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Chapter 2 The Pre-Travel Consultation Counseling & Advice for Travelers

Safety & Security

Ronnie Henry

In 2010, approximately 338,000 people around the world died from interpersonal violence. Violence is a leading worldwide public health problem and a growing concern of US citizens traveling, working, or residing abroad. Rates of violent deaths in developing countries are >3 times those in industrialized countries, although there are variations within countries. Homicide is the second-leading cause of injury death among US citizens abroad; it accounted for 22.5% of all injury deaths, or >500 deaths from 2011 through 2013 (see Figure 2-02 in the previous section, Injury Prevention).

International terrorism and crime are risks anywhere in the world, but international travelers operating in an unfamiliar environment face particular hurdles. Travelers may not have access to networks of friends or family to assist them. Local government responses to problems may be different from what US residents expect, or an effective local government may not exist to respond at all. Language barriers, unexpected costs, or different cultural mores can also complicate what happens in an emergency. The best way for US residents going overseas to manage their risk is to prepare before they travel. Travelers should research conditions in their destination to learn what risks they are likely to face and the context of those risks. They should then plan what they will need to do to mitigate those risks while they are abroad.

RESEARCH AND PREPARATION

Travelers need information to make good decisions about risks while traveling and to make plans to deal with those risks. The Department of State’s Bureau of Consular Affairs publishes comprehensive information on safety and security concerns for every independent nation, along with basic advice for safe travel anywhere at http://travel.state.gov. More information can also be found at individual embassy and consulate websites, all of which can be found at www.usembassy.gov. The Department of State also publishes travel alerts that focus on emergent or chronic safety issues in countries around the world. They encourage all US citizens to avoid travel to areas with major threats to safety and security. Travelers should take these warnings seriously as they cover areas where security threats and instability severely limit the help the US government can offer to its citizens in those areas.

Travelers should enroll with the Department of State’s Smart Traveler Enrollment Program (STEP) before leaving on their trip. This will allow them to receive updated information about safety and security conditions and messages about emergent threats while they are abroad. The governments of the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia also have excellent websites with safety and security information for travelers.

CRIME

By far the most common threat to the safety of US citizens abroad comes from criminal activity. Travelers to foreign countries are viewed by many criminals as wealthy, naïve targets, who are inexperienced, unfamiliar with the culture, and inept at seeking assistance once victimized. Traveling in high-poverty areas or regions of civil unrest, using alcohol or drugs, and traveling in unfamiliar environments at night increase the likelihood that a traveler will be the victim of crime.

Travelers should take the time to research crime trends and patterns at their destination through the Overseas Security Advisory Council at <a href="http://www.osac.gov. Strategies for avoiding becoming the victim of a crime overseas are, for the most part, the same common-sense habits that people should follow everywhere, but the following actions should be stressed with international travelers:

  • Limit travel at night, travel with a companion, and vary routine travel habits.
  • Do not wear expensive clothing or accessories.
  • Criminals are less likely to victimize upper floors of buildings, so avoid accommodations on the ground floor or immediately next to the stairs.
  • Lock all doors and windows and consider carrying and using a door intruder alarm and a rubber doorstop that can be used as a supplemental lock.
  • Take only well-marked modes of local transportation and check taxi drivers’ names and licenses. When renting a car, select one that is similar to local models and rent from an established company.
  • If confronted, give up all valuables and do not resist attackers.

Victims of a crime overseas should contact the nearest US embassy, consulate, or consular agency. US federal and state governments can offer guidance and assistance in most situations, but they do not have the legal authority to conduct a criminal investigation and prosecution.

TERRORISM

International terrorism is also a threat to US citizens abroad. The Department of State maintains a worldwide caution addressing this threat on its consular affairs website. Terrorist groups continue to plan attacks against Western interests in multiple regions, including Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. These attacks may employ a wide variety of tactics, including suicide operations, assassinations, kidnappings, hijackings, and bombings. Possible targets include high-profile sporting events, public transportation systems, residential areas, business offices, hotels, clubs, restaurants, places of worship, schools, public areas, shopping malls, and other tourist destinations where US citizens gather in large numbers.

Although terrorism is a worldwide threat and can be a major cause of concern to travelers, it should be seen in context. In 2013, 17 private US citizens were killed in terrorist attacks, 7 were injured, and 12 were held as hostages. All of these incidents took place in 8 nations, 5 of which have ongoing civil wars or major insurgencies. Although threats of this type cannot be totally eliminated, travelers can lower the chance they will be a victim through knowledge and planning:

  • Look out for unattended packages or bags in public places and other crowded areas.
  • Be cautious of unexpected packages.
  • When packing, choose clothing that does not identify one as a tourist (such as T-shirts emblazoned with the US flag or logos of the traveler’s local sports team).
  • Try to blend in with the locals.

These strategies incorporate the same defensive alertness and good judgment that people should use to keep safe from crime at home or abroad. Awareness is key—taking precautions to be aware of surroundings and adopting protective measures.

OTHER ISSUES

Just as important as learning about safety and security conditions at a traveler’s destination country is to learn about legal differences that may cause problems for US citizens. Many countries have weapons laws that are much stricter than those in the United States, such that a single loose bullet in a suitcase can lead to arrest and possible jail time. Some countries prohibit certain religious activities or the possession of religious literature. Prescription medications that are commonly used in the United States may be illegal in another country. Some countries do not have the same free speech protections as those in the United States, and statements made in public or online can lead to arrest or detention. These and other legal differences can be researched online at the Department of State website.

Since travelers may become the victim of a crime, regardless of the precautions they take, they should have plans for what they will do in an emergency. Many medical insurance programs, including Medicare and Medicaid, will not pay for medical treatment overseas. Travelers should ensure they have adequate medical coverage before going overseas. They should also consider insurance that can help return them to the United States if that becomes necessary. For more information, see Travel Insurance, Travel Health Insurance, & Medical Evacuation Insurance in this chapter.

USEFUL WEBSITES

Department of State Consular Affairs

Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime Statistics: www.fbi.gov/statsservices/crimestats

Overseas Security Advisory Council: www.osac.gov

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The author thanks Tom Simon in the Division of Violence Prevention at the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control at CDC for reviewing the information on interpersonal violence and homicide.

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