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Volume 14, Number 12—December 2008

Volume 14, Number 12—December 2008   PDF Version [PDF - 11.81 MB - 159 pages]

Research

  • Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) Infection in Red Foxes Fed Infected Bird Carcasses PDF Version [PDF - 311 KB - 7 pages]
    L. A. Reperant et al.
        View Abstract

    Eating infected wild birds may put wild carnivores at high risk for infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus (H5N1). To determine whether red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are susceptible to infection with HPAI virus (H5N1), we infected 3 foxes intratracheally. They excreted virus pharyngeally for 3–7 days at peak titers of 103.5–105.2 median tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) per mL and had severe pneumonia, myocarditis, and encephalitis. To determine whether foxes can become infected by the presumed natural route, we fed infected bird carcasses to 3 other red foxes. These foxes excreted virus pharyngeally for 3–5 days at peak titers of 104.2–104.5 TCID50/mL, but only mild or no pneumonia developed. This study demonstrates that red foxes fed bird carcasses infected with HPAI virus (H5N1) can excrete virus while remaining free of severe disease, thereby potentially playing a role in virus dispersal.

        Cite This Article
    EID Reperant LA, van Amerongen G, van de Bildt MW, Rimmelzwaan GF, Dobson AP, Osterhaus A, et al. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) Infection in Red Foxes Fed Infected Bird Carcasses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1835-1841. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080470
    AMA Reperant LA, van Amerongen G, van de Bildt MW, et al. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) Infection in Red Foxes Fed Infected Bird Carcasses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1835-1841. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080470.
    APA Reperant, L. A., van Amerongen, G., van de Bildt, M. W., Rimmelzwaan, G. F., Dobson, A. P., Osterhaus, A....Kuiken, T. (2008). Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) Infection in Red Foxes Fed Infected Bird Carcasses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1835-1841. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080470.
  • Influenza Infection in Wild Raccoons PDF Version [PDF - 229 KB - 7 pages]
    J. S. Hall et al.
        View Abstract

    Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are common, widely distributed animals that frequently come into contact with wild waterfowl, agricultural operations, and humans. Serosurveys showed that raccoons are exposed to avian influenza virus. We found antibodies to a variety of influenza virus subtypes (H10N7, H4N6, H4N2, H3, and H1) with wide geographic variation in seroprevalence. Experimental infection studies showed that raccoons become infected with avian and human influenza A viruses, shed and transmit virus to virus-free animals, and seroconvert. Analyses of cellular receptors showed that raccoons have avian and human type receptors with a similar distribution as found in human respiratory tracts. The potential exists for co-infection of multiple subtypes of influenza virus with genetic reassortment and creation of novel strains of influenza virus. Experimental and field data indicate that raccoons may play an important role in influenza disease ecology and pose risks to agriculture and human health.

        Cite This Article
    EID Hall JS, Bentler KT, Landolt G, Elmore SA, Minnis RB, Campbell TA, et al. Influenza Infection in Wild Raccoons. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1842-1848. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.071371
    AMA Hall JS, Bentler KT, Landolt G, et al. Influenza Infection in Wild Raccoons. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1842-1848. doi:10.3201/eid1412.071371.
    APA Hall, J. S., Bentler, K. T., Landolt, G., Elmore, S. A., Minnis, R. B., Campbell, T. A....McLean, R. G. (2008). Influenza Infection in Wild Raccoons. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1842-1848. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.071371.
  • Enzootic Rabies Elimination from Dogs and Reemergence in Wild Terrestrial Carnivores, United States PDF Version [PDF - 299 KB - 6 pages]
    A. Velasco-Villa et al.
        View Abstract

    To provide molecular and virologic evidence that domestic dog rabies is no longer enzootic to the United States and to identify putative relatives of dog-related rabies viruses (RVs) circulating in other carnivores, we studied RVs associated with recent and historic dog rabies enzootics worldwide. Molecular, phylogenetic, and epizootiologic evidence shows that domestic dog rabies is no longer enzootic to the United States. Nonetheless, our data suggest that independent rabies enzootics are now established in wild terrestrial carnivores (skunks in California and north-central United States, gray foxes in Texas and Arizona, and mongooses in Puerto Rico), as a consequence of different spillover events from long-term rabies enzootics associated with dogs. These preliminary results highlight the key role of dog RVs and human–dog demographics as operative factors for host shifts and disease reemergence into other important carnivore populations and highlight the need for the elimination of dog-related RVs worldwide.

        Cite This Article
    EID Velasco-Villa A, Reeder SA, Orciari LA, Yager PA, Franka R, Blanton JD, et al. Enzootic Rabies Elimination from Dogs and Reemergence in Wild Terrestrial Carnivores, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1849-1854. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080876
    AMA Velasco-Villa A, Reeder SA, Orciari LA, et al. Enzootic Rabies Elimination from Dogs and Reemergence in Wild Terrestrial Carnivores, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1849-1854. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080876.
    APA Velasco-Villa, A., Reeder, S. A., Orciari, L. A., Yager, P. A., Franka, R., Blanton, J. D....Rupprecht, C. E. (2008). Enzootic Rabies Elimination from Dogs and Reemergence in Wild Terrestrial Carnivores, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1849-1854. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080876.
  • Genetic Characterization of Toggenburg Orbivirus, a New Bluetongue Virus, from Goats, Switzerland PDF Version [PDF - 323 KB - 7 pages]
    M. A. Hofmann et al.
        View Abstract

