Volume 10, Number 12—December 2004
Volume 10, Number 12—December 2004 PDF Version [PDF - 9.53 MB - 215 pages]
Wildlife as Source of Zoonotic Infections
PDF Version [PDF - 229 KB - 6 pages]
H. Kruse et al.View Abstract
Zoonoses with a wildlife reservoir represent a major public health problem, affecting all continents. Hundreds of pathogens and many different transmission modes are involved, and many factors influence the epidemiology of the various zoonoses. The importance and recognition of wildlife as a reservoir of zoonoses are increasing. Cost-effective prevention and control of these zoonoses necessitate an interdisciplinary and holistic approach and international cooperation. Surveillance, laboratory capability, research, training and education, and communication are key elements.
Risk Factors for Alveolar Echinococcosis in Humans
PDF Version [PDF - 198 KB - 6 pages]
P. Kern et al.View Abstract
We conducted a case-control study to investigate risk factors for acquiring autochthonous alveolar echinococcosis in Germany. Forty cases and 120 controls matched by age and residence were interviewed. Patients were more likely than controls to have owned dogs that killed game (odds ratio [OR] = 18.0), lived in a farmhouse (OR = 6.4), owned dogs that roamed outdoors unattended (OR = 6.1), collected wood (OR = 4.7), been farmers (OR = 4.7), chewed grass (OR = 4.4), lived in a dwelling close to fields (OR = 3.0), gone into forests for vocational reasons (OR = 2.8), grown leaf or root vegetables (OR = 2.5), owned cats that roamed outdoors unattended (OR = 2.3), and eaten unwashed strawberries (OR = 2.2). Sixty-five percent of cases were attributable to farming. Measures that prevent accidental swallowing of possibly contaminated material during farming or adequate deworming of pet animals might reduce the risk for alveolar echinococcosis.
Origin of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus
PDF Version [PDF - 227 KB - 6 pages]
C. Weldon et al.View Abstract
The sudden appearance of chytridiomycosis, the cause of amphibian deaths and population declines in several continents, suggests that its etiologic agent, the amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, was introduced into the affected regions. However, the origin of this virulent pathogen is unknown. A survey was conducted of 697 archived specimens of 3 species of Xenopus collected from 1879 to 1999 in southern Africa in which the histologic features of the interdigital webbing were analyzed. The earliest case of chytridiomycosis found was in a Xenopus laevis frog in 1938, and overall prevalence was 2.7%. The prevalence showed no significant differences between species, regions, season, or time period. Chytridiomycosis was a stable endemic infection in southern Africa for 23 years before any positive specimen was found outside Africa. We propose that Africa is the origin of the amphibian chytrid and that the international trade in X. laevis that began in the mid-1930s was the means of dissemination.
West Nile Virus Outbreak in North American Owls, Ontario, 2002
PDF Version [PDF - 306 KB - 7 pages]
A. Y. Gancz et al.View Abstract
From July to September 2002, an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) caused a high number of deaths in captive owls at the Owl Foundation, Vineland, Ontario. Peak death rates occurred in mid-August, and the epidemiologic curve resembled that of corvids in the surrounding Niagara region. The outbreak occurred in the midst of a louse fly (Icosta americana, family Hippoboscidae) infestation. Of the flies tested, 16 (88.9%) of 18 contained WNV RNA. Species with northern native breeding range and birds >1 year of age were at significantly higher risk for WNV-related deaths. Species with northern native breeding range and of medium-to-large body size were at significantly higher risk for exposure to WNV. Taxonomic relations (at the subfamily level) did not significantly affect exposure to WNV or WNV-related deaths. Northern native breeding range and medium-to-large body size were associated with earlier death within the outbreak period. Of the survivors, 69 (75.8%) of 91 were seropositive for WNV.
Alligators as West Nile Virus Amplifiers
PDF Version [PDF - 140 KB - 6 pages]
K. Klenk et al.View Abstract
Recent evidence suggests that American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) may be capable of transmitting West Nile virus (WNV) to other alligators. We experimentally exposed 24 juvenile alligators to WNV parenterally or orally. All became infected, and all but three sustained viremia titers >5.0 log10 PFU/mL (a threshold considered infectious for Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes) for 1 to 8 days. Noninoculated tankmates also became infected. The viremia profiles and multiple routes of infection suggest alligators may play an important role in WNV transmission in areas with high population densities of juvenile alligators.
