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Volume 10, Number 12—December 2004

Volume 10, Number 12—December 2004   PDF Version [PDF - 9.53 MB - 215 pages]

Perspective

  • Wildlife as Source of Zoonotic Infections PDF Version [PDF - 229 KB - 6 pages]
    H. Kruse et al.
        View Abstract

    Zoonoses with a wildlife reservoir represent a major public health problem, affecting all continents. Hundreds of pathogens and many different transmission modes are involved, and many factors influence the epidemiology of the various zoonoses. The importance and recognition of wildlife as a reservoir of zoonoses are increasing. Cost-effective prevention and control of these zoonoses necessitate an interdisciplinary and holistic approach and international cooperation. Surveillance, laboratory capability, research, training and education, and communication are key elements.

        Cite This Article
    EID Kruse H, Kirkemo A, Handeland K. Wildlife as Source of Zoonotic Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2067-2072. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040707
    AMA Kruse H, Kirkemo A, Handeland K. Wildlife as Source of Zoonotic Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2067-2072. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040707.
    APA Kruse, H., Kirkemo, A., & Handeland, K. (2004). Wildlife as Source of Zoonotic Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2067-2072. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040707.

Research

  • Risk Factors for Alveolar Echinococcosis in Humans PDF Version [PDF - 198 KB - 6 pages]
    P. Kern et al.
        View Abstract

    We conducted a case-control study to investigate risk factors for acquiring autochthonous alveolar echinococcosis in Germany. Forty cases and 120 controls matched by age and residence were interviewed. Patients were more likely than controls to have owned dogs that killed game (odds ratio [OR] = 18.0), lived in a farmhouse (OR = 6.4), owned dogs that roamed outdoors unattended (OR = 6.1), collected wood (OR = 4.7), been farmers (OR = 4.7), chewed grass (OR = 4.4), lived in a dwelling close to fields (OR = 3.0), gone into forests for vocational reasons (OR = 2.8), grown leaf or root vegetables (OR = 2.5), owned cats that roamed outdoors unattended (OR = 2.3), and eaten unwashed strawberries (OR = 2.2). Sixty-five percent of cases were attributable to farming. Measures that prevent accidental swallowing of possibly contaminated material during farming or adequate deworming of pet animals might reduce the risk for alveolar echinococcosis.

        Cite This Article
    EID Kern P, Ammon A, Kron M, Sinn G, Sander S, Petersen LR, et al. Risk Factors for Alveolar Echinococcosis in Humans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2088-2093. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.030773
    AMA Kern P, Ammon A, Kron M, et al. Risk Factors for Alveolar Echinococcosis in Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2088-2093. doi:10.3201/eid1012.030773.
    APA Kern, P., Ammon, A., Kron, M., Sinn, G., Sander, S., Petersen, L. R....Kern, P. (2004). Risk Factors for Alveolar Echinococcosis in Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2088-2093. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.030773.
  • Origin of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus PDF Version [PDF - 227 KB - 6 pages]
    C. Weldon et al.
        View Abstract

    The sudden appearance of chytridiomycosis, the cause of amphibian deaths and population declines in several continents, suggests that its etiologic agent, the amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, was introduced into the affected regions. However, the origin of this virulent pathogen is unknown. A survey was conducted of 697 archived specimens of 3 species of Xenopus collected from 1879 to 1999 in southern Africa in which the histologic features of the interdigital webbing were analyzed. The earliest case of chytridiomycosis found was in a Xenopus laevis frog in 1938, and overall prevalence was 2.7%. The prevalence showed no significant differences between species, regions, season, or time period. Chytridiomycosis was a stable endemic infection in southern Africa for 23 years before any positive specimen was found outside Africa. We propose that Africa is the origin of the amphibian chytrid and that the international trade in X. laevis that began in the mid-1930s was the means of dissemination.

        Cite This Article
    EID Weldon C, du Preez LH, Hyatt AD, Muller R, Speare R. Origin of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2100-2105. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.030804
    AMA Weldon C, du Preez LH, Hyatt AD, et al. Origin of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2100-2105. doi:10.3201/eid1012.030804.
    APA Weldon, C., du Preez, L. H., Hyatt, A. D., Muller, R., & Speare, R. (2004). Origin of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2100-2105. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.030804.
  • West Nile Virus Outbreak in North American Owls, Ontario, 2002 PDF Version [PDF - 306 KB - 7 pages]
    A. Y. Gancz et al.
        View Abstract

    From July to September 2002, an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) caused a high number of deaths in captive owls at the Owl Foundation, Vineland, Ontario. Peak death rates occurred in mid-August, and the epidemiologic curve resembled that of corvids in the surrounding Niagara region. The outbreak occurred in the midst of a louse fly (Icosta americana, family Hippoboscidae) infestation. Of the flies tested, 16 (88.9%) of 18 contained WNV RNA. Species with northern native breeding range and birds >1 year of age were at significantly higher risk for WNV-related deaths. Species with northern native breeding range and of medium-to-large body size were at significantly higher risk for exposure to WNV. Taxonomic relations (at the subfamily level) did not significantly affect exposure to WNV or WNV-related deaths. Northern native breeding range and medium-to-large body size were associated with earlier death within the outbreak period. Of the survivors, 69 (75.8%) of 91 were seropositive for WNV.

        Cite This Article
    EID Gancz AY, Barker IK, Lindsay R, Dibernardo A, McKeever K, Hunter B, et al. West Nile Virus Outbreak in North American Owls, Ontario, 2002. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2136-2142. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040167
    AMA Gancz AY, Barker IK, Lindsay R, et al. West Nile Virus Outbreak in North American Owls, Ontario, 2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2136-2142. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040167.
    APA Gancz, A. Y., Barker, I. K., Lindsay, R., Dibernardo, A., McKeever, K., & Hunter, B. (2004). West Nile Virus Outbreak in North American Owls, Ontario, 2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2136-2142. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040167.
  • Alligators as West Nile Virus Amplifiers PDF Version [PDF - 140 KB - 6 pages]
    K. Klenk et al.
        View Abstract

    Recent evidence suggests that American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) may be capable of transmitting West Nile virus (WNV) to other alligators. We experimentally exposed 24 juvenile alligators to WNV parenterally or orally. All became infected, and all but three sustained viremia titers >5.0 log10 PFU/mL (a threshold considered infectious for Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes) for 1 to 8 days. Noninoculated tankmates also became infected. The viremia profiles and multiple routes of infection suggest alligators may play an important role in WNV transmission in areas with high population densities of juvenile alligators.

