Volume 14, Number 12—December 2008
Volume 14, Number 12—December 2008 PDF Version [PDF - 11.81 MB - 159 pages]
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) Infection in Red Foxes Fed Infected Bird Carcasses
PDF Version [PDF - 311 KB - 7 pages]
L. A. Reperant et al.View Abstract
Eating infected wild birds may put wild carnivores at high risk for infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus (H5N1). To determine whether red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are susceptible to infection with HPAI virus (H5N1), we infected 3 foxes intratracheally. They excreted virus pharyngeally for 3–7 days at peak titers of 103.5–105.2 median tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) per mL and had severe pneumonia, myocarditis, and encephalitis. To determine whether foxes can become infected by the presumed natural route, we fed infected bird carcasses to 3 other red foxes. These foxes excreted virus pharyngeally for 3–5 days at peak titers of 104.2–104.5 TCID50/mL, but only mild or no pneumonia developed. This study demonstrates that red foxes fed bird carcasses infected with HPAI virus (H5N1) can excrete virus while remaining free of severe disease, thereby potentially playing a role in virus dispersal.
Influenza Infection in Wild Raccoons
PDF Version [PDF - 229 KB - 7 pages]
J. S. Hall et al.View Abstract
Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are common, widely distributed animals that frequently come into contact with wild waterfowl, agricultural operations, and humans. Serosurveys showed that raccoons are exposed to avian influenza virus. We found antibodies to a variety of influenza virus subtypes (H10N7, H4N6, H4N2, H3, and H1) with wide geographic variation in seroprevalence. Experimental infection studies showed that raccoons become infected with avian and human influenza A viruses, shed and transmit virus to virus-free animals, and seroconvert. Analyses of cellular receptors showed that raccoons have avian and human type receptors with a similar distribution as found in human respiratory tracts. The potential exists for co-infection of multiple subtypes of influenza virus with genetic reassortment and creation of novel strains of influenza virus. Experimental and field data indicate that raccoons may play an important role in influenza disease ecology and pose risks to agriculture and human health.
Enzootic Rabies Elimination from Dogs and Reemergence in Wild Terrestrial Carnivores, United States
PDF Version [PDF - 299 KB - 6 pages]
A. Velasco-Villa et al.View Abstract
To provide molecular and virologic evidence that domestic dog rabies is no longer enzootic to the United States and to identify putative relatives of dog-related rabies viruses (RVs) circulating in other carnivores, we studied RVs associated with recent and historic dog rabies enzootics worldwide. Molecular, phylogenetic, and epizootiologic evidence shows that domestic dog rabies is no longer enzootic to the United States. Nonetheless, our data suggest that independent rabies enzootics are now established in wild terrestrial carnivores (skunks in California and north-central United States, gray foxes in Texas and Arizona, and mongooses in Puerto Rico), as a consequence of different spillover events from long-term rabies enzootics associated with dogs. These preliminary results highlight the key role of dog RVs and human–dog demographics as operative factors for host shifts and disease reemergence into other important carnivore populations and highlight the need for the elimination of dog-related RVs worldwide.
Genetic Characterization of Toggenburg Orbivirus, a New Bluetongue Virus, from Goats, Switzerland
PDF Version [PDF - 323 KB - 7 pages]
M. A. Hofmann et al.View Abstract
A novel bluetongue virus (BTV) termed Toggenburg orbivirus (TOV) was detected in goats from Switzerland by using real-time reverse transcription–PCR. cDNA corresponding to the complete sequence of 7 of 10 double-stranded RNA segments of the viral genome was amplified by PCR and cloned into a plasmid vector. Five clones for each genome segment were sequenced to determine a consensus sequence. BLAST analysis and dendrogram construction showed that TOV is closely related to BTV, although some genome segments are distinct from the 24 known BTV serotypes. Maximal sequence identity to any BTV ranged from 63% (segment 2) to 79% (segments 7 and 10). Because the gene encoding outer capsid protein 2 (VP2), which determines the serotype of BTV, is placed within the BTV serogroup, we propose that TOV represents an unknown 25th serotype of BTV.