    A novel bluetongue virus (BTV) termed Toggenburg orbivirus (TOV) was detected in goats from Switzerland by using real-time reverse transcription–PCR. cDNA corresponding to the complete sequence of 7 of 10 double-stranded RNA segments of the viral genome was amplified by PCR and cloned into a plasmid vector. Five clones for each genome segment were sequenced to determine a consensus sequence. BLAST analysis and dendrogram construction showed that TOV is closely related to BTV, although some genome segments are distinct from the 24 known BTV serotypes. Maximal sequence identity to any BTV ranged from 63% (segment 2) to 79% (segments 7 and 10). Because the gene encoding outer capsid protein 2 (VP2), which determines the serotype of BTV, is placed within the BTV serogroup, we propose that TOV represents an unknown 25th serotype of BTV.

        Cite This Article
    EID Hofmann MA, Renzullo S, Mader M, Chaignat V, Worwa G, Thuer B, et al. Genetic Characterization of Toggenburg Orbivirus, a New Bluetongue Virus, from Goats, Switzerland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1855-1861. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080818
    AMA Hofmann MA, Renzullo S, Mader M, et al. Genetic Characterization of Toggenburg Orbivirus, a New Bluetongue Virus, from Goats, Switzerland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1855-1861. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080818.
    APA Hofmann, M. A., Renzullo, S., Mader, M., Chaignat, V., Worwa, G., & Thuer, B. (2008). Genetic Characterization of Toggenburg Orbivirus, a New Bluetongue Virus, from Goats, Switzerland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1855-1861. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080818.
  • Sentinel-based Surveillance of Coyotes to Detect Bovine Tuberculosis, Michigan PDF Version [PDF - 408 KB - 8 pages]
    K. C. VerCauteren et al.
        View Abstract

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is endemic in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the northeastern portion of Michigan’s Lower Peninsula. Bovine TB in deer and cattle has created immense financial consequences for the livestock industry and hunting public. Surveillance identified coyotes (Canis latrans) as potential bio-accumulators of Mycobacterium bovis, a finding that generated interest in their potential to serve as sentinels for monitoring disease risk. We sampled 175 coyotes in the bovine TB–endemic area. Fifty-eight tested positive, and infection prevalence by county ranged from 19% to 52% (statistical mean 33%, SE 0.07). By contrast, prevalence in deer (n = 3,817) was lower (i.e., 1.49%; Mann-Whitney U4,4 = 14, p<0.001). By focusing on coyotes rather than deer, we sampled 97% fewer individuals and increased the likelihood of detecting M. bovis by 40%. As a result of reduced sampling intensity, sentinel coyote surveys have the potential to be practical indicators of M. bovis presence in wildlife and livestock.

        Cite This Article
    EID VerCauteren KC, Atwood TC, DeLiberto TJ, Smith HJ, Stevenson JS, Thomsen BV, et al. Sentinel-based Surveillance of Coyotes to Detect Bovine Tuberculosis, Michigan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1862-1869. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.071181
    AMA VerCauteren KC, Atwood TC, DeLiberto TJ, et al. Sentinel-based Surveillance of Coyotes to Detect Bovine Tuberculosis, Michigan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1862-1869. doi:10.3201/eid1412.071181.
    APA VerCauteren, K. C., Atwood, T. C., DeLiberto, T. J., Smith, H. J., Stevenson, J. S., Thomsen, B. V....Payeur, J. (2008). Sentinel-based Surveillance of Coyotes to Detect Bovine Tuberculosis, Michigan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1862-1869. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.071181.
  • African Swine Fever Virus Isolate, Georgia, 2007 PDF Version [PDF - 149 KB - 5 pages]
    R. J. Rowlands et al.
        View Abstract

    African swine fever (ASF) is widespread in Africa but is rarely introduced to other continents. In June 2007, ASF was confirmed in the Caucasus region of Georgia, and it has since spread to neighboring countries. DNA fragments amplified from the genome of the isolates from domestic pigs in Georgia in 2007 were sequenced and compared with other ASF virus (ASFV) isolates to establish the genotype of the virus. Sequences were obtained from 4 genome regions, including part of the gene B646L that encodes the p72 capsid protein, the complete E183L and CP204L genes, which encode the p54 and p30 proteins and the variable region of the B602L gene. Analysis of these sequences indicated that the Georgia 2007 isolate is closely related to isolates belonging to genotype II, which is circulating in Mozambique, Madagascar, and Zambia. One possibility for the spread of disease to Georgia is that pigs were fed ASFV-contaminated pork brought in on ships and, subsequently, the disease was disseminated throughout the region.

