Volume 8, Number 3—March 2002
Volume 8, Number 3—March 2002 PDF Version [PDF - 2.89 MB - 225 pages]
Feasibility of National Surveillance of Health-Care-Associated Infections in Home-Care Settings
PDF Version [PDF - 125 KB - 4 pages]
L. P. Manangan et al.View Abstract
This article examines the rationale and strategies for surveillance of health-care-associated infections in home-care settings, the challenges of nonhospital-based surveillance, and the feasibility of developing a national surveillance system.
Human Campylobacteriosis in Developing Countries
PDF Version [PDF - 212 KB - 7 pages]
A. O. Coker et al.View Abstract
Campylobacteriosis is a collective description for infectious diseases caused by members of the bacterial genus Campylobacter. The only form of campylobacteriosis of major public health importance is Campylobacter enteritis due to C. jejuni and C. coli. Research and control efforts on the disease have been conducted more often in developed countries than developing countries. However, because of the increasing incidence, expanding spectrum of infections, potential of HIV-related deaths due to Campylobacter, and the availability of the complete genome sequence of C. jejuni NCTC 11168, interest in campylobacteriosis research and control in developing countries is growing. We present the distinguishing epidemiologic and clinical features of Campylobacter enteritis in developing countries relative to developed countries. National surveillance programs and international collaborations are needed to address the substantial gaps in the knowledge about the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis in developing countries.
Immunization with Heterologous Flaviviruses Protective Against Fatal West Nile Encephalitis
PDF Version [PDF - 216 KB - 7 pages]
R. B. Tesh et al.View Abstract
Prior immunization of hamsters with three heterologous flaviviruses (Japanese encephalitis virus [JEV] SA14-2-8 vaccine, wild-type St. Louis encephalitis virus [SLEV], and Yellow fever virus [YFV] 17D vaccine) reduces the severity of subsequent West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Groups of adult hamsters were immunized with each of the heterologous flaviviruses; approximately 30 days later, the animals were injected intraperitoneally with a virulent New York strain of WNV. Subsequent levels of viremia, antibody response, and deaths were compared with those in nonimmune (control) hamsters. Immunity to JEV and SLEV was protective against clinical encephalitis and death after challenge with WNV. The antibody response in the sequentially infected hamsters also illustrates the difficulty in making a serologic diagnosis of WNV infection in animals (or humans) with preexisting Flavivirus immunity.
Associations between Indicators of Livestock Farming Intensity and Incidence of Human Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli Infection
PDF Version [PDF - 280 KB - 6 pages]
J. E. Valcour et al.View Abstract
The impact of livestock farming on the incidence of human Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection was assessed by using several livestock density indicators (LDI) that were generated in a systematic approach. A total of 80 LDI were considered suitable proxy measures for livestock density. Multivariate Poisson regression identified several LDI as having a significant spatial association with the incidence of human STEC infection. The strongest associations with human STEC infection were the ratio of beef cattle number to human population and the application of manure to the surface of agricultural land by a solid spreader and by a liquid spreader showed. This study demonstrates the value of using a systematic approach in identifying LDI and other spatial predictors of disease.
Serologic Evidence of Lyssavirus Infections among Bats, the Philippines
PDF Version [PDF - 64 KB - 5 pages]
P. M. Arguin et al.View Abstract
Active surveillance for lyssaviruses was conducted among populations of bats in the Philippines. The presence of past or current Lyssavirus infection was determined by use of direct fluorescent antibody assays on bat brains and virus neutralization assays on bat sera. Although no bats were found to have active infection with a Lyssavirus, 22 had evidence of neutralizing antibody against the Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV). Seropositivity was statistically associated with one species of bat, Miniopterus schreibersi. Results from the virus neutralization assays are consistent with the presence in the Philippines of a naturally occurring Lyssavirus related to ABLV.
Novel Cryptosporidium Genotypes in Sporadic Cryptosporidiosis Cases: First Report of Human Infections with a Cervine Genotype
PDF Version [PDF - 426 KB - 6 pages]
C. S. Ong et al.View Abstract
In this study, we genotyped parasites from the fecal specimens of sporadic cryptosporidiosis cases in British Columbia from 1995 to 1999. Genotyping was conducted by polymerase chain amplification of the internal transcribed spacer region, a hypervariable region in the 18S rRNA gene and the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein gene. Subsequent analysis was by restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing. We identified two new Cryptosporidium genotypes in humans. One of these genotypes has been found recently in deer in New York state. The other genotype has not been identified in humans or animals. These results have important implications for drinking water quality strategies, especially for communities that obtain drinking water supplies from surface sources located in forested regions with deer populations.