Sentinel-based Surveillance of Coyotes to Detect Bovine Tuberculosis, Michigan
PDF Version [PDF - 408 KB - 8 pages]
K. C. VerCauteren et al.View Abstract
Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is endemic in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the northeastern portion of Michigan’s Lower Peninsula. Bovine TB in deer and cattle has created immense financial consequences for the livestock industry and hunting public. Surveillance identified coyotes (Canis latrans) as potential bio-accumulators of Mycobacterium bovis, a finding that generated interest in their potential to serve as sentinels for monitoring disease risk. We sampled 175 coyotes in the bovine TB–endemic area. Fifty-eight tested positive, and infection prevalence by county ranged from 19% to 52% (statistical mean 33%, SE 0.07). By contrast, prevalence in deer (n = 3,817) was lower (i.e., 1.49%; Mann-Whitney U4,4 = 14, p<0.001). By focusing on coyotes rather than deer, we sampled 97% fewer individuals and increased the likelihood of detecting M. bovis by 40%. As a result of reduced sampling intensity, sentinel coyote surveys have the potential to be practical indicators of M. bovis presence in wildlife and livestock.
African Swine Fever Virus Isolate, Georgia, 2007
PDF Version [PDF - 149 KB - 5 pages]
R. J. Rowlands et al.View Abstract
African swine fever (ASF) is widespread in Africa but is rarely introduced to other continents. In June 2007, ASF was confirmed in the Caucasus region of Georgia, and it has since spread to neighboring countries. DNA fragments amplified from the genome of the isolates from domestic pigs in Georgia in 2007 were sequenced and compared with other ASF virus (ASFV) isolates to establish the genotype of the virus. Sequences were obtained from 4 genome regions, including part of the gene B646L that encodes the p72 capsid protein, the complete E183L and CP204L genes, which encode the p54 and p30 proteins and the variable region of the B602L gene. Analysis of these sequences indicated that the Georgia 2007 isolate is closely related to isolates belonging to genotype II, which is circulating in Mozambique, Madagascar, and Zambia. One possibility for the spread of disease to Georgia is that pigs were fed ASFV-contaminated pork brought in on ships and, subsequently, the disease was disseminated throughout the region.
Medscape CME Activity
Clinical Characteristics and Molecular Subtyping of Vibrio vulnificus Illnesses, Israel PDF Version [PDF - 296 KB - 8 pages]R. Zaidenstein et al.View Abstract
During 1996–1997, a new Vibrio vulnificus biotype 3, which caused severe soft tissue infection after fishbone injury, emerged in Israel. We conducted a follow-up study from 1998 through 2005 to assess changing trends, outcomes, and molecular relatedness of the implicated strains. A total of 132 cases (71% confirmed and 29% suspected) of V. vulnificus biotype 3 infection were found. Most infections (95%) were related to percutaneous fish exposure, mainly tilapia (83%) or common carp (13%). Bacteremia, altered immune status, and history of ischemic heart disease were identified as independent risk factors for death, which reached a prevalence of 7.6%. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of strains from 1998 through 2005 and from 1996 through 1997 showed a high degree of homogeneity and were distinct from those of V. vulnificus biotype 1. Infections caused by V. vulnificus biotype 3 continue affect the public’s health in Israel.
Novel Borna Virus in Psittacine Birds with Proventricular Dilatation Disease
PDF Version [PDF - 221 KB - 4 pages]
K. S. Honkavuori et al.View Abstract
Pyrosequencing of cDNA from brains of parrots with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), an unexplained fatal inflammatory central, autonomic, and peripheral nervous system disease, showed 2 strains of a novel Borna virus. Real-time PCR confirmed virus presence in brain, proventriculus, and adrenal gland of 3 birds with PDD but not in 4 unaffected birds.
Possible Emergence of West Caucasian Bat Virus in Africa
PDF Version [PDF - 166 KB - 3 pages]
I. V. Kuzmin et al.View Abstract
The prevalence of neutralizing antibody against West Caucasian bat virus (WCBV) in Miniopterus bats collected in Kenya ranged from 17% to 26%. Seropositive bats were detected in 4 of 5 locations sampled across the country. These findings provide evidence that WCBV, originally isolated in Europe, may emerge in other continents.
Detection and Phylogenetic Analysis of Group 1 Coronaviruses in South American Bats
PDF Version [PDF - 417 KB - 4 pages]
C. V. Carrington et al.View Abstract
Bat coronaviruses (Bt-CoVs) are thought to be the precursors of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. We detected Bt-CoVs in 2 bat species from Trinidad. Phylogenetic analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene and helicase confirmed them as group 1 coronaviruses.
Rickettsia parkeri in Argentina
PDF Version [PDF - 344 KB - 4 pages]
S. Nava et al.View Abstract
Clinical reports of an eschar-associated rickettsiosis in the Paraná River Delta of Argentina prompted an evaluation of Amblyomma triste ticks in this region. When evaluated by PCR, 17 (7.6%) of 223 questing adult A. triste ticks, collected from 2 sites in the lower Paraná River Delta, contained DNA of Rickettsia parkeri.