        Cite This Article
    EID Rowlands RJ, Michaud V, Heath L, Hutchings G, Oura C, Vosloo W, et al. African Swine Fever Virus Isolate, Georgia, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1870-1874. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080591
    AMA Rowlands RJ, Michaud V, Heath L, et al. African Swine Fever Virus Isolate, Georgia, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1870-1874. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080591.
    APA Rowlands, R. J., Michaud, V., Heath, L., Hutchings, G., Oura, C., Vosloo, W....Dixon, L. K. (2008). African Swine Fever Virus Isolate, Georgia, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1870-1874. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080591.
  • Medscape CME Activity
    Clinical Characteristics and Molecular Subtyping of Vibrio vulnificus Illnesses, Israel PDF Version [PDF - 296 KB - 8 pages]
    R. Zaidenstein et al.
        View Abstract

    During 1996–1997, a new Vibrio vulnificus biotype 3, which caused severe soft tissue infection after fishbone injury, emerged in Israel. We conducted a follow-up study from 1998 through 2005 to assess changing trends, outcomes, and molecular relatedness of the implicated strains. A total of 132 cases (71% confirmed and 29% suspected) of V. vulnificus biotype 3 infection were found. Most infections (95%) were related to percutaneous fish exposure, mainly tilapia (83%) or common carp (13%). Bacteremia, altered immune status, and history of ischemic heart disease were identified as independent risk factors for death, which reached a prevalence of 7.6%. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of strains from 1998 through 2005 and from 1996 through 1997 showed a high degree of homogeneity and were distinct from those of V. vulnificus biotype 1. Infections caused by V. vulnificus biotype 3 continue affect the public’s health in Israel.

        Cite This Article
    EID Zaidenstein R, Sadik C, Lerner L, Valinsky L, Kopelowitz J, Yishai R, et al. Clinical Characteristics and Molecular Subtyping of Vibrio vulnificus Illnesses, Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1875-1882. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080499
    AMA Zaidenstein R, Sadik C, Lerner L, et al. Clinical Characteristics and Molecular Subtyping of Vibrio vulnificus Illnesses, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1875-1882. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080499.
    APA Zaidenstein, R., Sadik, C., Lerner, L., Valinsky, L., Kopelowitz, J., Yishai, R....Weinberger, M. (2008). Clinical Characteristics and Molecular Subtyping of Vibrio vulnificus Illnesses, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1875-1882. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080499.

Dispatches

  • Novel Borna Virus in Psittacine Birds with Proventricular Dilatation Disease PDF Version [PDF - 221 KB - 4 pages]
    K. S. Honkavuori et al.
        View Abstract

    Pyrosequencing of cDNA from brains of parrots with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), an unexplained fatal inflammatory central, autonomic, and peripheral nervous system disease, showed 2 strains of a novel Borna virus. Real-time PCR confirmed virus presence in brain, proventriculus, and adrenal gland of 3 birds with PDD but not in 4 unaffected birds.

        Cite This Article
    EID Honkavuori KS, Shivaprasad H, Williams BL, Quan P, Hornig M, Street C, et al. Novel Borna Virus in Psittacine Birds with Proventricular Dilatation Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1883-1886. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080984
    AMA Honkavuori KS, Shivaprasad H, Williams BL, et al. Novel Borna Virus in Psittacine Birds with Proventricular Dilatation Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1883-1886. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080984.
    APA Honkavuori, K. S., Shivaprasad, H., Williams, B. L., Quan, P., Hornig, M., Street, C....Lipkin, W. I. (2008). Novel Borna Virus in Psittacine Birds with Proventricular Dilatation Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1883-1886. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080984.
  • Possible Emergence of West Caucasian Bat Virus in Africa PDF Version [PDF - 166 KB - 3 pages]
    I. V. Kuzmin et al.
        View Abstract

    The prevalence of neutralizing antibody against West Caucasian bat virus (WCBV) in Miniopterus bats collected in Kenya ranged from 17% to 26%. Seropositive bats were detected in 4 of 5 locations sampled across the country. These findings provide evidence that WCBV, originally isolated in Europe, may emerge in other continents.

        Cite This Article
    EID Kuzmin IV, Niezgoda M, Franka R, Agwanda B, Markotter W, Beagley JC, et al. Possible Emergence of West Caucasian Bat Virus in Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1887-1889. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080750
    AMA Kuzmin IV, Niezgoda M, Franka R, et al. Possible Emergence of West Caucasian Bat Virus in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1887-1889. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080750.
    APA Kuzmin, I. V., Niezgoda, M., Franka, R., Agwanda, B., Markotter, W., Beagley, J. C....Rupprecht, C. E. (2008). Possible Emergence of West Caucasian Bat Virus in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1887-1889. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080750.
  • Detection and Phylogenetic Analysis of Group 1 Coronaviruses in South American Bats PDF Version [PDF - 417 KB - 4 pages]
    C. V. Carrington et al.
        View Abstract

    Bat coronaviruses (Bt-CoVs) are thought to be the precursors of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. We detected Bt-CoVs in 2 bat species from Trinidad. Phylogenetic analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene and helicase confirmed them as group 1 coronaviruses.

        Cite This Article
    EID Carrington CV, Foster JE, Zhu HC, Zhang JX, Smith GJ, Thompson N, et al. Detection and Phylogenetic Analysis of Group 1 Coronaviruses in South American Bats. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1890-1893. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080642
    AMA Carrington CV, Foster JE, Zhu HC, et al. Detection and Phylogenetic Analysis of Group 1 Coronaviruses in South American Bats. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1890-1893. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080642.
    APA Carrington, C. V., Foster, J. E., Zhu, H. C., Zhang, J. X., Smith, G. J., Thompson, N....Guan, Y. (2008). Detection and Phylogenetic Analysis of Group 1 Coronaviruses in South American Bats. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1890-1893. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080642.
  • Rickettsia parkeri in Argentina PDF Version [PDF - 344 KB - 4 pages]
    S. Nava et al.
        View Abstract

    Clinical reports of an eschar-associated rickettsiosis in the Paraná River Delta of Argentina prompted an evaluation of Amblyomma triste ticks in this region. When evaluated by PCR, 17 (7.6%) of 223 questing adult A. triste ticks, collected from 2 sites in the lower Paraná River Delta, contained DNA of Rickettsia parkeri.

