An enveloped, negative-strand RNA virus (a paramyxovirus) of the genus Rubulavirus.
By respiratory droplets, saliva, or contact with contaminated fomites.
Endemic in many countries throughout the world. Mumps vaccine is routinely used in 61% of countries in the world, and the risk of exposure among travelers is high in many countries, including industrialized countries.
Incubation period is 16–18 days (range, 12–25 days). Mumps is characterized by parotitis (swelling of the parotid salivary glands), either unilateral or bilateral. Onset of illness is usually nonspecific, with symptoms of fever, headache, malaise, myalgia, and anorexia. Complications may occur such as orchitis, aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, and pancreatitis. Approximately 20% of cases are asymptomatic.
Usually clinical, defined as illness with acute onset of unilateral or bilateral tender, self-limited swelling of the parotid glands, other salivary glands, or both, lasting ≥2 days, and without other apparent cause. Laboratory confirmation of mumps involves virus isolation with RT-PCR or culture. For further information on laboratory testing, see www.cdc.gov/mumps/lab/index.html.
Travelers aged ≥6 months who do not have acceptable evidence of mumps immunity (as documented by 2 doses of live mumps virus vaccine ≥28 days apart on or after the first birthday, laboratory evidence of immunity, laboratory confirmation of disease, or birth before 1957) should be vaccinated with measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Before departure from the United States, infants aged 6–11 months should receive 1 dose of MMR vaccine (for measles protection), and children aged ≥12 months and adults should receive 2 doses of MMR vaccine ≥28 days apart on or after the first birthday.
CDC. Prevention of measles, rubella, congenital rubella syndrome, and mumps, 2013: summary recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2013 Jun 14;62(RR-04):1–34.
CDC. Update: mumps outbreak—New York and New Jersey, June 2009–January 2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010 Feb 12; 59(5):125–9.
Dayan GH, Quinlisk MP, Parker AA, Barskey AE, Harris ML, Schwartz JM, et al. Recent resurgence of mumps in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2008 Apr 10;358(15):1580–9.