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Volume 8, Number 5—May 2002

Volume 8, Number 5—May 2002   PDF Version [PDF - 2.74 MB - 96 pages]


  • Evaluation in Nonhuman Primates of Vaccines against Ebola Virus PDF Version [PDF - 348 KB - 5 pages]
    T. W. Geisbert et al.
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    Ebola virus (EBOV) causes acute hemorrhagic fever that is fatal in up to 90% of cases in both humans and nonhuman primates. No vaccines or treatments are available for human use. We evaluated the effects in nonhuman primates of vaccine strategies that had protected mice or guinea pigs from lethal EBOV infection. The following immunogens were used: RNA replicon particles derived from an attenuated strain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) expressing EBOV glycoprotein and nucleoprotein; recombinant Vaccinia virus expressing EBOV glycoprotein; liposomes containing lipid A and inactivated EBOV; and a concentrated, inactivated whole-virion preparation. None of these strategies successfully protected nonhuman primates from robust challenge with EBOV. The disease observed in primates differed from that in rodents, suggesting that rodent models of EBOV may not predict the efficacy of candidate vaccines in primates and that protection of primates may require different mechanisms.


  • Typical and Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli PDF Version [PDF - 691 KB - 6 pages]
    L. R. Trabulsi et al.
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    Typical and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains differ in several characteristics. Typical EPEC, a leading cause of infantile diarrhea in developing countries, is rare in industrialized countries, where atypical EPEC seems to be a more important cause of diarrhea. For typical EPEC, the only reservoir is humans; for atypical EPEC, both animals and humans can be reservoirs. Typical and atypical EPEC also differ in genetic characteristics, serotypes, and virulence properties. Atypical EPEC is more closely related to Shiga toxin–producing E. coli (STEC), and like STEC these strains appear to be emerging pathogens.


  • Risk to Human Health from a Plethora of Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses in Primate Bushmeat PDF Version [PDF - 627 KB - 7 pages]
    M. Peeters et al.
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    To assess human exposure to Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in west central Africa, we looked for SIV infection in 788 monkeys that were hunted in the rainforests of Cameroon for bushmeat or kept as pets. Serologic reactivity suggesting SIV infection was found in 13 of 16 primate species, including 4 not previously known to harbor SIV. Overall, 131 sera (16.6%) reacted strongly and an additional 34 (4.3%) reacted weakly with HIV antigens. Molecular analysis identified five new phylogenetic SIV lineages. These data document for the first time that a substantial proportion of wild monkeys in Cameroon are SIV infected and that humans who hunt and handle bushmeat are exposed to a plethora of genetically highly divergent viruses.

  • Epidemiology of Urban Canine Rabies, Santa Cruz, Bolivia, 1972–1997 PDF Version [PDF - 230 KB - 4 pages]
    M. Widdowson et al.
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    We analyzed laboratory data from 1972 to 1997 from Santa Cruz, Bolivia, to determine risk factors for laboratory canine samples’ testing positive for Rabies virus (RABV). Of 9,803 samples, 50.7% tested positive for RABV; the number of cases and the percentage positive has dropped significantly since 1978. A 5- to 6-year cycle in rabies incidence was clearly apparent, though no seasonality was noted. Male dogs had significantly increased odds of testing positive for RABV (odds ratio [OR]=1.14), as did 1- to 2-year-old dogs (OR=1.73); younger and older dogs were at lower risk. Samples submitted from the poorer suburbs of the city were more likely to test positive for RABV (OR=1.71). We estimated the distribution of endemic canine rabies in an urban environment to facilitate control measures in a resource-poor environment.

  • Clonal Groupings in Serogroup X Neisseria meningitidis PDF Version [PDF - 491 KB - 5 pages]
    S. Gagneux et al.
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    The genetic diversity of 134 serogroup X Neisseria meningitis isolates from Africa, Europe, and North America was analyzed by multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Although most European and American isolates were highly diverse, one clonal grouping was identified in sporadic disease and carrier strains isolated over the last 2 decades in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Germany, and the United States. In contrast to the diversity in the European and American isolates, most carrier and disease isolates recovered during the last 30 years in countries in the African meningitis belt belonged to a second clonal grouping. During the last decade, these bacteria have caused meningitis outbreaks in Niger and Ghana. These results support the development of a comprehensive conjugate vaccine that would include serogroup X polysaccharide.

  • Genetic Variants of Ehrlichia phagocytophila, Rhode Island and Connecticut PDF Version [PDF - 222 KB - 7 pages]
    R. F. Massung et al.
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    Primers were used to amplify a 561-bp region of the 16S rRNA gene of Ehrlichia phagocytophila from Ixodes scapularis ticks and small mammals collected in Rhode Island and Connecticut. DNA sequences for all 50 E. phagocytophila-positive samples collected from 1996 through 1998 in southwestern Connecticut were identical to the sequence reported for E. phagocytophila DNA from confirmed human cases. In contrast, the sequences from 92 of 123 E. phagocytophila-positive Rhode Island samples collected from 1996 through 1999 included several variants differing by 1-2 nucleotides from that in the agent infecting humans. While 11.9% of 67 E. phagocytophila-positive ticks collected during 1997 in Rhode Island harbored ehrlichiae with sequences identical to that of the human agent, 79.1% had a variant sequence not previously described. The low incidence of human ehrlichiosis in Rhode Island may in part result from interference by these variant ehrlichiae with maintenance and transmission of the true agent of human disease.