        Cite This Article
    EID Nava S, Elshenawy Y, Eremeeva ME, Sumner JW, Mastropaolo M, Paddock CD, et al. Rickettsia parkeri in Argentina. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1894-1897. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080860
    AMA Nava S, Elshenawy Y, Eremeeva ME, et al. Rickettsia parkeri in Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1894-1897. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080860.
    APA Nava, S., Elshenawy, Y., Eremeeva, M. E., Sumner, J. W., Mastropaolo, M., & Paddock, C. D. (2008). Rickettsia parkeri in Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1894-1897. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080860.
  • Transmission of Atypical Bovine Prions to Mice Transgenic for Human Prion Protein PDF Version [PDF - 301 KB - 4 pages]
    V. Béringue et al.
        View Abstract

    To assess risk for cattle-to-human transmission of prions that cause uncommon forms of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), we inoculated mice expressing human PrP Met129 with field isolates. Unlike classical BSE agent, L-type prions appeared to propagate in these mice with no obvious transmission barrier. H-type prions failed to infect the mice.

        Cite This Article
    EID Béringue V, Herzog L, Reine F, Le Dur A, Casalone C, Vilotte J, et al. Transmission of Atypical Bovine Prions to Mice Transgenic for Human Prion Protein. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1898-1901. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080941
    AMA Béringue V, Herzog L, Reine F, et al. Transmission of Atypical Bovine Prions to Mice Transgenic for Human Prion Protein. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1898-1901. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080941.
    APA Béringue, V., Herzog, L., Reine, F., Le Dur, A., Casalone, C., Vilotte, J....Laude, H. (2008). Transmission of Atypical Bovine Prions to Mice Transgenic for Human Prion Protein. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1898-1901. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080941.
  • Human Illnesses Caused by Opisthorchis felineus Flukes, Italy PDF Version [PDF - 379 KB - 4 pages]
    O. Armignacco et al.
        View Abstract

    We report 2 outbreaks of Opisthorchis felineus infection caused by the consumption of tench filets (Tinca tinca) from a lake in Italy. Of the 22 infected persons, 10 (45.4%) were asymptomatic. When present, symptoms (fever, nausea, abdominal pain, and myalgias) were mild. Eosinophilia occurred in all infected persons.

        Cite This Article
    EID Armignacco O, Caterini L, Marucci G, Ferri F, Bernardini G, Raponi GN, et al. Human Illnesses Caused by Opisthorchis felineus Flukes, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1902-1905. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080782
    AMA Armignacco O, Caterini L, Marucci G, et al. Human Illnesses Caused by Opisthorchis felineus Flukes, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1902-1905. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080782.
    APA Armignacco, O., Caterini, L., Marucci, G., Ferri, F., Bernardini, G., Raponi, G. N....Pozio, E. (2008). Human Illnesses Caused by Opisthorchis felineus Flukes, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1902-1905. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080782.
  • Identification of New Rabies Virus Variant in Mexican Immigrant PDF Version [PDF - 205 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Velasco-Villa et al.
        View Abstract

    A novel rabies virus was identified after death in a man who had immigrated from Oaxaca, Mexico, to California, USA. Despite the patient’s history of exposure to domestic and wild carnivores, molecular and phylogenetic characterizations suggested that the virus originated from insectivorous bats. Enhanced surveillance is needed to elucidate likely reservoirs.

        Cite This Article
    EID Velasco-Villa A, Messenger SL, Orciari LA, Niezgoda M, Blanton JD, Fukagawa C, et al. Identification of New Rabies Virus Variant in Mexican Immigrant. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1906-1908. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080671
    AMA Velasco-Villa A, Messenger SL, Orciari LA, et al. Identification of New Rabies Virus Variant in Mexican Immigrant. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1906-1908. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080671.
    APA Velasco-Villa, A., Messenger, S. L., Orciari, L. A., Niezgoda, M., Blanton, J. D., Fukagawa, C....Rupprecht, C. E. (2008). Identification of New Rabies Virus Variant in Mexican Immigrant. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1906-1908. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080671.
  • Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Chickens, Bangladesh PDF Version [PDF - 349 KB - 4 pages]
    P. K. Biswas et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine the epidemiology of outbreaks of avian influenza A virus (subtypes H5N1, H9N2) in chickens in Bangladesh, we conducted surveys and examined virus isolates. The outbreak began in backyard chickens. Probable sources of infection included egg trays and vehicles from local live bird markets and larger live bird markets.

        Cite This Article
    EID Biswas PK, Christensen JP, Ahmed SS, Barua H, Das A, Rahman MH, et al. Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Chickens, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1909-1912. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.071567
    AMA Biswas PK, Christensen JP, Ahmed SS, et al. Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Chickens, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1909-1912. doi:10.3201/eid1412.071567.
    APA Biswas, P. K., Christensen, J. P., Ahmed, S. S., Barua, H., Das, A., Rahman, M. H....Debnath, N. C. (2008). Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Chickens, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1909-1912. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.071567.
  • Outbreak of Trichinellosis Caused by Trichinella papuae, Thailand, 2006 PDF Version [PDF - 231 KB - 3 pages]
    C. Khumjui et al.
        View Abstract

    In 2006, the Thailand Ministry of Public Health studied 28 patients from a village in northern Thailand. All had myalgia, edema, fever, and gastrointestinal symptoms; most had eaten wild boar. A muscle biopsy specimen from a patient showed nonencapsulated larvae with a cytochrome oxidase I gene sequence of Trichinella papuae.

