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Volume 10, Number 4—April 2004


Maternal Malaria and Perinatal HIV Transmission, Western Kenya1,2

John G. Ayisi*†, Anna M. van Eijk*†, Robert D. Newman‡Comments to Author , Feiko O. ter Kuile*†‡, Ya Ping Shi*‡, Chunfu Yang‡, Margarette S. Kolczak‡, Juliana A. Otieno§, Ambrose O. Misore§, Piet A. Kager†, Renu B. Lal‡, Richard W. Steketee‡, and Bernard L. Nahlen‡¶
Author affiliations: *Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; †University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; ‡Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; §Ministry of Health, Kisumu, Kenya; ¶World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

Main Article

Table 1

Characteristics of HIV-positive women and their newborns participating in perinatal HIV transmission study, Kisumu, western Kenya, 1996–2001a

Characteristic All women (N = 512)b
Maternal sociodemographic

   Luo ethnicity
   Mean age (y) ± SD
22.4±4.4 (range 14–39)
   Mean gravidity ± SD
2.3±1.4 (range 1–9)
   Completed primary education (≥8 y)
68.0% (n = 510)
   No salaried employment
History of fever and treatment for malaria

   History of fever previous week at screening
23.2% (n = 509)
   History of fever a fortnight before delivery
28.0% (n = 511)
   Treated with antimalarials in current pregnancy
   Treated with chloroquine during current pregnancy
   Axillary temperature ≥37.5°C at screening
2.9% (n = 455)

7.3% (n = 385)
   Hemoglobin <11 g/dL at screening
84.4% (n = 418)
   Hemoglobin <8 g/dL at screening
20.6% (n = 418)
   Mean maternal CD4+ count (% <200 cells/μL) 1 mo postpartum
629±334 (4.7%) (n = 464)
   Mean maternal log10 viral load at delivery (% below detection limit of 400 copies)
3.28±0.92 (33.0%) (n = 455)
   Peripheral parasitemia at screening
21.9% (n = 415)
   Peripheral parasitemia at delivery
19.7% (n = 497)
   Placental malaria

   Episiotomy or perineal tear
   Mean duration of rupture of membranes ± SD (% >4 hours)
2.7±6.2 (15.4%)

   Mean birth weight (% low birth weight)
3144±420 (5.5%)
   Prematurity (<37 wks completed gestation)
   Maternal HIV transmitters 102 (19.9%)

aVDRL, venereal disease research laboratory slide test.
bIf characteristic not measured for all 512 women, n is given in parentheses.

Main Article

1This work was presented in part at the Epidemic Intelligence Service Conference, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, April 2001, Atlanta, GA.

2Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by the Kenya Medical Research Institute or The Ministry of Health, Kenya, or by the Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.