Transmission of Atypical Bovine Prions to Mice Transgenic for Human Prion Protein
PDF Version [PDF - 301 KB - 4 pages]
V. Béringue et al.View Abstract
To assess risk for cattle-to-human transmission of prions that cause uncommon forms of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), we inoculated mice expressing human PrP Met129 with field isolates. Unlike classical BSE agent, L-type prions appeared to propagate in these mice with no obvious transmission barrier. H-type prions failed to infect the mice.
Human Illnesses Caused by Opisthorchis felineus Flukes, Italy
PDF Version [PDF - 379 KB - 4 pages]
O. Armignacco et al.View Abstract
We report 2 outbreaks of Opisthorchis felineus infection caused by the consumption of tench filets (Tinca tinca) from a lake in Italy. Of the 22 infected persons, 10 (45.4%) were asymptomatic. When present, symptoms (fever, nausea, abdominal pain, and myalgias) were mild. Eosinophilia occurred in all infected persons.
Identification of New Rabies Virus Variant in Mexican Immigrant
PDF Version [PDF - 205 KB - 3 pages]
A. Velasco-Villa et al.View Abstract
A novel rabies virus was identified after death in a man who had immigrated from Oaxaca, Mexico, to California, USA. Despite the patient’s history of exposure to domestic and wild carnivores, molecular and phylogenetic characterizations suggested that the virus originated from insectivorous bats. Enhanced surveillance is needed to elucidate likely reservoirs.
Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Chickens, Bangladesh
PDF Version [PDF - 349 KB - 4 pages]
P. K. Biswas et al.View Abstract
To determine the epidemiology of outbreaks of avian influenza A virus (subtypes H5N1, H9N2) in chickens in Bangladesh, we conducted surveys and examined virus isolates. The outbreak began in backyard chickens. Probable sources of infection included egg trays and vehicles from local live bird markets and larger live bird markets.
Outbreak of Trichinellosis Caused by Trichinella papuae, Thailand, 2006
PDF Version [PDF - 231 KB - 3 pages]
C. Khumjui et al.View Abstract
In 2006, the Thailand Ministry of Public Health studied 28 patients from a village in northern Thailand. All had myalgia, edema, fever, and gastrointestinal symptoms; most had eaten wild boar. A muscle biopsy specimen from a patient showed nonencapsulated larvae with a cytochrome oxidase I gene sequence of Trichinella papuae.
Multicenter Study of Brucellosis in Egypt
PDF Version [PDF - 100 KB - 3 pages]
H. Samaha et al.View Abstract
Brucellosis causes appreciable economic losses in livestock. Examination of milk and tissues from animals in Egypt for Brucella spp. showed increased prevalence rates of serologically reactive animals. All isolates were B. melitensis biovar 3. One Brucella sp. was isolated from milk of serologically nonreactive buffaloes.
Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Holstein Friesian Cattle, Iran
PDF Version [PDF - 108 KB - 3 pages]
K. Tadayon et al.View Abstract
To identify strains of Mycobacterium bovis circulating in Iran, we used region of difference, spoligotypes, and variable number tandem repeats to genotype 132 M. bovis isolates from Holstein Friesian cattle. Despite wide geographic origins, the strains were genetically homogeneous. Increased distribution of cattle herds and inadequate control measures may have contributed to strain dispersion.
Hemoplasma Infection in HIV-positive Patient, Brazil
PDF Version [PDF - 117 KB - 3 pages]
A. Pires dos Santos et al.View Abstract
Hemotrophic mycoplasmas infect a variety of mammals. Although infection in humans is rarely reported, an association with an immunocompromised state has been suggested. We report a case of a Mycoplasma haemofelis–like infection in an HIV-positive patient co-infected with Bartonella henselae.
Occupational Exposure to Streptococcus suis among US Swine Workers
PDF Version [PDF - 145 KB - 3 pages]
T. C. Smith et al.View Abstract
Despite numerous cases of human infection with Streptococcus suis worldwide, human disease is rarely diagnosed in North America. We studied 73 swine-exposed and 67 non–swine-exposed US adults for antibodies to S. suis serotype 2. Serologic data suggest that human infection with S. suis occurs more frequently than currently documented.