        Cite This Article
    EID Khumjui C, Choomkasien P, Dekumyoy P, Kusolsuk T, Kongkaew W, Chalamaat M, et al. Outbreak of Trichinellosis Caused by Trichinella papuae, Thailand, 2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1913-1915. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080800
    AMA Khumjui C, Choomkasien P, Dekumyoy P, et al. Outbreak of Trichinellosis Caused by Trichinella papuae, Thailand, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1913-1915. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080800.
    APA Khumjui, C., Choomkasien, P., Dekumyoy, P., Kusolsuk, T., Kongkaew, W., Chalamaat, M....Jones, J. L. (2008). Outbreak of Trichinellosis Caused by Trichinella papuae, Thailand, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1913-1915. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080800.
  • Multicenter Study of Brucellosis in Egypt PDF Version [PDF - 100 KB - 3 pages]
    H. Samaha et al.
        View Abstract

    Brucellosis causes appreciable economic losses in livestock. Examination of milk and tissues from animals in Egypt for Brucella spp. showed increased prevalence rates of serologically reactive animals. All isolates were B. melitensis biovar 3. One Brucella sp. was isolated from milk of serologically nonreactive buffaloes.

        Cite This Article
    EID Samaha H, Al-Rowaily M, Khoudair RM, Ashour HM. Multicenter Study of Brucellosis in Egypt. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1916-1918. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.071452
    AMA Samaha H, Al-Rowaily M, Khoudair RM, et al. Multicenter Study of Brucellosis in Egypt. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1916-1918. doi:10.3201/eid1412.071452.
    APA Samaha, H., Al-Rowaily, M., Khoudair, R. M., & Ashour, H. M. (2008). Multicenter Study of Brucellosis in Egypt. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1916-1918. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.071452.
  • Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Holstein Friesian Cattle, Iran PDF Version [PDF - 108 KB - 3 pages]
    K. Tadayon et al.
        View Abstract

    To identify strains of Mycobacterium bovis circulating in Iran, we used region of difference, spoligotypes, and variable number tandem repeats to genotype 132 M. bovis isolates from Holstein Friesian cattle. Despite wide geographic origins, the strains were genetically homogeneous. Increased distribution of cattle herds and inadequate control measures may have contributed to strain dispersion.

        Cite This Article
    EID Tadayon K, Mosavari N, Sadeghi F, Forbes KJ. Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Holstein Friesian Cattle, Iran. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1919-1921. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.070727
    AMA Tadayon K, Mosavari N, Sadeghi F, et al. Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Holstein Friesian Cattle, Iran. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1919-1921. doi:10.3201/eid1412.070727.
    APA Tadayon, K., Mosavari, N., Sadeghi, F., & Forbes, K. J. (2008). Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Holstein Friesian Cattle, Iran. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1919-1921. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.070727.
  • Hemoplasma Infection in HIV-positive Patient, Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 117 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Pires dos Santos et al.
        View Abstract

    Hemotrophic mycoplasmas infect a variety of mammals. Although infection in humans is rarely reported, an association with an immunocompromised state has been suggested. We report a case of a Mycoplasma haemofelis–like infection in an HIV-positive patient co-infected with Bartonella henselae.

        Cite This Article
    EID Pires dos Santos A, Pires dos Santos R, Biondo AW, Dora JM, Goldani LZ, Tostes de Oliveira S, et al. Hemoplasma Infection in HIV-positive Patient, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1922-1924. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080964
    AMA Pires dos Santos A, Pires dos Santos R, Biondo AW, et al. Hemoplasma Infection in HIV-positive Patient, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1922-1924. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080964.
    APA Pires dos Santos, A., Pires dos Santos, R., Biondo, A. W., Dora, J. M., Goldani, L. Z., Tostes de Oliveira, S....Messick, J. B. (2008). Hemoplasma Infection in HIV-positive Patient, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1922-1924. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080964.
  • Occupational Exposure to Streptococcus suis among US Swine Workers PDF Version [PDF - 145 KB - 3 pages]
    T. C. Smith et al.
        View Abstract

    Despite numerous cases of human infection with Streptococcus suis worldwide, human disease is rarely diagnosed in North America. We studied 73 swine-exposed and 67 non–swine-exposed US adults for antibodies to S. suis serotype 2. Serologic data suggest that human infection with S. suis occurs more frequently than currently documented.

        Cite This Article
    EID Smith TC, Capuano AW, Boese B, Myers KP, Gray GC. Occupational Exposure to Streptococcus suis among US Swine Workers. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1925-1927. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080162
    AMA Smith TC, Capuano AW, Boese B, et al. Occupational Exposure to Streptococcus suis among US Swine Workers. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1925-1927. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080162.
    APA Smith, T. C., Capuano, A. W., Boese, B., Myers, K. P., & Gray, G. C. (2008). Occupational Exposure to Streptococcus suis among US Swine Workers. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1925-1927. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080162.
  • Multiple Francisella tularensis Subspecies and Clades, Tularemia Outbreak, Utah PDF Version [PDF - 267 KB - 3 pages]
    J. M. Petersen et al.
        View Abstract

    In July 2007, a deer fly–associated outbreak of tularemia occurred in Utah. Human infections were caused by 2 clades (A1 and A2) of Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis. Lagomorph carcasses from the area yielded evidence of infection with A1 and A2, as well as F. tularensis subsp. holarctica. These findings indicate that multiple subspecies and clades can cause disease in a localized outbreak of tularemia.

