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Volume 10, Number 3—March 2004

Research

Legionella Infection Risk from Domestic Hot Water

Paola Borella*Comments to Author , M. Teresa Montagna†, Vincenzo Romano-Spica‡§, Serena Stampi¶, Giovanna Stancanelli#, Maria Triassi**, Rachele Neglia*, Isabella Marchesi*, Guglielmina Fantuzzi*, Daniela Tatò†, Christian Napoli†, Gianluigi Quaranta‡, Patrizia Laurenti‡, Erica Leoni¶, Giovanna De Luca§, Cristina Ossi#, Matteo Moro#, and Gabriella Ribera D’Alcalà**
Author affiliations: *University of Modena and Reggio E., Modena, Italy; †University of Bari, Bari, Italy; ‡Catholic University in Rome, Rome, Italy; §University Institute of Physics Sciences, Rome, Italy,; ¶University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; #S. Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy; **University Federico II of Naples, Naples, Italy

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Table 5

Univariate analysis of water chemical parameters associated with microbiologic dataa

Chemical Legionella spp. (yes/no)
Pseudomonas spp. (yes/no)
Total count at 36°C (high/low)b
Total count at 22°C (high/low)b
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Cu ≥50 μg/L
0.14c (0.02 to 1.13)
0.99 (0.38 to 2.56)
0.64 (0.24 to 1.68)
0.71 (0.22 to 2.28)
Zn <100 μg/L
0.33d (0.14 to 0.76)
1,21 (0.62 to 2.35)
0.38d (0.19 to 0.75)
0.29d (0.13 to 0.67)
Fe <20 μg/L
0.37c (0.16 to 0.85)
1.96c (1.00 to 3.86)
050c (0.25 to 0.97)
0.74 (0.34 to 1.58)
Mn <3 μg/L
0.42c (0.19 to 0.94)
1.50 (0.76 to 2.94)
0.23e (0.11 to 0.45)
0.31d (0.14 to 0.70)
Hardness >25°F
0.41c (0.18 to 0.89)
3.91e (1.80 to 8.52)
1.92(0.96 to 3.86)
1.03 (0.47 to 2.26)
Oxidizability >0.5 mg/L O2
0.42c (0.18 to 0.95)
1.12 (0.52 to 2.42)
1.01 (0.49 to 2.07)
0.29d (0.12 to 0.68)
Free Cl present 0.51 (0.23 to 1.15 ) 0.35d (0.17 to 0.73) 1.52 (0.73 to 3.13) 0.49 (0.22 to 1.09)

aOR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.
bHigh >100 CFU/mL.
cp < 0.05.
dp < 0.01.
ep < 0.001.

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