An enveloped, negative-strand RNA virus (a paramyxovirus) of the genus Rubulavirus.
By respiratory droplets, saliva, or contact with contaminated fomites.
Endemic in many countries throughout the world. The risk of exposure among travelers is high in many countries, including industrialized countries.
Incubation period is 16–18 days (range, 12–25 days). Mumps is characterized by parotitis (swelling of the parotid salivary glands), either unilateral or bilateral. Onset of illness is usually nonspecific, with symptoms of fever, headache, malaise, myalgia, and anorexia. Complications may occur such as orchitis, aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, and pancreatitis. Approximately 30% of cases are asymptomatic.
Usually clinical, defined as illness with acute onset of unilateral or bilateral tender, self-limited swelling of the parotid glands, other salivary glands, or both, lasting ≥2 days, and without other apparent cause. A positive mumps laboratory confirmation for mumps virus is with RT-PCR or culture. For further information on laboratory testing, see www.cdc.gov/mumps/lab/index.html.
All travelers aged ≥12 months should have evidence of mumps immunity, as documented by 2 doses of live mumps virus vaccine ≥28 days apart on or after the first birthday, laboratory evidence of immunity, birth before 1957, or history of physician-diagnosed mumps.
CDC. Notice to readers: updated recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for the control and elimination of mumps. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006 Jun 9;55(22):629–30.
CDC. Update: mumps outbreak—New York and New Jersey, June 2009–January 2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010 Feb 12; 59(5):125–9.
Dayan GH, Quinlisk MP, Parker AA, Barskey AE, Harris ML, Schwartz JM, et al. Recent resurgence of mumps in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2008 Apr 10;358(15):1580–9.