Molecular Epidemiology of Adenovirus Type 7 in the United States, 1966–2000
PDF Version [PDF - 394 KB - 9 pages]
D. D. Erdman et al.View Abstract
Genetic variation among 166 isolates of human adenovirus 7 (Ad7) obtained from 1966 to 2000 from the United States and Eastern Ontario, Canada, was determined by genome restriction analysis. Most (65%) isolates were identified as Ad7b. Two genome types previously undocumented in North America were also identified: Ad7d2 (28%), which first appeared in 1993 and was later identified throughout the Midwest and Northeast of the United States and in Canada; and Ad7h (2%), which was identified only in the U.S. Southwest in 1998 and 2000. Since 1996, Ad7d2 has been responsible for several civilian outbreaks of Ad7 disease and was the primary cause of a large outbreak of respiratory illness at a military recruit training center. The appearance of Ad7d2 and Ad7h in North America represents recent introduction of these viruses from previously geographically restricted areas and may herald a shift in predominant genome type circulating in the United States.
The Relationship between Antimicrobial Use and Antimicrobial Resistance in Europe
PDF Version [PDF - 219 KB - 5 pages]
S. L. Bronzwaer et al.View Abstract
In Europe, antimicrobial resistance has been monitored since 1998 by the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS). We examined the relationship between penicillin nonsusceptibility of invasive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (an indicator organism) and antibiotic sales. Information was collected on 1998-99 resistance data for invasive isolates of S. pneumoniae to penicillin, based on surveillance data from EARSS and on outpatient sales during 1997 for beta-lactam antibiotics and macrolides. Our results show that in Europe antimicrobial resistance is correlated with use of beta-lactam antibiotics and macrolides.
Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Infection in a Horse from California
PDF Version [PDF - 245 KB - 6 pages]
R. P. Franklin et al.View Abstract
A yearling quarter horse, which was raised in southern California, received routine vaccinations for prevention of infection by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV). One week later, severe neurologic signs developed, and the horse was humanely destroyed because vaccine-related encephalomyelitis was suspected. A final diagnosis of EEEV infection was established on the basis of acute onset of the neurologic signs, histopathologic and serologic testing, and isolation and molecular characterization of EEEV from brain tissue. The vaccine was extensively tested for viral inactivation. Nucleotide sequences from the vaccine and the virus isolated in the affected horse were also compared. In California, arboviral encephalomyelitides are rarely reported, and EEEV infection has not previously been documented. This report describes the occurrence of EEEV infection in the horse and the investigation to determine the source of infection, which was not definitively identified.
Predicting the Risk of Lyme Disease: Habitat Suitability for Ixodes scapularis in the North Central United States
PDF Version [PDF - 363 KB - 9 pages]
M. Guerra et al.View Abstract
The distribution and abundance of Ixodes scapularis were studied in Wisconsin, northern Illinois, and portions of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan by inspecting small mammals for ticks and by collecting questing ticks at 138 locations in state parks and natural areas. Environmental data were gathered at a local level (i.e., micro and meso levels), and a geographic information system (GIS) was used with several digitized coverages of environmental data to create a habitat profile for each site and a grid map for Wisconsin and Illinois. Results showed that the presence and abundance of I. scapularis varied, even when the host population was adequate. Tick presence was positively associated with deciduous, dry to mesic forests and alfisol-type soils of sandy or loam-sand textures overlying sedimentary rock. Tick absence was associated with grasslands, conifer forests, wet to wet/mesic forests, acidic soils of low fertility and a clay soil texture, and Precambrian bedrock. We performed a discriminant analysis to determine environmental differences between positive and negative tick sites and a regression equation to examine the probability of I. scapularis presence per grid. Both analyses indicated that soil order and land cover were the dominant contributors to tick presence. We then constructed a risk map indicating suitable habitats within areas where I. scapularis is already established. The risk map also shows areas of high probability the tick will become established if introduced. Thus, this risk analysis has both explanatory power and predictive capability.
Molecular Classification of Enteroviruses Not Identified by Neutralization Tests
PDF Version [PDF - 176 KB - 7 pages]
H. Kubo et al.View Abstract
We isolated six viruses from patients diagnosed with aseptic meningitis or hand, foot, and mouth disease. The cytopathic effect of these viruses on cultured cells was like that of enteroviruses. However, viral neutralization tests against standard antisera were negative. Phylogenetic analysis with the complete VP4 nucleotide sequences of these 6 viruses and 29 serotypes of enteroviruses classified 3 of the viruses as serotype echovirus type 18 (EV18) and 3 as serotype human enterovirus 71 (HEV71). These results were confirmed by remicroneutralization tests with HEV-monospecific antisera or an additional phylogenetic analysis with the complete VP4 nucleotide sequences. Phylogenetic analysis with complete VP4 genes is more useful than neutralization tests with enterovirus serotype-specific antisera in identifying enterovirus serotypes.
Listeria monocytogenes Infection in Israel and Review of Cases Worldwide
PDF Version [PDF - 192 KB - 6 pages]
Y. Siegman-Igra et al.View Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes, an uncommon foodborne pathogen, is increasingly recognized as a cause of life-threatening disease. A marked increase in reported cases of listeriosis during 1998 motivated a retrospective nationwide survey of the infection in Israel. From 1995 to 1999, 161 cases were identified; 70 (43%) were perinatal infections, with a fetal mortality rate of 45%. Most (74%) of the 91 nonperinatal infections involved immunocompromised patients with malignancies, chronic liver disease, chronic renal failure, or diabetes mellitus. The common clinical syndromes in these patients were primary bacteremia (47%) and meningitis (28%). The crude case-fatality rate in this group was 38%, with a higher death rate in immunocompromised patients.