        Cite This Article
    EID Petersen JM, Carlson JK, Dietrich G, Eisen RJ, Coombs J, Janusz AM, et al. Multiple Francisella tularensis Subspecies and Clades, Tularemia Outbreak, Utah. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1928-1930. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080482
    AMA Petersen JM, Carlson JK, Dietrich G, et al. Multiple Francisella tularensis Subspecies and Clades, Tularemia Outbreak, Utah. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1928-1930. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080482.
    APA Petersen, J. M., Carlson, J. K., Dietrich, G., Eisen, R. J., Coombs, J., Janusz, A. M....Mead, P. S. (2008). Multiple Francisella tularensis Subspecies and Clades, Tularemia Outbreak, Utah. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1928-1930. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080482.
  • Mycobacterium bovis Strains Causing Smear-Positive Human Tuberculosis, Southwest Ireland PDF Version [PDF - 262 KB - 4 pages]
    O. Ojo et al.
        View Abstract

    Mycobacterium bovis caused 3% of human tuberculosis cases in southwest Ireland during 1998–2006. Of 11 M. bovis strains genotyped, 9 belonged to common animal spoligotypes. Seven strains were from sputum and potential sources of human-centered disease transmission. Ten-locus variable-number tandem repeat typing gave unique strain profiles and would detect disease outbreaks.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ojo O, Sheehan S, Corcoran GD, Okker M, Gover K, Nikolayevsky V, et al. Mycobacterium bovis Strains Causing Smear-Positive Human Tuberculosis, Southwest Ireland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1931-1934. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.071135
    AMA Ojo O, Sheehan S, Corcoran GD, et al. Mycobacterium bovis Strains Causing Smear-Positive Human Tuberculosis, Southwest Ireland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1931-1934. doi:10.3201/eid1412.071135.
    APA Ojo, O., Sheehan, S., Corcoran, G. D., Okker, M., Gover, K., Nikolayevsky, V....Prentice, M. B. (2008). Mycobacterium bovis Strains Causing Smear-Positive Human Tuberculosis, Southwest Ireland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1931-1934. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.071135.
  • Emergence of Francisella novicida Bacteremia, Thailand PDF Version [PDF - 108 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Leelaporn et al.
        View Abstract

    We report isolation of Francisella novicida–causing bacteremia in a woman from Thailand who was receiving chemotherapy for ovarian cancer. The organism was isolated from blood cultures and identified by 16S rDNA and PPIase gene analyses. Diagnosis and treatment were delayed due to unawareness of the disease in this region.

        Cite This Article
    EID Leelaporn A, Yongyod S, Limsrivanichakorn S, Yungyuen T, Kiratisin P. Emergence of Francisella novicida Bacteremia, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1935-1937. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080435
    AMA Leelaporn A, Yongyod S, Limsrivanichakorn S, et al. Emergence of Francisella novicida Bacteremia, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1935-1937. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080435.
    APA Leelaporn, A., Yongyod, S., Limsrivanichakorn, S., Yungyuen, T., & Kiratisin, P. (2008). Emergence of Francisella novicida Bacteremia, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1935-1937. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080435.

Photo Quizzes

  • Photo Quiz PDF Version [PDF - 664 KB - 4 pages]
    M. Schultz
            Cite This Article
    EID Schultz M. Photo Quiz. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1940-1942. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.081188
    AMA Schultz M. Photo Quiz. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1940-1942. doi:10.3201/eid1412.081188.
    APA Schultz, M. (2008). Photo Quiz. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1940-1942. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.081188.