Identifying Rodent Hantavirus Reservoirs, Brazil
PDF Version [PDF - 281 KB - 8 pages]
A. Suzuki et al.View Abstract
This study describes the genetic analysis carried out on samples from hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) patients from southern and southeastern states of Brazil and rodents captured at the presumed site of infection of these patients. A total of 65 samples that were antibody-positive for Sin Nombre or Laguna Negra virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were processed by nested reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) by using several primer combinations in the M and S genome segments. PCR products were amplified and sequenced from samples from 11 HPS patient and 7 rodent samples. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequence differences showed the cocirculation of Araraquara and Juquitiba-like viruses, previously characterized from humans. Our genetic data indicate that Araraquara virus is associated with Bolomys lasiurus (hairy-tailed Bolo mouse) and the Juquitiba-like virus is associated with Oligoryzomys nigripes (black-footed pigmy rice rat).
Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Southern Mexico
PDF Version [PDF - 427 KB - 9 pages]
J. G. Estrada-Franco et al.View Abstract
Equine epizootics of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) occurred in the southern Mexican states of Chiapas in 1993 and Oaxaca in 1996. To assess the impact of continuing circulation of VEE virus (VEEV) on human and animal populations, serologic and viral isolation studies were conducted in 2000–2001 in Chiapas State. Human serosurveys and risk analyses indicated long-term endemic transmission of VEEV among villages with seroprevalence levels of 18% to 75% and that medical personnel had a high risk for VEEV exposure. Seroprevalence in wild animals suggested cotton rats as possible reservoir hosts in the region. Virus isolations from sentinel animals and genetic characterizations of these strains indicated continuing circulation of a subtype IE genotype, which was isolated from equines during the recent VEE outbreaks. These data indicate long-term enzootic and endemic VEEV circulation in the region and continued risk for disease in equines and humans.
Opisthorchiasis from Imported Raw Fish
PDF Version [PDF - 372 KB - 5 pages]
O. Yossepowitch et al.View Abstract
Liver fluke infection caused by Opisthorchiidae is a major public health problem in many parts of the Far East, Southeast Asia, and eastern Europe. However, with the growing volume of international travel and population migration, the infection is increasingly diagnosed in countries where the disease is not endemic, particularly in North America. We report an outbreak of acute opisthorchiasis in a family that was infected in a non–disease-endemic area after eating raw carp illegally imported from a highly disease-endemic area in Siberia. With the growing numbers of former Soviet Union citizens immigrating to other countries, western physicians need to be alert regarding Opisthorchis-associated pathology in this population. The epidemiology and biology of Opisthorchiidae in the former Soviet Union are reviewed.
Nonsusceptibility of Primate Cells to Taura Syndrome Virus
PDF Version [PDF - 736 KB - 7 pages]
C. R. Pantoja et al.View Abstract
Taura syndrome virus (TSV), a pathogen of penaeid shrimp and member of the family Dicistroviridae, was recently reported to have the ability to infect primate cells. We independently retested this hypothesis. Three lines of primate cells FRhK-4, MA-104, and BGMK, which are highly susceptible to infection by human picornaviruses, were challenged with TSV. Viral replication was assayed by real time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction using cell media samples collected on days 0, 4, and 7 postchallenge. By day 7, genome copy numbers had decreased 25%–99%. No cytopathic effect was observed after 7 days. An in situ hybridization assay, with gene probes specific for detection of TSV, was negative for TSV in challenged cells. The infectivity of residual virus in the cell culture media at day 7 was confirmed by bioassay using TSV-free indicator shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). TSV did not infect the primate cells tested, and no evidence of zoonotic potential was found.
