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Volume 14, Number 11—November 2008

CME ACTIVITY

Antimicrobial Drug Use and Resistance in Europe

Nienke van de Sande-Bruinsma, Hajo GrundmannComments to Author , Didier Verloo, Edine Tiemersma, Jos Monen, Herman Goossens, Matus Ferech, and the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System and European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption Project Groups 1
Author affiliations: National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands (N. van de Sande-Bruinsma, H. Grundmann, E. Tiemersma, J. Monen); University Medical Centre, Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands (H. Grundmann); Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre, Ukkel, Belgium (D. Verloo); University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium (H. Goossens, M. Ferech);

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Table 1

Difference in outpatient antimicrobial drug use DID in 21 European countries, 2004, and changes in use, 2000–2004*†

Substance class (ATC category) Antimicrobial use, DIDs, 2004
Changes in antimicrobial drug use, 2000–2004
Maximum (country) Minimum (country) fd >15% increase >15% decrease
Total use (J01) 33.4(GR) 9.7 (NL) 3.4 HU, DK, GR, IE BG, CZ, DE, FR
Penicillins (J01C) 12.8 (FR) 3.4 (DE) 3.8 HU, DK CZ, FR, DE, SK
Cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems (J01D) 7.2 (GR) 0.05 (NL) >100 SI BE, BG, CZ, FR, IS NL, ES, SE
Macrolides, lincosamines, streptogramins (J01F) 9.9 (GR) 0.8 (BG) 12.4 BG, HR, GR, IE, NL BE, FR, DE, LU, ES
Fluoroquinolones (J01MA) 3.04 (PT) 0.28 (DK) 10.9 AT, BG, CZ, DK, FI, DE, HU, IE, LU, UK SI

*DID, defined daily dose/1,000 inhabitants; ATC, Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical classification; fd, factor difference.
†Country designations: AT, Austria; BE, Belgium; BG, Bulgaria; CZ, Czech Republic; DE, Germany; DK, Denmark; ES, Spain; FI, Finland; FR, France; GR, Greece; HR, Croatia; HU, Hungary; IE, Ireland; LU, Luxembourg; NL, the Netherlands; PT, Portugal; SE, Sweden; SI, Slovenia; SK, Slovakia; UK, United Kingdom.

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1National representatives of these 2 project groups in 2005 were as follows: Austria: H. Mittermayer, S. Metz, W. Koller (European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System [EARSS]); Belgium: E. Hendrickx (EARSS), H. Goossens; Bulgaria: B. Markova; Croatia: A. Tambic-Andrasevic, Igor Francetic (European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption [ESAC]), S. Kalenic (EARSS); Cyprus: D. Bagatzouni (EARSS); Czech Republic: P. Dvorak (ESAC), P. Urbaskova (EARSS); Denmark: D. Monnet, A. Anker Nielsen (ESAC); Estonia: P. Naaber (EARSS); Finland: P. Huovinen (ESAC), P. Paakkari (ESAC), O. Lyytikainen (EARSS), A. Nissinen (EARSS); France: P. Maugendre (ESAC), D. Guillemot (ESAC), B. Coignard, (EARSS), V. Jarlier (EARSS); Germany: W. Kern (ESAC), H. Schroeder (ESAC), W. Witte (EARSS), K. Heckenbach (EARSS); Greece: H. Giamarellou (ESAC), A. Antoniadou (ESAC), A. Tsakris (EARSS), A. Vatopoulos (EARSS); Hungary: G. Ternak (ESAC), M. Fuzi (EARSS); Iceland: K. Kristinsson; Ireland: E. Smyth (ESAC), R. Cunney (ESAC), D. Igoe (EARSS), O. Murphy (EARSS); Israel: R. Raz (EARSS); Italy: G. Cornaglia, A. Pantosti (EARSS), P. D’Ancona (EARSS); Latvia: S. Berzina (ESAC), A. Balode (EARSS); Lithuania: R. Valenteliene (ESAC), J. Miciulevicience; Luxembourg: R. Hemmer, M. Bruch (ESAC); Malta: M. Borg, P. Zarb (ESAC); the Netherlands: R. Janknegt (ESAC), M. Filius (ESAC), H. de Neeling (EARSS), E. Tiemermsa, J Degener (EARSS); Norway: H. Salvesen Blix (ESAC), A. Hoiby (EARSS), G. Simonsen (EARSS); Poland: W. Hryniewicz, P. Grzesiowski; Portugal: L. Caldeira (ESAC), M. Canica (EARSS); Romania: I. Codita; Slovakia: V. Foltan (ESAC), T. Tesar (ESAC), L. Langsadl (EARSS); Slovenia: M. Cizman (ESAC), M. Mueller-Premru (EARSS), J. Kolman (EARSS); Spain: J. Campos, F. Baquero (EARSS); Sweden: O. Cars (ESAC), G. Skoog (ESAC), B. Liljequist (EARSS), G. Kahlmeter (EARSS); Turkey: S. Unal (ESAC), D. Gür (EARSS); United Kingdom: P. Davey (ESAC), A. Johnson (EARSS), R. Hill (EARSS), H. Hughes (EARSS), M. Coyne (EARSS).

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