Figure 1. Global distribution and phylogenetic relationships of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) strains selected for design and validation of the assay. All strains except those marked with asterisks were tested. Phylogenetic analysis was based on available 450-bp sequences (from the National Center for Biotechnology Information) of CCHFV small (S-) segment and generated by the neighbor-joining method with TreeCon for Windows (version 1.3b; Yves van de Peer, University Konstanz, Germany). Nomenclature of CCHFV clades is based on (7). Note that group VII can be resolved only when analyzing the M-segment, not the s-segment as shown here. *These CCHFV strains are shown for reference, but they were not available for testing. **This strain was not available; however, strain Kosovo, which is almost identical, was tested instead. ***Strain AP92 has also not been available for testing. It was isolated from a Rhipicephalus bursa tick and has never been associated with human disease.