Experimental Everglades Virus Infection of Cotton Rats (Sigmodon hispidus)
PDF Version [PDF - 308 KB - 7 pages]
L. L. Coffey et al.View Abstract
Everglades virus (EVEV), an alphavirus in the Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) serocomplex, circulates among rodents and vector mosquitoes and infects humans, causing a febrile disease sometimes accompanied by neurologic manifestations. EVEV circulates near metropolitan Miami, which indicates the potential for substantial human disease, should outbreaks arise. We characterized EVEV infection of cotton rats in South Florida to validate their role in enzootic transmission. To evaluate whether the viremia induced in cotton rat populations regulates EVEV distribution, we also infected rats from a non–EVEV-endemic area. Viremia levels developed in rats from both localities that exceeded the threshold for infection of the vector. Most animals survived infection with no signs of illness, despite virus invasion of the brain and the development of mild encephalitis. Understanding the mechanisms by which EVEV-infected cotton rats resist clinical disease may be useful in developing VEE therapeutics for equines and humans.
Differential Virulence of West Nile Strains for American Crows
PDF Version [PDF - 224 KB - 8 pages]
A. C. Brault et al.View Abstract
Crow deaths were observed after West Nile virus (WNV) was introduced into North America, and this phenomenon has subsequently been used to monitor the spread of the virus. To investigate potential differences in the crow virulence of different WNV strains, American Crows were inoculated with Old World strains of WNV from Kenya and Australia (Kunjin) and a North American (NY99) WNV genotype. Infection of crows with NY99 genotype resulted in high serum viremia levels and death; the Kenyan and Kunjin genotypes elicited low viremia levels and minimal deaths, but resulted in the generation of neutralizing antibodies capable of providing 100% protection from infection with the NY99 strain. These results suggest that genetic alterations in NY99 WNV are responsible for the crow-virulent phenotype and that increased replication of this strain in crows could spread WNV in North America.
H3N2 Influenza Virus Transmission from Swine to Turkeys, United States
PDF Version [PDF - 128 KB - 5 pages]
Y. K. Choi et al.View Abstract
In 1998, a novel H3N2 reassortant virus emerged in the United States swine population. We report the interspecies transmission of this virus to turkeys in two geographically distant farms in the United States in 2003. This event is concerning, considering the reassortment capacity of this virus and the susceptibility of turkey to infection by avian influenza viruses. Two H3N2 isolates, A/turkey/NC/16108/03 and A/turkey/MN/764/03, had 98.0% to 99.9% nucleotide sequence identity to each other in all eight gene segments. All protein components of the turkey isolates had 97% to 98% sequence identity to swine H3N2 viruses, thus demonstrating interspecies transmission from pigs to turkeys. The turkey isolates were better adapted to avian hosts than were their closest swine counterparts, which suggests that the viruses had already begun to evolve in the new host. The isolation of swine-like H3N2 influenza viruses from turkeys raises new concerns for the generation of novel viruses that could affect humans.
Nipah Virus Encephalitis Reemergence, Bangladesh
PDF Version [PDF - 187 KB - 6 pages]
V. P. Hsu et al.View Abstract
We retrospectively investigated two outbreaks of encephalitis in Meherpur and Naogaon, Bangladesh, that occurred in 2001 and 2003. We collected serum samples from persons who were ill, their household contacts, randomly selected residents, hospital workers, and various animals. Cases were classified as laboratory confirmed or probable. We identified 13 cases (4 confirmed, 9 probable) in Meherpur; 7 were in persons in two households. Patients were more likely than nonpatients to have close contact with other patients or have contact with a sick cow. In Naogaon, we identified 12 cases (4 confirmed, 8 probable); 7 were in persons clustered in 2 households. Two Pteropus bats had antibodies for Nipah virus. Samples from hospital workers were negative for Nipah virus antibodies. These outbreaks, the first since 1999, suggest that transmission may occur through close contact with other patients or from exposure to a common source. Surveillance and enhancement of diagnostic capacity to detect Nipah virus infection are recommended.