        Cite This Article
    EID Klenk K, Snow J, Morgan K, Bowen RA, Stephens M, Foster F, et al. Alligators as West Nile Virus Amplifiers. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2150-2155. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040264
    AMA Klenk K, Snow J, Morgan K, et al. Alligators as West Nile Virus Amplifiers. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2150-2155. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040264.
    APA Klenk, K., Snow, J., Morgan, K., Bowen, R. A., Stephens, M., Foster, F....Bunning, M. L. (2004). Alligators as West Nile Virus Amplifiers. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2150-2155. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040264.
  • Identifying Rodent Hantavirus Reservoirs, Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 281 KB - 8 pages]
    A. Suzuki et al.
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    This study describes the genetic analysis carried out on samples from hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) patients from southern and southeastern states of Brazil and rodents captured at the presumed site of infection of these patients. A total of 65 samples that were antibody-positive for Sin Nombre or Laguna Negra virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were processed by nested reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) by using several primer combinations in the M and S genome segments. PCR products were amplified and sequenced from samples from 11 HPS patient and 7 rodent samples. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequence differences showed the cocirculation of Araraquara and Juquitiba-like viruses, previously characterized from humans. Our genetic data indicate that Araraquara virus is associated with Bolomys lasiurus (hairy-tailed Bolo mouse) and the Juquitiba-like virus is associated with Oligoryzomys nigripes (black-footed pigmy rice rat).

        Cite This Article
    EID Suzuki A, Bisordi I, Levis S, Garcia J, Pereira LE, Souza RP, et al. Identifying Rodent Hantavirus Reservoirs, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2127-2134. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040295
    AMA Suzuki A, Bisordi I, Levis S, et al. Identifying Rodent Hantavirus Reservoirs, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2127-2134. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040295.
    APA Suzuki, A., Bisordi, I., Levis, S., Garcia, J., Pereira, L. E., Souza, R. P....Souza, L. T. (2004). Identifying Rodent Hantavirus Reservoirs, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2127-2134. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040295.
  • Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Southern Mexico PDF Version [PDF - 427 KB - 9 pages]
    J. G. Estrada-Franco et al.
        View Abstract

    Equine epizootics of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) occurred in the southern Mexican states of Chiapas in 1993 and Oaxaca in 1996. To assess the impact of continuing circulation of VEE virus (VEEV) on human and animal populations, serologic and viral isolation studies were conducted in 2000–2001 in Chiapas State. Human serosurveys and risk analyses indicated long-term endemic transmission of VEEV among villages with seroprevalence levels of 18% to 75% and that medical personnel had a high risk for VEEV exposure. Seroprevalence in wild animals suggested cotton rats as possible reservoir hosts in the region. Virus isolations from sentinel animals and genetic characterizations of these strains indicated continuing circulation of a subtype IE genotype, which was isolated from equines during the recent VEE outbreaks. These data indicate long-term enzootic and endemic VEEV circulation in the region and continued risk for disease in equines and humans.

        Cite This Article
    EID Estrada-Franco JG, Navarro-Lopez R, Freier JE, Cordova D, Clements T, Moncayo A, et al. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Southern Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2113-2121. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040393
    AMA Estrada-Franco JG, Navarro-Lopez R, Freier JE, et al. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Southern Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2113-2121. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040393.
    APA Estrada-Franco, J. G., Navarro-Lopez, R., Freier, J. E., Cordova, D., Clements, T., Moncayo, A....Weaver, S. C. (2004). Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Southern Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2113-2121. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040393.
  • Opisthorchiasis from Imported Raw Fish PDF Version [PDF - 372 KB - 5 pages]
    O. Yossepowitch et al.
        View Abstract

    Liver fluke infection caused by Opisthorchiidae is a major public health problem in many parts of the Far East, Southeast Asia, and eastern Europe. However, with the growing volume of international travel and population migration, the infection is increasingly diagnosed in countries where the disease is not endemic, particularly in North America. We report an outbreak of acute opisthorchiasis in a family that was infected in a non–disease-endemic area after eating raw carp illegally imported from a highly disease-endemic area in Siberia. With the growing numbers of former Soviet Union citizens immigrating to other countries, western physicians need to be alert regarding Opisthorchis-associated pathology in this population. The epidemiology and biology of Opisthorchiidae in the former Soviet Union are reviewed.

        Cite This Article
    EID Yossepowitch O, Gotesman T, Assous M, Marva E, Zimlichman R, Dan M, et al. Opisthorchiasis from Imported Raw Fish. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2122-2126. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040410
    AMA Yossepowitch O, Gotesman T, Assous M, et al. Opisthorchiasis from Imported Raw Fish. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2122-2126. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040410.
    APA Yossepowitch, O., Gotesman, T., Assous, M., Marva, E., Zimlichman, R., & Dan, M. (2004). Opisthorchiasis from Imported Raw Fish. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2122-2126. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040410.
  • Nonsusceptibility of Primate Cells to Taura Syndrome Virus PDF Version [PDF - 736 KB - 7 pages]
    C. R. Pantoja et al.
        View Abstract

    Taura syndrome virus (TSV), a pathogen of penaeid shrimp and member of the family Dicistroviridae, was recently reported to have the ability to infect primate cells. We independently retested this hypothesis. Three lines of primate cells FRhK-4, MA-104, and BGMK, which are highly susceptible to infection by human picornaviruses, were challenged with TSV. Viral replication was assayed by real time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction using cell media samples collected on days 0, 4, and 7 postchallenge. By day 7, genome copy numbers had decreased 25%–99%. No cytopathic effect was observed after 7 days. An in situ hybridization assay, with gene probes specific for detection of TSV, was negative for TSV in challenged cells. The infectivity of residual virus in the cell culture media at day 7 was confirmed by bioassay using TSV-free indicator shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). TSV did not infect the primate cells tested, and no evidence of zoonotic potential was found.

