In Vitro Cell Culture Infectivity Assay for Human Noroviruses
Timothy M. Straub* , Kerstin Höner zu Bentrup†, Patricia Orosz Coghlan‡, Alice Dohnalkova*, Brooke K. Mayer*1, Rachel A. Bartholomew*, Catherine O. Valdez*, Cynthia J. Bruckner-Lea*, Charles P. Gerba‡, Morteza A. Abbaszadegan§, and Cheryl A. Nickerson†1
Author affiliations: *Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA; †Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA; ‡University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA; §Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA;
Figure 1. Light and transmission electron micrographs of uninfected and infected tissue aggregates with a combined stock of noroviruses representing 3 strains (Passage 0 [P0]). A) Uninfected tissue aggregates displaying well-formed microvilli. B) Infected tissue aggregates exhibiting vacuolization and shortening of the microvilli. C) Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at 1 h postinfection showing possible norovirus in a microvillus. D) TEM at 24 h postinfection showing significant vacuolization, and internal membrane rearrangement. E) TEM at 66 h postinfection showing accumulation of suspect norovirus particles.
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