VecTest as Diagnostic and Surveillance Tool for West Nile Virus in Dead Birds
PDF Version [PDF - 210 KB - 7 pages]
W. B. Stone et al.View Abstract
The VecTest antigen-capture assay for West Nile virus was performed on oral and tissue swabs from dead birds in New York State from April 2003 through July 2004. Results were compared with those from real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction of kidney or brain. Oral VecTest sensitivity is adequate for surveillance in American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) (87%), Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata) (80%), and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) (76%). Oral VecTest performed well for small samples of American Kestrels (Falco sparverius), Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis), Common Grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), and House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus). Poor sensitivity occurred in most raptors, Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura), Fish Crows (Corvus ossifragus), and American Robins (Turdus migratorius). Specificity was excellent (98%), except for false-positive results that occurred mostly in Gray Catbirds (Dumatella carolinensis), Green Herons (Butorides virescens), and tests of blood and tissues. Feather pulp and kidney may be useful for VecTest assays in corvids.
Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Mauritania
PDF Version [PDF - 192 KB - 7 pages]
P. Nabeth et al.View Abstract
From February to August 2003, 38 persons were infected with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus in Mauritania; 35 of these persons were residents of Nouakchott. The first patient was a young woman who became ill shortly after butchering a goat. She transmitted the infection to 15 persons in the hospital where she was admitted and four members of her family. In Nouakchott, two disease clusters and 11 isolated cases were identified. The case-fatality ratio was 28.6%. Of the patients not infected by the first case-patient, almost half were butchers, which suggests that the primary mode of animal-to-human transmission was direct contact with blood of infected animals. The hospital outbreak alerted health authorities to sporadic cases that occurred in the following weeks, which would have probably gone otherwise unnoticed. Studies must be conducted to determine the potential risk for continued sporadic outbreaks of CCHF in humans and to propose prevention measures.
Cats as a Risk for Transmission of Antimicrobial drug−resistant Salmonella
PDF Version [PDF - 209 KB - 6 pages]
F. Van Immerseel et al.View Abstract
To determine whether cats were a risk for transmission of Salmonella to humans, we evaluated the excretion of Salmonella by pet cats. Rectal-swab specimens were taken from 278 healthy house cats, from 58 cats that died of disease, and from 35 group-housed cats. Group-housed cats were kept in one room with three cat trays and a common water and feed tray. Eighteen (51.4%) of 35 group-housed cats, 5 (8.6%) of 58 diseased cats (5/58), and 1 (0.36%) of 278 healthy house cats excreted Salmonella. Salmonella isolates were of serotypes Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Bovismorbificans and 4:i:-. Acquired antimicrobial resistance was found in serotype Typhimurium (resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline; to ampicillin; and to chloramphenicol) and 4:i:- strains (resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim). Cats that excrete Salmonella can pose a public health hazard to people who are highly susceptible to Salmonella, such as children, the elderly, and immunocompromised persons.
Exposure to Nonhuman Primates in Rural Cameroon
PDF Version [PDF - 196 KB - 6 pages]
N. D. Wolfe et al.View Abstract
Exposure to nonhuman primates has led to the emergence of important diseases, including Ebola hemorrhagic fever, AIDS, and adult T-cell leukemia (HTLV). To determine the extent of exposure to nonhuman primates, persons were examined in 17 remote villages in Cameroon that represented three habitats (savanna, gallery forest, and lowland forest). Questionnaire data were collected to assess whether persons kept wild animal pets; hunted and butchered wild game; had experienced bites, scratches, or injuries from live animals; or had been injured during hunting or butchering. While all villages had substantial exposure to nonhuman primates, higher rates of exposure were seen in lowland forest sites. The study demonstrates that exposure is not limited to small groups of hunters. A high percentage of rural villagers report exposure to nonhuman primate blood and body fluids and risk acquiring infectious diseases.
Rabies in Endangered Ethiopian Wolves
PDF Version [PDF - 356 KB - 4 pages]
D. A. Randall et al.View Abstract
With rabies emerging as a particular threat to wild canids, we report on a rabies outbreak in a subpopulation of endangered Ethiopian wolves in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia, in 2003 and 2004. Parenteral vaccination of wolves was used to manage the outbreak.