        Cite This Article
    EID Pantoja CR, Navarro SA, Naranjo J, Lightner DV, Gerba CP. Nonsusceptibility of Primate Cells to Taura Syndrome Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2106-2112. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040419
    AMA Pantoja CR, Navarro SA, Naranjo J, et al. Nonsusceptibility of Primate Cells to Taura Syndrome Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2106-2112. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040419.
    APA Pantoja, C. R., Navarro, S. A., Naranjo, J., Lightner, D. V., & Gerba, C. P. (2004). Nonsusceptibility of Primate Cells to Taura Syndrome Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2106-2112. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040419.
  • Experimental Everglades Virus Infection of Cotton Rats (Sigmodon hispidus) PDF Version [PDF - 308 KB - 7 pages]
    L. L. Coffey et al.
        View Abstract

    Everglades virus (EVEV), an alphavirus in the Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) serocomplex, circulates among rodents and vector mosquitoes and infects humans, causing a febrile disease sometimes accompanied by neurologic manifestations. EVEV circulates near metropolitan Miami, which indicates the potential for substantial human disease, should outbreaks arise. We characterized EVEV infection of cotton rats in South Florida to validate their role in enzootic transmission. To evaluate whether the viremia induced in cotton rat populations regulates EVEV distribution, we also infected rats from a non–EVEV-endemic area. Viremia levels developed in rats from both localities that exceeded the threshold for infection of the vector. Most animals survived infection with no signs of illness, despite virus invasion of the brain and the development of mild encephalitis. Understanding the mechanisms by which EVEV-infected cotton rats resist clinical disease may be useful in developing VEE therapeutics for equines and humans.

        Cite This Article
    EID Coffey LL, Carrara A, Paessler S, Haynie ML, Bradley RD, Tesh RB, et al. Experimental Everglades Virus Infection of Cotton Rats (Sigmodon hispidus). Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2182-2188. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040442
    AMA Coffey LL, Carrara A, Paessler S, et al. Experimental Everglades Virus Infection of Cotton Rats (Sigmodon hispidus). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2182-2188. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040442.
    APA Coffey, L. L., Carrara, A., Paessler, S., Haynie, M. L., Bradley, R. D., Tesh, R. B....Weaver, S. C. (2004). Experimental Everglades Virus Infection of Cotton Rats (Sigmodon hispidus). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2182-2188. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040442.
  • Differential Virulence of West Nile Strains for American Crows PDF Version [PDF - 224 KB - 8 pages]
    A. C. Brault et al.
        View Abstract

    Crow deaths were observed after West Nile virus (WNV) was introduced into North America, and this phenomenon has subsequently been used to monitor the spread of the virus. To investigate potential differences in the crow virulence of different WNV strains, American Crows were inoculated with Old World strains of WNV from Kenya and Australia (Kunjin) and a North American (NY99) WNV genotype. Infection of crows with NY99 genotype resulted in high serum viremia levels and death; the Kenyan and Kunjin genotypes elicited low viremia levels and minimal deaths, but resulted in the generation of neutralizing antibodies capable of providing 100% protection from infection with the NY99 strain. These results suggest that genetic alterations in NY99 WNV are responsible for the crow-virulent phenotype and that increased replication of this strain in crows could spread WNV in North America.

        Cite This Article
    EID Brault AC, Langevin SA, Bowen RA, Panella NA, Biggerstaff BJ, Miller BR, et al. Differential Virulence of West Nile Strains for American Crows. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2161-2168. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040486
    AMA Brault AC, Langevin SA, Bowen RA, et al. Differential Virulence of West Nile Strains for American Crows. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2161-2168. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040486.
    APA Brault, A. C., Langevin, S. A., Bowen, R. A., Panella, N. A., Biggerstaff, B. J., Miller, B. R....Komar, N. (2004). Differential Virulence of West Nile Strains for American Crows. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2161-2168. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040486.
  • H3N2 Influenza Virus Transmission from Swine to Turkeys, United States PDF Version [PDF - 128 KB - 5 pages]
    Y. K. Choi et al.
        View Abstract

    In 1998, a novel H3N2 reassortant virus emerged in the United States swine population. We report the interspecies transmission of this virus to turkeys in two geographically distant farms in the United States in 2003. This event is concerning, considering the reassortment capacity of this virus and the susceptibility of turkey to infection by avian influenza viruses. Two H3N2 isolates, A/turkey/NC/16108/03 and A/turkey/MN/764/03, had 98.0% to 99.9% nucleotide sequence identity to each other in all eight gene segments. All protein components of the turkey isolates had 97% to 98% sequence identity to swine H3N2 viruses, thus demonstrating interspecies transmission from pigs to turkeys. The turkey isolates were better adapted to avian hosts than were their closest swine counterparts, which suggests that the viruses had already begun to evolve in the new host. The isolation of swine-like H3N2 influenza viruses from turkeys raises new concerns for the generation of novel viruses that could affect humans.

        Cite This Article
    EID Choi YK, Lee JH, Erickson G, Goyal SM, Joo HS, Webster RG, et al. H3N2 Influenza Virus Transmission from Swine to Turkeys, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2156-2160. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040581
    AMA Choi YK, Lee JH, Erickson G, et al. H3N2 Influenza Virus Transmission from Swine to Turkeys, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2156-2160. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040581.
    APA Choi, Y. K., Lee, J. H., Erickson, G., Goyal, S. M., Joo, H. S., Webster, R. G....Webby, R. J. (2004). H3N2 Influenza Virus Transmission from Swine to Turkeys, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2156-2160. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040581.
  • Nipah Virus Encephalitis Reemergence, Bangladesh PDF Version [PDF - 187 KB - 6 pages]
    V. P. Hsu et al.
        View Abstract

    We retrospectively investigated two outbreaks of encephalitis in Meherpur and Naogaon, Bangladesh, that occurred in 2001 and 2003. We collected serum samples from persons who were ill, their household contacts, randomly selected residents, hospital workers, and various animals. Cases were classified as laboratory confirmed or probable. We identified 13 cases (4 confirmed, 9 probable) in Meherpur; 7 were in persons in two households. Patients were more likely than nonpatients to have close contact with other patients or have contact with a sick cow. In Naogaon, we identified 12 cases (4 confirmed, 8 probable); 7 were in persons clustered in 2 households. Two Pteropus bats had antibodies for Nipah virus. Samples from hospital workers were negative for Nipah virus antibodies. These outbreaks, the first since 1999, suggest that transmission may occur through close contact with other patients or from exposure to a common source. Surveillance and enhancement of diagnostic capacity to detect Nipah virus infection are recommended.

