Novel Borna Virus in Psittacine Birds with Proventricular Dilatation Disease
Kirsi S. Honkavuori, H.L. Shivaprasad, Brent L. Williams, Phenix-Lan Quan, Mady Hornig, Craig Street, Gustavo Palacios, Stephen K. Hutchison, Monique Franca, Michael Egholm, Thomas Briese , and W. Ian Lipkin
Author affiliations: Columbia University, New York, NY, USA (K.S. Honkavuori, B.L. Williams, P.-L. Quan, M. Hornig, C. Street, G. Palacios, T. Briese, W.I. Lipkin); University of California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System–Fresno Branch, Davis, California, USA (H.L. Shivaprasad, M. Franca); 454 Life Sciences, Branford, Connecticut, USA (S.K. Hutchison, M. Egholm)
Figure 1. Conservation of genome organization, regulatory sequences, and protein domains of Borna disease virus (BDV) in novel strains from parrots 1034, 1322, and 1367. N, nucleoprotein; P, phosphoprotein; X, X protein; M, matrix protein; G, glycoprotein; L, L-polymerase protein. Genome regions not yet sequenced in the novel strains are shaded. P-bind, binding site for P on X; NLS, nuclear localization signals of X and P; PKC, protein kinase C epsilon phosphorylation sites in P; CK II, casein kinase phosphorylation sites in P; SIG, signal peptide; Furin, furin cleavage site; TM, transmembrane anchor of G; A – D, conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase motifs. Conserved sites/residues with respect to BDV strain V are shown in black; divergent sites/residues are indicated in red; K32 in P NLS-1 is divergent only in 1034/1322, K35 in NLS-1 and K183 in NLS-2 are divergent only in 1367. S2 and S3, start sites of transcription units 2 and 3, respectively, showing the conserved GAA initiation triplet; T1, T2, and T3, transcription termination sites showing the conserved TA6 consensus sequence; (t6) indicates a nonconserved TA6 sequence found in some BDV isolates. Blue bars indicate the 6 clusters represented by contigs obtained through pyrosequencing. Consensus splice site sequences corresponding to established introns I and II in genes for M and G of BDV strain V are aligned to corresponding sequences of the novel strains.
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