José G. Estrada-Franco*, Roberto Navarro-Lopez†, Jerome E. Freier‡, Dionicio Cordova§, Tamara Clements¶, Abelardo Moncayo*, Wenli Kang*, Carlos Gomez-Hernandez#, Gabriela Rodriguez-Dominguez#, George V. Ludwig¶, and Scott C. Weaver*
Author affiliations: *University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA; †Comision Mexico-Estados Unidos para la Prevencion de la Fiebre Aftosa y Otras Enfermedades Exoticas de los Animales, Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico; ‡U.S. Department of Agriculture, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA; §Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales Agricolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP) Mexico City, Mexico; ¶U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Ft. Detrick, Maryland, USA; #Instituto de Salud de la Secretaria de Salud de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mexico
Figure 4. Maximum parsimony phylogenetic tree derived from complete genomic sequences showing relationships of the newly isolated Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) strain (MX01-22) to other strains from Mexico and Guatemala. Numbers indicate nucleotide substitutions assigned to each branch. All nodes had bootstrap values of 100%, except the OAX131-37820 (62%) and GU68-GU80 (<50%) groupings. Relative rates tests applied to the branches indicated a rate of nucleotide substitution in Mexico of 2.0–2.9 x 10–4 subst/nt/y since 1993, and 6.8 x 10–5 for the Guatemalan lineage from 1968–1980. These data suggest continuous circulation of VEEV in Mexico since 1993.
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