        Cite This Article
    EID Hsu VP, Hossain MJ, Parashar UD, Ali MM, Ksiazek TG, Kuzmin IV, et al. Nipah Virus Encephalitis Reemergence, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2082-2087. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040701
    AMA Hsu VP, Hossain MJ, Parashar UD, et al. Nipah Virus Encephalitis Reemergence, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2082-2087. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040701.
    APA Hsu, V. P., Hossain, M. J., Parashar, U. D., Ali, M. M., Ksiazek, T. G., Kuzmin, I. V....Breiman, R. F. (2004). Nipah Virus Encephalitis Reemergence, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2082-2087. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040701.
  • VecTest as Diagnostic and Surveillance Tool for West Nile Virus in Dead Birds PDF Version [PDF - 210 KB - 7 pages]
    W. B. Stone et al.
        View Abstract

    The VecTest antigen-capture assay for West Nile virus was performed on oral and tissue swabs from dead birds in New York State from April 2003 through July 2004. Results were compared with those from real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction of kidney or brain. Oral VecTest sensitivity is adequate for surveillance in American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) (87%), Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata) (80%), and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) (76%). Oral VecTest performed well for small samples of American Kestrels (Falco sparverius), Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis), Common Grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), and House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus). Poor sensitivity occurred in most raptors, Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura), Fish Crows (Corvus ossifragus), and American Robins (Turdus migratorius). Specificity was excellent (98%), except for false-positive results that occurred mostly in Gray Catbirds (Dumatella carolinensis), Green Herons (Butorides virescens), and tests of blood and tissues. Feather pulp and kidney may be useful for VecTest assays in corvids.

        Cite This Article
    EID Stone WB, Okoniewski JC, Therrien JE, Kramer LD, Kauffman EB, Eidson M, et al. VecTest as Diagnostic and Surveillance Tool for West Nile Virus in Dead Birds. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2175-2181. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040836
    AMA Stone WB, Okoniewski JC, Therrien JE, et al. VecTest as Diagnostic and Surveillance Tool for West Nile Virus in Dead Birds. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2175-2181. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040836.
    APA Stone, W. B., Okoniewski, J. C., Therrien, J. E., Kramer, L. D., Kauffman, E. B., & Eidson, M. (2004). VecTest as Diagnostic and Surveillance Tool for West Nile Virus in Dead Birds. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2175-2181. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040836.
  • Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Mauritania PDF Version [PDF - 192 KB - 7 pages]
    P. Nabeth et al.
        View Abstract

    From February to August 2003, 38 persons were infected with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus in Mauritania; 35 of these persons were residents of Nouakchott. The first patient was a young woman who became ill shortly after butchering a goat. She transmitted the infection to 15 persons in the hospital where she was admitted and four members of her family. In Nouakchott, two disease clusters and 11 isolated cases were identified. The case-fatality ratio was 28.6%. Of the patients not infected by the first case-patient, almost half were butchers, which suggests that the primary mode of animal-to-human transmission was direct contact with blood of infected animals. The hospital outbreak alerted health authorities to sporadic cases that occurred in the following weeks, which would have probably gone otherwise unnoticed. Studies must be conducted to determine the potential risk for continued sporadic outbreaks of CCHF in humans and to propose prevention measures.

        Cite This Article
    EID Nabeth P, Cheikh DO, Lo B, Faye O, Vall IO, Niang M, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Mauritania. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2143-2149. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040535
    AMA Nabeth P, Cheikh DO, Lo B, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Mauritania. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2143-2149. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040535.
    APA Nabeth, P., Cheikh, D. O., Lo, B., Faye, O., Vall, I. O., Niang, M....Simon, F. (2004). Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Mauritania. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2143-2149. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040535.
  • Cats as a Risk for Transmission of Antimicrobial drug−resistant Salmonella PDF Version [PDF - 209 KB - 6 pages]
    F. Van Immerseel et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine whether cats were a risk for transmission of Salmonella to humans, we evaluated the excretion of Salmonella by pet cats. Rectal-swab specimens were taken from 278 healthy house cats, from 58 cats that died of disease, and from 35 group-housed cats. Group-housed cats were kept in one room with three cat trays and a common water and feed tray. Eighteen (51.4%) of 35 group-housed cats, 5 (8.6%) of 58 diseased cats (5/58), and 1 (0.36%) of 278 healthy house cats excreted Salmonella. Salmonella isolates were of serotypes Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Bovismorbificans and 4:i:-. Acquired antimicrobial resistance was found in serotype Typhimurium (resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline; to ampicillin; and to chloramphenicol) and 4:i:- strains (resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim). Cats that excrete Salmonella can pose a public health hazard to people who are highly susceptible to Salmonella, such as children, the elderly, and immunocompromised persons.

        Cite This Article
    EID Van Immerseel F, Pasmans F, De Buck J, Rychlik I, Hradecka H, Collard J, et al. Cats as a Risk for Transmission of Antimicrobial drug−resistant Salmonella. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2169-2174. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040904
    AMA Van Immerseel F, Pasmans F, De Buck J, et al. Cats as a Risk for Transmission of Antimicrobial drug−resistant Salmonella. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2169-2174. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040904.
    APA Van Immerseel, F., Pasmans, F., De Buck, J., Rychlik, I., Hradecka, H., Collard, J....Haesebrouck, F. (2004). Cats as a Risk for Transmission of Antimicrobial drug−resistant Salmonella. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2169-2174. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040904.
  • Exposure to Nonhuman Primates in Rural Cameroon PDF Version [PDF - 196 KB - 6 pages]
    N. D. Wolfe et al.
        View Abstract

    Exposure to nonhuman primates has led to the emergence of important diseases, including Ebola hemorrhagic fever, AIDS, and adult T-cell leukemia (HTLV). To determine the extent of exposure to nonhuman primates, persons were examined in 17 remote villages in Cameroon that represented three habitats (savanna, gallery forest, and lowland forest). Questionnaire data were collected to assess whether persons kept wild animal pets; hunted and butchered wild game; had experienced bites, scratches, or injuries from live animals; or had been injured during hunting or butchering. While all villages had substantial exposure to nonhuman primates, higher rates of exposure were seen in lowland forest sites. The study demonstrates that exposure is not limited to small groups of hunters. A high percentage of rural villagers report exposure to nonhuman primate blood and body fluids and risk acquiring infectious diseases.