Detecting West Nile Virus in Owls and Raptors by an Antigen-capture Assay
PDF Version [PDF - 268 KB - 3 pages]
A. Y. Gancz et al.View Abstract
We evaluated a rapid antigen-capture assay (VecTest) for detection of West Nile virus in oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs, collected at necropsy from owls (N = 93) and raptors (N = 27). Sensitivity was 93.5%–95.2% for northern owl species but <42.9% for all other species. Specificity was 100% for owls and 85.7% for raptors.
Animal-to-Human Transmission of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104A Variant
PDF Version [PDF - 230 KB - 3 pages]
S. W. Hendriksen et al.View Abstract
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was isolated from a pig, a calf, and a child on a farm in the Netherlands. The isolates were indistinguishable by phenotyping and genotyping methods, which suggests nonfoodborne animal-to-animal and animal-to-human transmission. Persons in close contact with farm animals should be aware of this risk.
Naturally Acquired Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria in Human, Thailand
PDF Version [PDF - 227 KB - 3 pages]
S. Jongwutiwes et al.View Abstract
We describe a case of naturally acquired infection with Plasmodium knowlesi in Thailand. Diagnosis was confirmed by the small subunit ribosomal RNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences. The occurrence of simian malaria in human has signified the roles of wild primate populations in disease transmission in some malaria-endemic areas.
Parastrongylus cantonensis in a Nonhuman Primate, Florida
PDF Version [PDF - 400 KB - 4 pages]
M. S. Duffy et al.View Abstract
Parastrongylus (= Angiostrongylus) cantonensis is a parasitic nematode of Norway rats throughout tropical regions. This parasite is neurotropic and causes disease and death in humans and other mammals. We report the first identification of P. cantonensis, as the cause of a debilitating neurologic disease in a captive primate in Florida.
Human-to-Dog Transmission of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
PDF Version [PDF - 207 KB - 3 pages]
E. van Duijkeren et al.View Abstract
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was cultured from the nose of a healthy dog whose owner was colonized with MRSA while she worked in a Dutch nursing home. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and typing of the staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) region showed that both MRSA strains were identical.
Serologic Evidence of Lyssavirus Infection in Bats, Cambodia
PDF Version [PDF - 281 KB - 4 pages]
J. Reynes et al.View Abstract
In Cambodia, 1,303 bats of 16 species were tested for lyssavirus. No lyssavirus nucleocapsid was detected in 1,283 brains tested by immunofluorescence assay. Antibodies against lyssaviruses were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 144 (14.7%) of 981 serum samples. Thirty of 187 serum samples contained neutralizing antibodies against different lyssaviruses.
Francisella tularensis Peritonitis in Stomach Cancer Patient
PDF Version [PDF - 232 KB - 3 pages]
X. Y. Han et al.View Abstract
Tularemia with peritonitis developed in a 50-year-old man soon after diagnosis of stomach cancer with metastasis. The ascites grew Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica, which was identified by sequencing analysis of the 16S rDNA. The infection resolved with antimicrobial treatment. Antibodies detected 4 weeks after onset disappeared after chemotherapy-associated lymphopenia.
West Nile Virus Viremia in Wild Rock Pigeons
PDF Version [PDF - 401 KB - 4 pages]
A. B. Allison et al.View Abstract
Feral rock pigeons were screened for neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) during late winter/spring and summer of 2002 and 2003. Additionally, virus isolation from serum was attempted from 269 birds collected during peak transmission periods. The observed viremia levels and seroprevalence indicate that this species could be involved in amplifying WNV in urban settings.
Antibodies to SARS-Coronavirus in Civets
PDF Version [PDF - 306 KB - 5 pages]
C. Tu et al.View Abstract
Using three different assays, we examined 103 serum samples collected from different civet farms and a market in China in June 2003 and January 2004. While civets on farms were largely free from SARS-CoV infection, ≈80% of the animals from one animal market in Guangzhou contained significant levels of antibody to SARS-CoV, which suggests no widespread infection among civets resident on farms, and the infection of civets in the market might be associated with trading activities under the conditions of overcrowding and mixing of various animal species.
