In Vitro Cell Culture Infectivity Assay for Human Noroviruses
Timothy M. Straub* , Kerstin Höner zu Bentrup†, Patricia Orosz Coghlan‡, Alice Dohnalkova*, Brooke K. Mayer*1, Rachel A. Bartholomew*, Catherine O. Valdez*, Cynthia J. Bruckner-Lea*, Charles P. Gerba‡, Morteza A. Abbaszadegan§, and Cheryl A. Nickerson†1
Author affiliations: *Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA; †Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA; ‡University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA; §Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA;
Figure 4. Cytopathic effect results from the third infectivity trial. A) Virus-free control of B) combined viral stock lysate from second passage experiment (second infectivity trial, P1), which was used to infect naive cells (P2). C) Virus-free control of the flag2 stool sample. D) Corresponding infection with the flag2 stool sample (P0). E) Flag2 in cell culture (P1). Cells in Panels B, D, and E were confirmed as positive for norovirus by reverse transcription–PCR (RT-PCR) and seminested PCR. Cells in uninfected controls were negative for norovirus by both RT-PCR and nested PCR. Arrows indicate cells exhibiting unusual pathology.
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