        Cite This Article
    EID Wolfe ND, Prosser AT, Carr JK, Tamoufe U, Mpoudi-Ngole E, Torimiro JN, et al. Exposure to Nonhuman Primates in Rural Cameroon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2094-2099. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040062
    AMA Wolfe ND, Prosser AT, Carr JK, et al. Exposure to Nonhuman Primates in Rural Cameroon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2094-2099. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040062.
    APA Wolfe, N. D., Prosser, A. T., Carr, J. K., Tamoufe, U., Mpoudi-Ngole, E., Torimiro, J. N....Burke, D. S. (2004). Exposure to Nonhuman Primates in Rural Cameroon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2094-2099. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040062.

Dispatches

  • Rabies in Endangered Ethiopian Wolves PDF Version [PDF - 356 KB - 4 pages]
    D. A. Randall et al.
        View Abstract

    With rabies emerging as a particular threat to wild canids, we report on a rabies outbreak in a subpopulation of endangered Ethiopian wolves in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia, in 2003 and 2004. Parenteral vaccination of wolves was used to manage the outbreak.

        Cite This Article
    EID Randall DA, Williams SD, Kuzmin IV, Rupprecht CE, Tallents LA, Tefera Z, et al. Rabies in Endangered Ethiopian Wolves. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2214-2217. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040080
    AMA Randall DA, Williams SD, Kuzmin IV, et al. Rabies in Endangered Ethiopian Wolves. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2214-2217. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040080.
    APA Randall, D. A., Williams, S. D., Kuzmin, I. V., Rupprecht, C. E., Tallents, L. A., Tefera, Z....Laurenson, M. (2004). Rabies in Endangered Ethiopian Wolves. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2214-2217. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040080.
  • Detecting West Nile Virus in Owls and Raptors by an Antigen-capture Assay PDF Version [PDF - 268 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Y. Gancz et al.
        View Abstract

    We evaluated a rapid antigen-capture assay (VecTest) for detection of West Nile virus in oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs, collected at necropsy from owls (N = 93) and raptors (N = 27). Sensitivity was 93.5%–95.2% for northern owl species but <42.9% for all other species. Specificity was 100% for owls and 85.7% for raptors.

        Cite This Article
    EID Gancz AY, Campbell DG, Barker IK, Lindsay R, Hunter B. Detecting West Nile Virus in Owls and Raptors by an Antigen-capture Assay. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2204-2206. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040168
    AMA Gancz AY, Campbell DG, Barker IK, et al. Detecting West Nile Virus in Owls and Raptors by an Antigen-capture Assay. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2204-2206. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040168.
    APA Gancz, A. Y., Campbell, D. G., Barker, I. K., Lindsay, R., & Hunter, B. (2004). Detecting West Nile Virus in Owls and Raptors by an Antigen-capture Assay. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2204-2206. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040168.
  • Animal-to-Human Transmission of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104A Variant PDF Version [PDF - 230 KB - 3 pages]
    S. W. Hendriksen et al.
        View Abstract

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was isolated from a pig, a calf, and a child on a farm in the Netherlands. The isolates were indistinguishable by phenotyping and genotyping methods, which suggests nonfoodborne animal-to-animal and animal-to-human transmission. Persons in close contact with farm animals should be aware of this risk.

        Cite This Article
    EID Hendriksen SW, Orsel K, Wagenaar JA, Miko A, van Duijkeren E. Animal-to-Human Transmission of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104A Variant. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2225-2227. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040286
    AMA Hendriksen SW, Orsel K, Wagenaar JA, et al. Animal-to-Human Transmission of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104A Variant. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2225-2227. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040286.
    APA Hendriksen, S. W., Orsel, K., Wagenaar, J. A., Miko, A., & van Duijkeren, E. (2004). Animal-to-Human Transmission of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104A Variant. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2225-2227. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040286.
  • Naturally Acquired Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria in Human, Thailand PDF Version [PDF - 227 KB - 3 pages]
    S. Jongwutiwes et al.
        View Abstract

    We describe a case of naturally acquired infection with Plasmodium knowlesi in Thailand. Diagnosis was confirmed by the small subunit ribosomal RNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences. The occurrence of simian malaria in human has signified the roles of wild primate populations in disease transmission in some malaria-endemic areas.

        Cite This Article
    EID Jongwutiwes S, Putaporntip C, Iwasaki T, Sata T, Kanbara H. Naturally Acquired Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria in Human, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2211-2213. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040293
    AMA Jongwutiwes S, Putaporntip C, Iwasaki T, et al. Naturally Acquired Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria in Human, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2211-2213. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040293.
    APA Jongwutiwes, S., Putaporntip, C., Iwasaki, T., Sata, T., & Kanbara, H. (2004). Naturally Acquired Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria in Human, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2211-2213. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040293.
  • Parastrongylus cantonensis in a Nonhuman Primate, Florida PDF Version [PDF - 400 KB - 4 pages]
    M. S. Duffy et al.
        View Abstract

    Parastrongylus (= Angiostrongylus) cantonensis is a parasitic nematode of Norway rats throughout tropical regions. This parasite is neurotropic and causes disease and death in humans and other mammals. We report the first identification of P. cantonensis, as the cause of a debilitating neurologic disease in a captive primate in Florida.