Epidemiologic Features of Four Successive Annual Outbreaks of Bubonic Plague in Mahajanga, Madagascar
PDF Version [PDF - 232 KB - 6 pages]
P. Boisier et al.View Abstract
From 1995 to 1998, outbreaks of bubonic plague occurred annually in the coastal city of Mahajanga, Madagascar. A total of 1,702 clinically suspected cases of bubonic plague were reported, including 515 laboratory confirmed by Yersinia pestis isolation (297), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, or both. Incidence was higher in males and young persons. Most buboes were inguinal, but children had a higher frequency of cervical or axillary buboes. Among laboratory-confirmed hospitalized patients, the case-fatality rate was 7.9%, although all Y. pestis isolates were sensitive to streptomycin, the recommended antibiotic. In this tropical city, plague outbreaks occur during the dry and cool season. Most cases are concentrated in the same crowded and insanitary districts, a result of close contact among humans, rats, and shrews. Plague remains an important public health problem in Madagascar, and the potential is substantial for spread to other coastal cities and abroad.
Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides spp. Fleas, Brazil
PDF Version [PDF - 275 KB - 3 pages]
R. P. Oliveira et al.View Abstract
In June 2000, suspected cases of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) occurred in Coronel Fabriciano Municipality, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Pooled fleas collected near two fatal cases contained rickettsial DNA. The nucleotide sequence alignment of the 391-bp segment of the 17-kDa protein gene showed that the products were identical to each other and to the R. felis 17-kDa gene, confirming circulation of R. felis in Brazil.
Severe Ehrlichia chaffeensis Infection in a Lung Transplant Recipient: A Review of Ehrlichiosis in the Immunocompromised Patient
PDF Version [PDF - 173 KB - 4 pages]
N. Safdar et al.View Abstract
We describe a case of human ehrlichiosis in a lung transplant recipient and review published reports on ehrlichiosis in immunocompromised patients. Despite early therapy with doxycycline, our patient had unusually severe illness with features of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Of 23 reported cases of ehrlichiosis in immunocompromised patients, organ failure occurred in all patients and 6 (25%) died.
Enzootic Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Rats and Snails after an Outbreak of Human Eosinophilic Meningitis, Jamaica
PDF Version [PDF - 410 KB - 3 pages]
J. F. Lindo et al.View Abstract
After an outbreak in 2000 of eosinophilic meningitis in tourists to Jamaica, we looked for Angiostrongylus cantonensis in rats and snails on the island. Overall, 22% (24/109) of rats harbored adult worms, and 8% (4/48) of snails harbored A. cantonensis larvae. This report is the first of enzootic A. cantonensis infection in Jamaica, providing evidence that this parasite is likely to cause human cases of eosinophilic meningitis.
Recent Increase in Meningitis Caused by Neisseria meningitidis Serogroups A and W135, Yaoundé, Cameroon
PDF Version [PDF - 154 KB - 3 pages]
M. Fonkoua et al.View Abstract
From 1991 to 1998, Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, and C represented 2%-10% of strains isolated from cases of bacterial meningitis in Yaoundé. During 1999 to 2000, the percentage of meningococci reached 17%, a proportion never reported since recordkeeping began in 1984. The increase of serogroup A meningococci and the emergence of W135 strains highlight the need for increased surveillance for better diagnosis and prevention.
HIV Prevalence in a Gold Mining Camp in the Amazon Region, Guyana
PDF Version [PDF - 295 KB - 2 pages]
C. J. Palmer et al.View Abstract
The prevalence of HIV infection among men in a gold mining camp in the Amazon region of Guyana was 6.5%. This high percentage of HIV infection provides a reservoir for the virus in this region, warranting immediate public health intervention to curb its spread. As malaria is endemic in the Amazon Basin (>30,000 cases/year), the impact of coinfection may be substantial.
Hajj-Related Neisseria Meningitidis Serogroup W135 in Mauritius
PDF Version [PDF - 141 KB - 3 pages]
M. I. Issack and C. RagavoodooView Abstract
Meningococcal disease is rare in Mauritius; only one case was reported from 1992 to 1999. However, since June 2000, four cases have occurred. Epidemiologic information and typing results indicate that these recent cases probably followed the introduction of Neisseria meningitidis W135 in Mauritius by pilgrims returning from the Hajj in 2000 and 2001.
Contagion on the Internet
PDF Version [PDF - 118 KB - 2 pages]
T. M. Wassenaar and M. J. Blaser
Emergence and Rapid Spread of Tetracycline-Resistant Vibrio cholerae Strains, Madagascar
PDF Version [PDF - 280 KB - 2 pages]
J. Dromigny et al.
About the Cover
- Page created: April 18, 2012
- Page last updated: April 18, 2012
- Page last reviewed: April 18, 2012
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