First Human Cases of Tickborne Encephalitis, Norway
PDF Version [PDF - 248 KB - 3 pages]
T. Skarpaas et al.View Abstract
The first reported case of tickborne encephalitis (TBE) in Norway occurred in 1997. From 1997 to 2003, from zero to two cases of human TBE have been diagnosed per year in Norway; a total of eight cases have been diagnosed. Clinical TBE cases in dogs are not reported in Norway.
Genome Sequence and Attenuating Mutations in West Nile Virus Isolate from Mexico
PDF Version [PDF - 264 KB - 4 pages]
D. W. Beasley et al.View Abstract
The complete genome sequence of a Mexican West Nile virus isolate, TM171-03, included 46 nucleotide (0.42%) and 4 amino acid (0.11%) differences from the NY99 prototype. Mouse virulence differences between plaque-purified variants of TM171-03 with mutations at the E protein glycosylation motif suggest the emergence of an attenuating mutation.
Protective Effectiveness of Hantavirus Vaccine
PDF Version [PDF - 311 KB - 3 pages]
K. Park et al.View Abstract
A case-control study in the Republic of Korea evaluated the protective effectiveness of the hantavirus vaccine. Point estimates showed increasing effectiveness with increasing numbers of doses received: 25% for one dose, 46% for two doses, and 75% for three doses. All 95% confidence intervals overlapped zero; therefore, the findings could be due to chance.
Salmonella Typhimurium Outbreak Associated with Veterinary Clinic
PDF Version [PDF - 241 KB - 3 pages]
B. Cherry et al.View Abstract
A Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium outbreak was associated with a veterinary clinic. Confirmed cases were in one cat, two veterinary technicians, four persons associated with clinic patients, and a nurse not linked to the clinic. This outbreak emphasizes the importance of strong public health ties to the animal health community.
Avian Influenza H5N1 in Tigers and Leopards
PDF Version [PDF - 302 KB - 3 pages]
J. Keawcharoen et al.View Abstract
Influenza virus is not known to affect wild felids. We demonstrate that avian influenza A (H5N1) virus caused severe pneumonia in tigers and leopards that fed on infected poultry carcasses. This finding extends the host range of influenza virus and has implications for influenza virus epidemiology and wildlife conservation.
Human Illness from Avian Influenza H7N3, British Columbia
PDF Version [PDF - 295 KB - 4 pages]
S. A. Tweed et al.View Abstract
Avian influenza that infects poultry in close proximity to humans is a concern because of its pandemic potential. In 2004, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N3 occurred in poultry in British Columbia, Canada. Surveillance identified two persons with confirmed avian influenza infection. Symptoms included conjunctivitis and mild influenzalike illness.
Historical, New, and Reemerging Links between Human and Animal Health
PDF Version [PDF - 361 KB - 2 pages]
N. Marano and M. Pappiaoanou
Bartonella henselae in African Lion, South Africa
PDF Version [PDF - 24 KB - 2 pages]
A. Pretorius et al.
Cryptosporidium felis and C. meleagridis in Persons with HIV, Portugal
PDF Version [PDF - 23 KB - 2 pages]
O. Matos et al.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transmission from Human to Canine
PDF Version [PDF - 41 KB - 3 pages]
P. C. Erwin et al.
Bartonella clarridgeiae and B. henselae in Dogs, Gabon
PDF Version [PDF - 26 KB - 2 pages]
V. A. Gundi et al.
Taura Syndrome Virus and Mammalian Cell Lines
PDF Version [PDF - 26 KB - 2 pages]
P. Luo et al.
Serologic Evidence of Hantavirus Infection in Humans, Colombia
PDF Version [PDF - 69 KB - 2 pages]
S. Máttar and M. Parra
Books and Media
Veterinary Institutions in the Developing World: Current Status and Future Needs
PDF Version [PDF - 26 KB - 2 pages]
J. J. McDermott
Prions and Prion Diseases: Current Perspectives
PDF Version [PDF - 19 KB - 2 pages]
E. D. Belay
Emergence and Control of Zoonotic Viral Encephalitides
PDF Version [PDF - 15 KB - 1 page]
About the Cover
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- Page created: June 16, 2011
- Page last updated: May 04, 2012
- Page last reviewed: May 04, 2012
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