        Cite This Article
    EID Duffy MS, Miller CL, Kinsella JM, de Lahunta A. Parastrongylus cantonensis in a Nonhuman Primate, Florida. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2207-2210. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040319
    AMA Duffy MS, Miller CL, Kinsella JM, et al. Parastrongylus cantonensis in a Nonhuman Primate, Florida. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2207-2210. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040319.
    APA Duffy, M. S., Miller, C. L., Kinsella, J. M., & de Lahunta, A. (2004). Parastrongylus cantonensis in a Nonhuman Primate, Florida. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2207-2210. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040319.
  • Human-to-Dog Transmission of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus PDF Version [PDF - 207 KB - 3 pages]
    E. van Duijkeren et al.
        View Abstract

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was cultured from the nose of a healthy dog whose owner was colonized with MRSA while she worked in a Dutch nursing home. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and typing of the staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) region showed that both MRSA strains were identical.

        Cite This Article
    EID van Duijkeren E, Wolfhagen MJ, Box AT, Heck M, Wannet WJ, Fluit AC, et al. Human-to-Dog Transmission of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2235-2237. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040387
    AMA van Duijkeren E, Wolfhagen MJ, Box AT, et al. Human-to-Dog Transmission of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2235-2237. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040387.
    APA van Duijkeren, E., Wolfhagen, M. J., Box, A. T., Heck, M., Wannet, W. J., & Fluit, A. C. (2004). Human-to-Dog Transmission of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2235-2237. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040387.
  • Serologic Evidence of Lyssavirus Infection in Bats, Cambodia PDF Version [PDF - 281 KB - 4 pages]
    J. Reynes et al.
        View Abstract

    In Cambodia, 1,303 bats of 16 species were tested for lyssavirus. No lyssavirus nucleocapsid was detected in 1,283 brains tested by immunofluorescence assay. Antibodies against lyssaviruses were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 144 (14.7%) of 981 serum samples. Thirty of 187 serum samples contained neutralizing antibodies against different lyssaviruses.

        Cite This Article
    EID Reynes J, Molia S, Audry L, Hout S, Ngin S, Walston J, et al. Serologic Evidence of Lyssavirus Infection in Bats, Cambodia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2231-2234. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040459
    AMA Reynes J, Molia S, Audry L, et al. Serologic Evidence of Lyssavirus Infection in Bats, Cambodia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2231-2234. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040459.
    APA Reynes, J., Molia, S., Audry, L., Hout, S., Ngin, S., Walston, J....Bourhy, H. (2004). Serologic Evidence of Lyssavirus Infection in Bats, Cambodia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2231-2234. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040459.
  • Francisella tularensis Peritonitis in Stomach Cancer Patient PDF Version [PDF - 232 KB - 3 pages]
    X. Y. Han et al.
        View Abstract

    Tularemia with peritonitis developed in a 50-year-old man soon after diagnosis of stomach cancer with metastasis. The ascites grew Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica, which was identified by sequencing analysis of the 16S rDNA. The infection resolved with antimicrobial treatment. Antibodies detected 4 weeks after onset disappeared after chemotherapy-associated lymphopenia.

        Cite This Article
    EID Han XY, Ho LX, Safdar A. Francisella tularensis Peritonitis in Stomach Cancer Patient. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2238-2240. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040497
    AMA Han XY, Ho LX, Safdar A. Francisella tularensis Peritonitis in Stomach Cancer Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2238-2240. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040497.
    APA Han, X. Y., Ho, L. X., & Safdar, A. (2004). Francisella tularensis Peritonitis in Stomach Cancer Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2238-2240. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040497.
  • West Nile Virus Viremia in Wild Rock Pigeons PDF Version [PDF - 401 KB - 4 pages]
    A. B. Allison et al.
        View Abstract

    Feral rock pigeons were screened for neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) during late winter/spring and summer of 2002 and 2003. Additionally, virus isolation from serum was attempted from 269 birds collected during peak transmission periods. The observed viremia levels and seroprevalence indicate that this species could be involved in amplifying WNV in urban settings.

        Cite This Article
    EID Allison AB, Mead DG, Gibbs SE, Hoffman DM, Stallknecht DE. West Nile Virus Viremia in Wild Rock Pigeons. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2252-2255. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040511
    AMA Allison AB, Mead DG, Gibbs SE, et al. West Nile Virus Viremia in Wild Rock Pigeons. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2252-2255. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040511.
    APA Allison, A. B., Mead, D. G., Gibbs, S. E., Hoffman, D. M., & Stallknecht, D. E. (2004). West Nile Virus Viremia in Wild Rock Pigeons. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2252-2255. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040511.
  • Antibodies to SARS-Coronavirus in Civets PDF Version [PDF - 306 KB - 5 pages]
    C. Tu et al.
        View Abstract

    Using three different assays, we examined 103 serum samples collected from different civet farms and a market in China in June 2003 and January 2004. While civets on farms were largely free from SARS-CoV infection, ≈80% of the animals from one animal market in Guangzhou contained significant levels of antibody to SARS-CoV, which suggests no widespread infection among civets resident on farms, and the infection of civets in the market might be associated with trading activities under the conditions of overcrowding and mixing of various animal species.

        Cite This Article
    EID Tu C, Crameri G, Kong X, Chen J, Sun Y, Yu M, et al. Antibodies to SARS-Coronavirus in Civets. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2244-2248. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040520
    AMA Tu C, Crameri G, Kong X, et al. Antibodies to SARS-Coronavirus in Civets. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2244-2248. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040520.
    APA Tu, C., Crameri, G., Kong, X., Chen, J., Sun, Y., Yu, M....Wang, L. (2004). Antibodies to SARS-Coronavirus in Civets. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2244-2248. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040520.
  • First Human Cases of Tickborne Encephalitis, Norway PDF Version [PDF - 248 KB - 3 pages]
    T. Skarpaas et al.
        View Abstract

    The first reported case of tickborne encephalitis (TBE) in Norway occurred in 1997. From 1997 to 2003, from zero to two cases of human TBE have been diagnosed per year in Norway; a total of eight cases have been diagnosed. Clinical TBE cases in dogs are not reported in Norway.