Multiple Francisella tularensis Subspecies and Clades, Tularemia Outbreak, Utah
PDF Version [PDF - 267 KB - 3 pages]
J. M. Petersen et al.View Abstract
In July 2007, a deer fly–associated outbreak of tularemia occurred in Utah. Human infections were caused by 2 clades (A1 and A2) of Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis. Lagomorph carcasses from the area yielded evidence of infection with A1 and A2, as well as F. tularensis subsp. holarctica. These findings indicate that multiple subspecies and clades can cause disease in a localized outbreak of tularemia.
Mycobacterium bovis Strains Causing Smear-Positive Human Tuberculosis, Southwest Ireland
PDF Version [PDF - 262 KB - 4 pages]
O. Ojo et al.View Abstract
Mycobacterium bovis caused 3% of human tuberculosis cases in southwest Ireland during 1998–2006. Of 11 M. bovis strains genotyped, 9 belonged to common animal spoligotypes. Seven strains were from sputum and potential sources of human-centered disease transmission. Ten-locus variable-number tandem repeat typing gave unique strain profiles and would detect disease outbreaks.
Emergence of Francisella novicida Bacteremia, Thailand
PDF Version [PDF - 108 KB - 3 pages]
A. Leelaporn et al.View Abstract
We report isolation of Francisella novicida–causing bacteremia in a woman from Thailand who was receiving chemotherapy for ovarian cancer. The organism was isolated from blood cultures and identified by 16S rDNA and PPIase gene analyses. Diagnosis and treatment were delayed due to unawareness of the disease in this region.
Bartonella henselae Antibodies after Cat Bite
PDF Version [PDF - 151 KB - 2 pages]
K. Westling et al.
Fatal Case of Israeli Spotted Fever after Mediterranean Cruise
PDF Version [PDF - 194 KB - 3 pages]
N. Boillat et al.
Streptococcus suis Meningitis without History of Animal Contact, Italy
PDF Version [PDF - 202 KB - 3 pages]
A. Manzin et al.
Equine Herpesvirus Type 9 in Giraffe with Encephalitis
PDF Version [PDF - 162 KB - 2 pages]
S. Kasem et al.
Reexamination of Human Rabies Case with Long Incubation, Australia
PDF Version [PDF - 140 KB - 2 pages]
N. Johnson et al.
Human Case of Bartonella alsatica Lymphadenitis
PDF Version [PDF - 156 KB - 3 pages]
E. Angelakis et al.
Molecular Detection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis in Amblyomma parvum Ticks, Argentina
PDF Version [PDF - 180 KB - 3 pages]
L. Tomassone et al.
Enzootic Angiostrongyliasis in Shenzhen, China
PDF Version [PDF - 153 KB - 2 pages]
R. Zhang et al.
Knowledge about Avian Influenza, European Region
PDF Version [PDF - 158 KB - 2 pages]
E. Mossialos and C. Rudisill
Human Salmonella Infection Yielding CTX-M β-Lactamase, United States
PDF Version [PDF - 161 KB - 3 pages]
M. Sjölund-Karlsson et al.
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:1 Traced to Raw Carrots, Finland
PDF Version [PDF - 155 KB - 3 pages]
S. Kangas et al.
Antibodies against Rickettsia spp. in Hunters, Germany
PDF Version [PDF - 144 KB - 3 pages]
A. Jansen et al.
Rickettsia sp. in Ixodes granulatus Ticks, Japan
PDF Version [PDF - 145 KB - 3 pages]
H. Fujita et al.
Sin Nombre Virus Infection in Deer Mice, Channel Islands, California
PDF Version [PDF - 153 KB - 2 pages]
J. L. Orrock and B. F. Allan
Parachlamydia acanthamoebae Infection and Abortion in Small Ruminants
PDF Version [PDF - 233 KB - 3 pages]
S. Ruhl et al.
Candidate New Species of Kobuvirus in Porcine Hosts
PDF Version [PDF - 159 KB - 3 pages]
G. Reuter et al.
Human Case of Rickettsia felis Infection, Taiwan
PDF Version [PDF - 171 KB - 3 pages]
K. Tsai et al.
Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia felis in Fleas, Democratic Republic of Congo
PDF Version [PDF - 144 KB - 3 pages]
C. Sackal et al.
Antibodies to Nipah or Nipah-like Viruses in Bats, China
PDF Version [PDF - 184 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Li et al.
Books and Media
About the Cover
Peer Reviewed Report Available Online OnlyHealthcare Infections Associated with Care and Treatment of Humans and AnimalsJ. J. Gibson et al.
Peer Reviewed Report Available Online OnlyInaugural Meeting of the Cysticercosis Working Group in EuropeA. L. Willingham et al.
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- Page last reviewed: September 07, 2012
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