Letters

  • Bartonella henselae Antibodies after Cat Bite PDF Version [PDF - 151 KB - 2 pages]
    K. Westling et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Westling K, Farra A, Jorup C, Nordenberg Å, Settergren B, Hjelm E, et al. Bartonella henselae Antibodies after Cat Bite. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1943-1944. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080002
    AMA Westling K, Farra A, Jorup C, et al. Bartonella henselae Antibodies after Cat Bite. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1943-1944. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080002.
    APA Westling, K., Farra, A., Jorup, C., Nordenberg, Å., Settergren, B., & Hjelm, E. (2008). Bartonella henselae Antibodies after Cat Bite. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1943-1944. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080002.
  • Fatal Case of Israeli Spotted Fever after Mediterranean Cruise PDF Version [PDF - 194 KB - 3 pages]
    N. Boillat et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Boillat N, Genton B, D’Acremont V, Raoult D, Greub G. Fatal Case of Israeli Spotted Fever after Mediterranean Cruise. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1944-1946. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.070641
    AMA Boillat N, Genton B, D’Acremont V, et al. Fatal Case of Israeli Spotted Fever after Mediterranean Cruise. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1944-1946. doi:10.3201/eid1412.070641.
    APA Boillat, N., Genton, B., D’Acremont, V., Raoult, D., & Greub, G. (2008). Fatal Case of Israeli Spotted Fever after Mediterranean Cruise. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1944-1946. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.070641.
  • Streptococcus suis Meningitis without History of Animal Contact, Italy PDF Version [PDF - 202 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Manzin et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Manzin A, Palmieri C, Serra C, Saddi B, Princivalli MS, Loi G, et al. Streptococcus suis Meningitis without History of Animal Contact, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1946-1948. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080679
    AMA Manzin A, Palmieri C, Serra C, et al. Streptococcus suis Meningitis without History of Animal Contact, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1946-1948. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080679.
    APA Manzin, A., Palmieri, C., Serra, C., Saddi, B., Princivalli, M. S., Loi, G....Facinelli, B. (2008). Streptococcus suis Meningitis without History of Animal Contact, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1946-1948. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080679.
  • Equine Herpesvirus Type 9 in Giraffe with Encephalitis PDF Version [PDF - 162 KB - 2 pages]
    S. Kasem et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Kasem S, Yamada S, Kiupel M, Woodruff M, Ohya K, Fukushi H, et al. Equine Herpesvirus Type 9 in Giraffe with Encephalitis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1948-1949. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080801
    AMA Kasem S, Yamada S, Kiupel M, et al. Equine Herpesvirus Type 9 in Giraffe with Encephalitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1948-1949. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080801.
    APA Kasem, S., Yamada, S., Kiupel, M., Woodruff, M., Ohya, K., & Fukushi, H. (2008). Equine Herpesvirus Type 9 in Giraffe with Encephalitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1948-1949. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080801.
  • Reexamination of Human Rabies Case with Long Incubation, Australia PDF Version [PDF - 140 KB - 2 pages]
    N. Johnson et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Johnson N, Fooks AR, McColl K. Reexamination of Human Rabies Case with Long Incubation, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1950-1951. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080944
    AMA Johnson N, Fooks AR, McColl K. Reexamination of Human Rabies Case with Long Incubation, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1950-1951. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080944.
    APA Johnson, N., Fooks, A. R., & McColl, K. (2008). Reexamination of Human Rabies Case with Long Incubation, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1950-1951. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080944.
  • Human Case of Bartonella alsatica Lymphadenitis PDF Version [PDF - 156 KB - 3 pages]
    E. Angelakis et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Angelakis E, Lepidi H, Canel A, Rispal P, Perraudeau F, Barre I, et al. Human Case of Bartonella alsatica Lymphadenitis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1951-1953. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080757
    AMA Angelakis E, Lepidi H, Canel A, et al. Human Case of Bartonella alsatica Lymphadenitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1951-1953. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080757.
    APA Angelakis, E., Lepidi, H., Canel, A., Rispal, P., Perraudeau, F., Barre, I....Raoult, D. (2008). Human Case of Bartonella alsatica Lymphadenitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1951-1953. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080757.
  • Molecular Detection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis in Amblyomma parvum Ticks, Argentina PDF Version [PDF - 180 KB - 3 pages]
    L. Tomassone et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Tomassone L, Nuñez P, Gürtler RE, Ceballos LA, Orozco MM, Kitron UD, et al. Molecular Detection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis in Amblyomma parvum Ticks, Argentina. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1953-1955. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080781
    AMA Tomassone L, Nuñez P, Gürtler RE, et al. Molecular Detection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis in Amblyomma parvum Ticks, Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1953-1955. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080781.
    APA Tomassone, L., Nuñez, P., Gürtler, R. E., Ceballos, L. A., Orozco, M. M., Kitron, U. D....Farber, M. (2008). Molecular Detection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis in Amblyomma parvum Ticks, Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1953-1955. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080781.
  • Enzootic Angiostrongyliasis in Shenzhen, China PDF Version [PDF - 153 KB - 2 pages]
    R. Zhang et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Zhang R, Chen M, Gao S, Geng Y, Huang D, Liu J, et al. Enzootic Angiostrongyliasis in Shenzhen, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1955-1956. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080695
    AMA Zhang R, Chen M, Gao S, et al. Enzootic Angiostrongyliasis in Shenzhen, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1955-1956. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080695.
    APA Zhang, R., Chen, M., Gao, S., Geng, Y., Huang, D., Liu, J....Zhu, X. (2008). Enzootic Angiostrongyliasis in Shenzhen, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1955-1956. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080695.
  • Knowledge about Avian Influenza, European Region PDF Version [PDF - 158 KB - 2 pages]
    E. Mossialos and C. Rudisill
            Cite This Article
    EID Mossialos E, Rudisill C. Knowledge about Avian Influenza, European Region. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1956-1957. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080858
    AMA Mossialos E, Rudisill C. Knowledge about Avian Influenza, European Region. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1956-1957. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080858.
    APA Mossialos, E., & Rudisill, C. (2008). Knowledge about Avian Influenza, European Region. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1956-1957. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080858.