        Cite This Article
    EID Skarpaas T, Ljøstad U, Sundøy A. First Human Cases of Tickborne Encephalitis, Norway. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2241-2243. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040598
    AMA Skarpaas T, Ljøstad U, Sundøy A. First Human Cases of Tickborne Encephalitis, Norway. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2241-2243. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040598.
    APA Skarpaas, T., Ljøstad, U., & Sundøy, A. (2004). First Human Cases of Tickborne Encephalitis, Norway. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2241-2243. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040598.
  • Genome Sequence and Attenuating Mutations in West Nile Virus Isolate from Mexico PDF Version [PDF - 264 KB - 4 pages]
    D. W. Beasley et al.
        View Abstract

    The complete genome sequence of a Mexican West Nile virus isolate, TM171-03, included 46 nucleotide (0.42%) and 4 amino acid (0.11%) differences from the NY99 prototype. Mouse virulence differences between plaque-purified variants of TM171-03 with mutations at the E protein glycosylation motif suggest the emergence of an attenuating mutation.

        Cite This Article
    EID Beasley DW, Davis C, Estrada-Franco J, Navarro-Lopez R, Campomanes-Cortes A, Tesh RB, et al. Genome Sequence and Attenuating Mutations in West Nile Virus Isolate from Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2221-2224. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040647
    AMA Beasley DW, Davis C, Estrada-Franco J, et al. Genome Sequence and Attenuating Mutations in West Nile Virus Isolate from Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2221-2224. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040647.
    APA Beasley, D. W., Davis, C., Estrada-Franco, J., Navarro-Lopez, R., Campomanes-Cortes, A., Tesh, R. B....Barrett, A. D. (2004). Genome Sequence and Attenuating Mutations in West Nile Virus Isolate from Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2221-2224. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040647.
  • Protective Effectiveness of Hantavirus Vaccine PDF Version [PDF - 311 KB - 3 pages]
    K. Park et al.
        View Abstract

    A case-control study in the Republic of Korea evaluated the protective effectiveness of the hantavirus vaccine. Point estimates showed increasing effectiveness with increasing numbers of doses received: 25% for one dose, 46% for two doses, and 75% for three doses. All 95% confidence intervals overlapped zero; therefore, the findings could be due to chance.

        Cite This Article
    EID Park K, Kim CS, Moon K. Protective Effectiveness of Hantavirus Vaccine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2218-2220. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040684
    AMA Park K, Kim CS, Moon K. Protective Effectiveness of Hantavirus Vaccine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2218-2220. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040684.
    APA Park, K., Kim, C. S., & Moon, K. (2004). Protective Effectiveness of Hantavirus Vaccine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2218-2220. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040684.
  • Salmonella Typhimurium Outbreak Associated with Veterinary Clinic PDF Version [PDF - 241 KB - 3 pages]
    B. Cherry et al.
        View Abstract

    A Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium outbreak was associated with a veterinary clinic. Confirmed cases were in one cat, two veterinary technicians, four persons associated with clinic patients, and a nurse not linked to the clinic. This outbreak emphasizes the importance of strong public health ties to the animal health community.

        Cite This Article
    EID Cherry B, Burns A, Johnson GS, Pfeiffer H, Dumas N, Barrett D, et al. Salmonella Typhimurium Outbreak Associated with Veterinary Clinic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2249-2251. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040714
    AMA Cherry B, Burns A, Johnson GS, et al. Salmonella Typhimurium Outbreak Associated with Veterinary Clinic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2249-2251. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040714.
    APA Cherry, B., Burns, A., Johnson, G. S., Pfeiffer, H., Dumas, N., Barrett, D....Eidson, M. (2004). Salmonella Typhimurium Outbreak Associated with Veterinary Clinic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2249-2251. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040714.
  • Avian Influenza H5N1 in Tigers and Leopards PDF Version [PDF - 302 KB - 3 pages]
    J. Keawcharoen et al.
        View Abstract

    Influenza virus is not known to affect wild felids. We demonstrate that avian influenza A (H5N1) virus caused severe pneumonia in tigers and leopards that fed on infected poultry carcasses. This finding extends the host range of influenza virus and has implications for influenza virus epidemiology and wildlife conservation.

        Cite This Article
    EID Keawcharoen J, Oraveerakul K, Kuiken T, Fouchier R, Amonsin A, Payungporn S, et al. Avian Influenza H5N1 in Tigers and Leopards. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2189-2191. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040759
    AMA Keawcharoen J, Oraveerakul K, Kuiken T, et al. Avian Influenza H5N1 in Tigers and Leopards. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2189-2191. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040759.
    APA Keawcharoen, J., Oraveerakul, K., Kuiken, T., Fouchier, R., Amonsin, A., Payungporn, S....Poovorawan, Y. (2004). Avian Influenza H5N1 in Tigers and Leopards. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2189-2191. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040759.
  • Human Illness from Avian Influenza H7N3, British Columbia PDF Version [PDF - 295 KB - 4 pages]
    S. A. Tweed et al.
        View Abstract

    Avian influenza that infects poultry in close proximity to humans is a concern because of its pandemic potential. In 2004, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N3 occurred in poultry in British Columbia, Canada. Surveillance identified two persons with confirmed avian influenza infection. Symptoms included conjunctivitis and mild influenzalike illness.

        Cite This Article
    EID Tweed SA, Skowronski DM, David ST, Larder A, Petric M, Lees W, et al. Human Illness from Avian Influenza H7N3, British Columbia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2196-2199. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040961
    AMA Tweed SA, Skowronski DM, David ST, et al. Human Illness from Avian Influenza H7N3, British Columbia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2196-2199. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040961.
    APA Tweed, S. A., Skowronski, D. M., David, S. T., Larder, A., Petric, M., Lees, W....Mak, A. (2004). Human Illness from Avian Influenza H7N3, British Columbia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2196-2199. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040961.
  • Historical, New, and Reemerging Links between Human and Animal Health PDF Version [PDF - 361 KB - 2 pages]
    N. Marano and M. Pappiaoanou
            Cite This Article
    EID Marano N, Pappiaoanou M. Historical, New, and Reemerging Links between Human and Animal Health. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2066. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.041037
    AMA Marano N, Pappiaoanou M. Historical, New, and Reemerging Links between Human and Animal Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2066. doi:10.3201/eid1012.041037.
    APA Marano, N., & Pappiaoanou, M. (2004). Historical, New, and Reemerging Links between Human and Animal Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2066. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.041037.

