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Volume 10, Number 12—December 2004

Research

Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Southern Mexico

José G. Estrada-Franco*, Roberto Navarro-Lopez†, Jerome E. Freier‡, Dionicio Cordova§, Tamara Clements¶, Abelardo Moncayo*, Wenli Kang*, Carlos Gomez-Hernandez#, Gabriela Rodriguez-Dominguez#, George V. Ludwig¶, and Scott C. Weaver*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA; †Comision Mexico-Estados Unidos para la Prevencion de la Fiebre Aftosa y Otras Enfermedades Exoticas de los Animales, Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico; ‡U.S. Department of Agriculture, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA; §Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales Agricolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP) Mexico City, Mexico; ¶U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Ft. Detrick, Maryland, USA; #Instituto de Salud de la Secretaria de Salud de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mexico

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Figure 4

Maximum parsimony phylogenetic tree derived from complete genomic sequences showing relationships of the newly isolated Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) strain (MX01-22) to other strains from Mexico and Guatemala. Numbers indicate nucleotide substitutions assigned to each branch. All nodes had bootstrap values of 100%, except the OAX131-37820 (62%) and GU68-GU80 (<50%) groupings. Relative rates tests applied to the branches indicated a rate of nucleotide substitution in Mexico of 2

Figure 4. Maximum parsimony phylogenetic tree derived from complete genomic sequences showing relationships of the newly isolated Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) strain (MX01-22) to other strains from Mexico and Guatemala. Numbers indicate nucleotide substitutions assigned to each branch. All nodes had bootstrap values of 100%, except the OAX131-37820 (62%) and GU68-GU80 (<50%) groupings. Relative rates tests applied to the branches indicated a rate of nucleotide substitution in Mexico of 2.0–2.9 x 10–4 subst/nt/y since 1993, and 6.8 x 10–5 for the Guatemalan lineage from 1968–1980. These data suggest continuous circulation of VEEV in Mexico since 1993.

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