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Volume 10, Number 3—March 2004

Research

Legionella Infection Risk from Domestic Hot Water

Paola Borella*Comments to Author , M. Teresa Montagna†, Vincenzo Romano-Spica‡§, Serena Stampi¶, Giovanna Stancanelli#, Maria Triassi**, Rachele Neglia*, Isabella Marchesi*, Guglielmina Fantuzzi*, Daniela Tatò†, Christian Napoli†, Gianluigi Quaranta‡, Patrizia Laurenti‡, Erica Leoni¶, Giovanna De Luca§, Cristina Ossi#, Matteo Moro#, and Gabriella Ribera D’Alcalà**
Author affiliations: *University of Modena and Reggio E., Modena, Italy; †University of Bari, Bari, Italy; ‡Catholic University in Rome, Rome, Italy; §University Institute of Physics Sciences, Rome, Italy,; ¶University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; #S. Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy; **University Federico II of Naples, Naples, Italy

Main Article

Table 1

Characteristics of water supply and distribution systems in the examined buildings (N = 146)

Characteristic Frequency no. (%)
Type of water

Groundwater
67 (46.2)
Mixture water
79 (53.8)
Disinfection

Cl dioxide
58 (39.7)
Na hypochlorite
30 (20.6)
Cl dioxide + Na hypochlorite
32 (22.2)
None
26 (17.5)
Plumbing material

Metal
131 (89.7)
Plastic
15 (10.3)
Type of heater

Independent

Gas, tank
30 (20.5)
Electric
22 (15.1)
Gas, instant
55 (37.7)
Central

House
36 (24.7)
Neighborhood
3 (2.1)
Softening system

Absent
124 (84.9)
Present
22 (15.1)
Hot water circulation

Absent
117 (80.1)
Present
29 (19.9)
Plant maintenance

Never/every 2 years
26 (17.8)
Once/year
100 (68.5)
Every 6 months 20 (13.7)

Main Article

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