, based on surveillance data from EARSS and on outpatient sales during 1997 for beta-lactam antibiotics and macrolides. Our results show that in Europe antimicrobial resistance is correlated with use of beta-lactam antibiotics and macrolides.

  • Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Infection in a Horse from California PDF Version [PDF - 245 KB - 6 pages]
    R. P. Franklin et al.
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    A yearling quarter horse, which was raised in southern California, received routine vaccinations for prevention of infection by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV). One week later, severe neurologic signs developed, and the horse was humanely destroyed because vaccine-related encephalomyelitis was suspected. A final diagnosis of EEEV infection was established on the basis of acute onset of the neurologic signs, histopathologic and serologic testing, and isolation and molecular characterization of EEEV from brain tissue. The vaccine was extensively tested for viral inactivation. Nucleotide sequences from the vaccine and the virus isolated in the affected horse were also compared. In California, arboviral encephalomyelitides are rarely reported, and EEEV infection has not previously been documented. This report describes the occurrence of EEEV infection in the horse and the investigation to determine the source of infection, which was not definitively identified.

  • Predicting the Risk of Lyme Disease: Habitat Suitability for Ixodes scapularis in the North Central United States PDF Version [PDF - 363 KB - 9 pages]
    M. Guerra et al.
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    The distribution and abundance of Ixodes scapularis were studied in Wisconsin, northern Illinois, and portions of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan by inspecting small mammals for ticks and by collecting questing ticks at 138 locations in state parks and natural areas. Environmental data were gathered at a local level (i.e., micro and meso levels), and a geographic information system (GIS) was used with several digitized coverages of environmental data to create a habitat profile for each site and a grid map for Wisconsin and Illinois. Results showed that the presence and abundance of I. scapularis varied, even when the host population was adequate. Tick presence was positively associated with deciduous, dry to mesic forests and alfisol-type soils of sandy or loam-sand textures overlying sedimentary rock. Tick absence was associated with grasslands, conifer forests, wet to wet/mesic forests, acidic soils of low fertility and a clay soil texture, and Precambrian bedrock. We performed a discriminant analysis to determine environmental differences between positive and negative tick sites and a regression equation to examine the probability of I. scapularis presence per grid. Both analyses indicated that soil order and land cover were the dominant contributors to tick presence. We then constructed a risk map indicating suitable habitats within areas where I. scapularis is already established. The risk map also shows areas of high probability the tick will become established if introduced. Thus, this risk analysis has both explanatory power and predictive capability.

  • Molecular Classification of Enteroviruses Not Identified by Neutralization Tests PDF Version [PDF - 176 KB - 7 pages]
    H. Kubo et al.
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    We isolated six viruses from patients diagnosed with aseptic meningitis or hand, foot, and mouth disease. The cytopathic effect of these viruses on cultured cells was like that of enteroviruses. However, viral neutralization tests against standard antisera were negative. Phylogenetic analysis with the complete VP4 nucleotide sequences of these 6 viruses and 29 serotypes of enteroviruses classified 3 of the viruses as serotype echovirus type 18 (EV18) and 3 as serotype human enterovirus 71 (HEV71). These results were confirmed by remicroneutralization tests with HEV-monospecific antisera or an additional phylogenetic analysis with the complete VP4 nucleotide sequences. Phylogenetic analysis with complete VP4 genes is more useful than neutralization tests with enterovirus serotype-specific antisera in identifying enterovirus serotypes.

  • Listeria monocytogenes Infection in Israel and Review of Cases Worldwide PDF Version [PDF - 192 KB - 6 pages]
    Y. Siegman-Igra et al.
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    Listeria monocytogenes, an uncommon foodborne pathogen, is increasingly recognized as a cause of life-threatening disease. A marked increase in reported cases of listeriosis during 1998 motivated a retrospective nationwide survey of the infection in Israel. From 1995 to 1999, 161 cases were identified; 70 (43%) were perinatal infections, with a fetal mortality rate of 45%. Most (74%) of the 91 nonperinatal infections involved immunocompromised patients with malignancies, chronic liver disease, chronic renal failure, or diabetes mellitus. The common clinical syndromes in these patients were primary bacteremia (47%) and meningitis (28%). The crude case-fatality rate in this group was 38%, with a higher death rate in immunocompromised patients.

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