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Volume 10, Number 4—April 2004

Research

Maternal Malaria and Perinatal HIV Transmission, Western Kenya1,2

John G. Ayisi*†, Anna M. van Eijk*†, Robert D. Newman‡Comments to Author , Feiko O. ter Kuile*†‡, Ya Ping Shi*‡, Chunfu Yang‡, Margarette S. Kolczak‡, Juliana A. Otieno§, Ambrose O. Misore§, Piet A. Kager†, Renu B. Lal‡, Richard W. Steketee‡, and Bernard L. Nahlen‡¶
Author affiliations: *Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; †University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; ‡Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; §Ministry of Health, Kisumu, Kenya; ¶World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

Main Article

Table 2

Risk factors associated with perinatal HIV infection by maternal viral, immunologic, obstetric, and other factors (univariate analysis), western Kenya, 1996–2001

Variable No. studied No. infected (%) Relative risk (95% confidence interval) p
Viral load >10,000
          No 358 50 (14.0)
          Yes 97 40 (41.2) 3.0 (2.1 to 4.2) <0.001
CD4+ cells <200
          No 442 74 (16.7)
          Yes 22 13 (59.1) 3.5 (2.4 to 5.3) <0.001
Hemoglobin <8 g/dL at screening
          No 332 58 (17.5)
          Yes 86 22 (25.6) 1.5 (1.0 to 2.3) 0.09
3rd-trimester maternal parasitemia
          No 324 64 (19.8)
          Yes 91 15 (16.5) 0.8 (0.5 to 1.4) 0.48
Maternal parasitemia at delivery
          No 399 83 (20.8)
          Yes 98 15 (15.3) 0.7 (0.4 to 1.2) 0.22
Placental malaria
          No 384 84 (21.9)
          Yes 128 18 (14.1) 0.6 (0.4 to 1.0) 0.05
Ever been treated for tuberculosis
          No 496 98 (19.8)
          Yes 13 4 (30.8) 1.6 (0.7 to 3.6) 0.33
Treated with chloroquine during pregnancy
          No 427 88 (20.6)
          Yes 85 14 (16.5) 0.8 (0.5 to 1.3) 0.38
Treated for vaginal discharge
          No 477 93 (19.5)
          Yes 32 9 (28.1) 1.7 (0.8 to 2.6) 0.24
Hospitalized during current pregnancy
          No 472 95 (20.1)
          Yes 39 7 (18.0) 0.9 (0.4 to 1.8) 0.74
History of fever 2 wks before delivery
          No 368 70 (19.0)
          Yes 143 32 (22.4) 1.2 (0.8 to 1.7) 0.39
Episiotomy or perineal tear
          No 325 56 (17.2)
          Yes 186 46 (24.7) 1.4 (1.0 to 2.0) 0.04
Primi- or secundigravid
          No 190 26 (13.7)
          Yes 322 76 (23.6) 1.7 (1.1 to 2.5) 0.007
Low birth weight
          No 484 91 (18.8)
          Yes 28 11 (39.3) 2.1 (1.3 to 3.4) 0.008
Prematurity
          No 468 92 (19.7)
          Yes 42 10 (23.8) 1.2 (0.7 to 2.1) 0.52
Small for gestational age
          No 444 83 (18.7)
          Yes 66 19 (28.8) 1.5 (1.0 to 2.4) 0.06

Main Article

1This work was presented in part at the Epidemic Intelligence Service Conference, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, April 2001, Atlanta, GA.

2Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by the Kenya Medical Research Institute or The Ministry of Health, Kenya, or by the Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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