Letters

  • Bartonella henselae in African Lion, South Africa PDF Version [PDF - 24 KB - 2 pages]
    A. Pretorius et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Pretorius A, Kuyl J, Isherwood D, Birtles R. Bartonella henselae in African Lion, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2261-2262. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.031054
    AMA Pretorius A, Kuyl J, Isherwood D, et al. Bartonella henselae in African Lion, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2261-2262. doi:10.3201/eid1012.031054.
    APA Pretorius, A., Kuyl, J., Isherwood, D., & Birtles, R. (2004). Bartonella henselae in African Lion, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2261-2262. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.031054.
  • Cryptosporidium felis and C. meleagridis in Persons with HIV, Portugal PDF Version [PDF - 23 KB - 2 pages]
    O. Matos et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Matos O, Alves M, Xiao L, Cama V, Antunes F. Cryptosporidium felis and C. meleagridis in Persons with HIV, Portugal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2256-2257. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.031068
    AMA Matos O, Alves M, Xiao L, et al. Cryptosporidium felis and C. meleagridis in Persons with HIV, Portugal. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2256-2257. doi:10.3201/eid1012.031068.
    APA Matos, O., Alves, M., Xiao, L., Cama, V., & Antunes, F. (2004). Cryptosporidium felis and C. meleagridis in Persons with HIV, Portugal. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2256-2257. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.031068.
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transmission from Human to Canine PDF Version [PDF - 41 KB - 3 pages]
    P. C. Erwin et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Erwin PC, Bemis DA, Mawby DI, McCombs SB, Sheeler LL, Himelright IM, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transmission from Human to Canine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2258-2260. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040094
    AMA Erwin PC, Bemis DA, Mawby DI, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transmission from Human to Canine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2258-2260. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040094.
    APA Erwin, P. C., Bemis, D. A., Mawby, D. I., McCombs, S. B., Sheeler, L. L., Himelright, I. M....Thomsen, B. V. (2004). Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transmission from Human to Canine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2258-2260. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040094.
  • Bartonella clarridgeiae and B. henselae in Dogs, Gabon PDF Version [PDF - 26 KB - 2 pages]
    V. A. Gundi et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Gundi VA, Bourry O, Davoust B, Raoult D, La Scola B. Bartonella clarridgeiae and B. henselae in Dogs, Gabon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2257-2258. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040359
    AMA Gundi VA, Bourry O, Davoust B, et al. Bartonella clarridgeiae and B. henselae in Dogs, Gabon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2257-2258. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040359.
    APA Gundi, V. A., Bourry, O., Davoust, B., Raoult, D., & La Scola, B. (2004). Bartonella clarridgeiae and B. henselae in Dogs, Gabon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2257-2258. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040359.
  • Taura Syndrome Virus and Mammalian Cell Lines PDF Version [PDF - 26 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Luo et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Luo P, Hu C, Ren C, Sun Z. Taura Syndrome Virus and Mammalian Cell Lines. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2260-2261. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040537
    AMA Luo P, Hu C, Ren C, et al. Taura Syndrome Virus and Mammalian Cell Lines. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2260-2261. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040537.
    APA Luo, P., Hu, C., Ren, C., & Sun, Z. (2004). Taura Syndrome Virus and Mammalian Cell Lines. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2260-2261. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040537.
  • Serologic Evidence of Hantavirus Infection in Humans, Colombia PDF Version [PDF - 69 KB - 2 pages]
    S. Máttar and M. Parra
            Cite This Article
    EID Máttar S, Parra M. Serologic Evidence of Hantavirus Infection in Humans, Colombia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2263-2264. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040821
    AMA Máttar S, Parra M. Serologic Evidence of Hantavirus Infection in Humans, Colombia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2263-2264. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040821.
    APA Máttar, S., & Parra, M. (2004). Serologic Evidence of Hantavirus Infection in Humans, Colombia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2263-2264. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040821.

Books and Media

  • Veterinary Institutions in the Developing World: Current Status and Future Needs PDF Version [PDF - 26 KB - 2 pages]
    J. J. McDermott
            Cite This Article
    EID McDermott JJ. Veterinary Institutions in the Developing World: Current Status and Future Needs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2266-2267. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040791
    AMA McDermott JJ. Veterinary Institutions in the Developing World: Current Status and Future Needs. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2266-2267. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040791.
    APA McDermott, J. J. (2004). Veterinary Institutions in the Developing World: Current Status and Future Needs. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2266-2267. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040791.
  • Prions and Prion Diseases: Current Perspectives PDF Version [PDF - 19 KB - 2 pages]
    E. D. Belay
            Cite This Article
    EID Belay ED. Prions and Prion Diseases: Current Perspectives. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2265-2266. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040847
    AMA Belay ED. Prions and Prion Diseases: Current Perspectives. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2265-2266. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040847.
    APA Belay, E. D. (2004). Prions and Prion Diseases: Current Perspectives. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2265-2266. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040847.
  • Emergence and Control of Zoonotic Viral Encephalitides PDF Version [PDF - 15 KB - 1 page]
    M. Pappaioanou
            Cite This Article
    EID Pappaioanou M. Emergence and Control of Zoonotic Viral Encephalitides. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2265. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.041026
    AMA Pappaioanou M. Emergence and Control of Zoonotic Viral Encephalitides. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2265. doi:10.3201/eid1012.041026.
    APA Pappaioanou, M. (2004). Emergence and Control of Zoonotic Viral Encephalitides. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2265. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.041026.

About the Cover

  • “One Medicine” for Animal and Human Health PDF Version [PDF - 40 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Potter
            Cite This Article
    EID Potter P. “One Medicine” for Animal and Human Health. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2269-2270. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.AC1012
    AMA Potter P. “One Medicine” for Animal and Human Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2269-2270. doi:10.3201/eid1012.AC1012.
    APA Potter, P. (2004). “One Medicine” for Animal and Human Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2269-2270. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.AC1012.

News and Notes

  • Human Health Safety of Animal Feeds Workshop PDF Version [PDF - 27 KB - 1 page]
    V. N. Nargund
            Cite This Article
    EID Nargund VN. Human Health Safety of Animal Feeds Workshop. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(12):2268. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040987
    AMA Nargund VN. Human Health Safety of Animal Feeds Workshop. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2268. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040987.
    APA Nargund, V. N. (2004). Human Health Safety of Animal Feeds Workshop. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12), 2268. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040987.
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