  • Trends in Fluoroquinolone (Ciprofloxacin) Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae from Bacteremias, England and Wales, 1990–1999 PDF Version [PDF - 310 KB - 6 pages]
    D. M. Livermore et al.
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    The Public Health Laboratory Service receives antibiotic susceptibility data for bacteria from bloodstream infections from most hospitals in England and Wales. These data were used to ascertain resistance trends to ciprofloxacin from 1990 through 1999 for the most prevalent gram-negative agents: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., and Proteus mirabilis. Significant increases in resistance were observed for all four species groups. For E. coli, ciprofloxacin resistance rose from 0.8% in 1990 to 3.7% in 1999 and became widely scattered among reporting hospitals. The prevalence of resistance in Klebsiella spp. rose from 3.5% in 1990, to 9.5% in 1996 and 7.1% in 1999, while that in Enterobacter spp. rose from 2.1% in 1990 to 10.5% in 1996 and 10.9% in 1999. For both Klebsiella and Enterobacter spp., most resistance was localized in a few centers. Resistance was infrequent and scattered in P. mirabilis, but reached a prevalence of 3.3% in 1999.

  • Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Healthy Children: Implications for the Use of Heptavalent Pnemococcal Conjugate Vaccine PDF Version [PDF - 240 KB - 6 pages]
    P. Marchisio et al.
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    We assessed the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes in the nasopharynx of healthy children, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, risk factors for carriage, and the coverage of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. In 2,799 healthy infants and children, the S. pneumoniae carrier rate was 8.6% (serotypes 3, 19F, 23F, 19A, 6B, and 14 were most common). Most pneumococci (69.4%) were resistant to one or more antimicrobial classes. The rate of penicillin resistance was low (9.1%); macrolide resistance was high (52.1%). Overall, 63.2% of the isolates belonged to strains covered by the heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine. This percentage was higher in children <2 years old (73.1%) and in those >2-5 years old(68.9%). Sinusitis in the previous 3 months was the only risk factor for carrier status; acute otitis media was the only risk factor for the carriage of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae. Most the isolated strains are covered by the heptavalent conjugate vaccine, especially in the first years of life, suggesting that its use could reduce the incidence of pneumococcal disease.

  • Hospital-based Diagnosis of Hemorrhagic Fever, Encephalitis, and Hepatitis in Cambodian Children PDF Version [PDF - 840 KB - 5 pages]
    Y. M. Chhour et al.
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    Surveillance was conducted for three clinical syndromes (hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, and hepatitis) in Cambodian children admitted to the National Pediatric Hospital in Phnom Penh from July 1996 through September 1998. Acute- and convalescent-phase sera, and cerebrospinal fluid, when applicable, underwent diagnostic evaluation for infections with Dengue virus (DENV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and Hepatitis A, B, C, and E viruses. Of 621 children admitted with hemorrhagic fever, 499 (80%) were confirmed to have either primary or secondary DENV infection. DENV rates were as high as 10.6/100 hospital admissions in September 1998. Of 50 children with clinical encephalitis, 9 (18%) had serologic evidence of JEV infection. Forty-four children had clinical hepatitis, most (55%) due to Hepatitis A virus (HAV). One patient had Hepatitis B virus, and no patients had hepatitis C or E. This study identified a large number of children with vaccine-preventable diseases (JEV and HAV).

  • Excess Mortality Associated with Antimicrobial Drug-Resistant Salmonella Typhimurium PDF Version [PDF - 229 KB - 6 pages]
    M. Helms et al.
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    In a matched cohort study, we determined the death rates associated with drug resistance in Salmonella Typhimurium. We linked data from the Danish Surveillance Registry for Enteric Pathogens with the Civil Registration System and the Danish National Discharge Registry. By survival analysis, the 2-year death rates were compared with a matched sample of the general Danish population, after the data were adjusted for differences in comorbidity. In 2,047 patients with S. Typhimurium, 59 deaths were identified. Patients with pansusceptible strains of S. Typhimurium were 2.3 times more likely to die 2 years after infection than persons in the general Danish population. Patients infected with strains resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and tetracycline were 4.8 times (95% CI 2.2 to 10.2) more likely to die, whereas quinolone resistance was associated with a mortality rate 10.3 times higher than the general population.

  • Sentinel Surveillance: A Reliable Way To Track Antibiotic Resistance in Communities? PDF Version [PDF - 258 KB - 7 pages]
    S. J. Schrag et al.
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    We used population-based data to evaluate how often groups of randomly selected clinical laboratories accurately estimated the prevalence of resistant pneumococci and captured trends in resistance over time. Surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease was conducted in eight states from 1996 to 1998. Within each surveillance area, we evaluated the proportion of all groups of three, four, and five laboratories that estimated the prevalence of penicillin-nonsusceptible pneumococci (%PNSP) and the change in %PNSP over time. We assessed whether sentinel groups detected emerging fluoroquinolone resistance. Groups of five performed best. Sentinel groups accurately predicted %PNSP in five states; states where they performed poorly had high between-laboratory variation in %PNSP. Sentinel groups detected large changes in prevalence of nonsusceptibility over time but rarely detected emerging fluoroquinolone resistance. Characteristics of hospital-affiliated laboratories were not useful predictors of a laboratory’s %PNSP. Sentinel surveillance for resistant pneumococci can detect important trends over time but rarely detects newly emerging resistance profiles.



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