  • Human Salmonella Infection Yielding CTX-M β-Lactamase, United States PDF Version [PDF - 161 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Sjölund-Karlsson et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Sjölund-Karlsson M, Yam J, Schwenk J, Joyce K, Medalla F, Barzilay E, et al. Human Salmonella Infection Yielding CTX-M β-Lactamase, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1957-1959. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080494
    AMA Sjölund-Karlsson M, Yam J, Schwenk J, et al. Human Salmonella Infection Yielding CTX-M β-Lactamase, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1957-1959. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080494.
    APA Sjölund-Karlsson, M., Yam, J., Schwenk, J., Joyce, K., Medalla, F., Barzilay, E....Whichard, J. M. (2008). Human Salmonella Infection Yielding CTX-M β-Lactamase, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1957-1959. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080494.
  • Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:1 Traced to Raw Carrots, Finland PDF Version [PDF - 155 KB - 3 pages]
    S. Kangas et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Kangas S, Takkinen J, Hakkinen M, Nakari U, Johansson T, Henttonen H, et al. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:1 Traced to Raw Carrots, Finland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1959-1961. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080284
    AMA Kangas S, Takkinen J, Hakkinen M, et al. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:1 Traced to Raw Carrots, Finland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1959-1961. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080284.
    APA Kangas, S., Takkinen, J., Hakkinen, M., Nakari, U., Johansson, T., Henttonen, H....Kuusi, M. (2008). Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:1 Traced to Raw Carrots, Finland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1959-1961. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080284.
  • Antibodies against Rickettsia spp. in Hunters, Germany PDF Version [PDF - 144 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Jansen et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Jansen A, La Scola B, Raoult D, Lierz M, Wichmann O, Stark K, et al. Antibodies against Rickettsia spp. in Hunters, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1961-1963. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080229
    AMA Jansen A, La Scola B, Raoult D, et al. Antibodies against Rickettsia spp. in Hunters, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1961-1963. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080229.
    APA Jansen, A., La Scola, B., Raoult, D., Lierz, M., Wichmann, O., Stark, K....Schneider, T. (2008). Antibodies against Rickettsia spp. in Hunters, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1961-1963. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080229.
  • Rickettsia sp. in Ixodes granulatus Ticks, Japan PDF Version [PDF - 145 KB - 3 pages]
    H. Fujita et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Fujita H, Kadosaka T, Nitta Y, Takajo I, Takano A, Watanabe H, et al. Rickettsia sp. in Ixodes granulatus Ticks, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1963-1965. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080894
    AMA Fujita H, Kadosaka T, Nitta Y, et al. Rickettsia sp. in Ixodes granulatus Ticks, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1963-1965. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080894.
    APA Fujita, H., Kadosaka, T., Nitta, Y., Takajo, I., Takano, A., Watanabe, H....Kawabata, H. (2008). Rickettsia sp. in Ixodes granulatus Ticks, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1963-1965. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080894.
  • Sin Nombre Virus Infection in Deer Mice, Channel Islands, California PDF Version [PDF - 153 KB - 2 pages]
    J. L. Orrock and B. F. Allan
            Cite This Article
    EID Orrock JL, Allan BF. Sin Nombre Virus Infection in Deer Mice, Channel Islands, California. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1965-1966. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080935
    AMA Orrock JL, Allan BF. Sin Nombre Virus Infection in Deer Mice, Channel Islands, California. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1965-1966. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080935.
    APA Orrock, J. L., & Allan, B. F. (2008). Sin Nombre Virus Infection in Deer Mice, Channel Islands, California. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1965-1966. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080935.
  • Parachlamydia acanthamoebae Infection and Abortion in Small Ruminants PDF Version [PDF - 233 KB - 3 pages]
    S. Ruhl et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Ruhl S, Goy G, Casson N, Thoma R, Pospischil A, Greub G, et al. Parachlamydia acanthamoebae Infection and Abortion in Small Ruminants. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1966-1968. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080582
    AMA Ruhl S, Goy G, Casson N, et al. Parachlamydia acanthamoebae Infection and Abortion in Small Ruminants. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1966-1968. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080582.
    APA Ruhl, S., Goy, G., Casson, N., Thoma, R., Pospischil, A., Greub, G....Borel, N. (2008). Parachlamydia acanthamoebae Infection and Abortion in Small Ruminants. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1966-1968. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080582.
  • Candidate New Species of Kobuvirus in Porcine Hosts PDF Version [PDF - 159 KB - 3 pages]
    G. Reuter et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Reuter G, Boldizsár Á, Kiss I, Pankovics P. Candidate New Species of Kobuvirus in Porcine Hosts. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1968-1970. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080797
    AMA Reuter G, Boldizsár Á, Kiss I, et al. Candidate New Species of Kobuvirus in Porcine Hosts. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1968-1970. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080797.
    APA Reuter, G., Boldizsár, Á., Kiss, I., & Pankovics, P. (2008). Candidate New Species of Kobuvirus in Porcine Hosts. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1968-1970. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080797.
  • Human Case of Rickettsia felis Infection, Taiwan PDF Version [PDF - 171 KB - 3 pages]
    K. Tsai et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Tsai K, Lu H, Tsai J, Yu S, Huang J, Shu P, et al. Human Case of Rickettsia felis Infection, Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1970-1972. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080515
    AMA Tsai K, Lu H, Tsai J, et al. Human Case of Rickettsia felis Infection, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1970-1972. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080515.
    APA Tsai, K., Lu, H., Tsai, J., Yu, S., Huang, J., & Shu, P. (2008). Human Case of Rickettsia felis Infection, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1970-1972. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080515.
  • Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia felis in Fleas, Democratic Republic of Congo PDF Version [PDF - 144 KB - 3 pages]
    C. Sackal et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Sackal C, Laudisoit A, Kosoy MY, Massung R, Eremeeva ME, Karpathy SE, et al. Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia felis in Fleas, Democratic Republic of Congo. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1972-1974. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080610
    AMA Sackal C, Laudisoit A, Kosoy MY, et al. Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia felis in Fleas, Democratic Republic of Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1972-1974. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080610.
    APA Sackal, C., Laudisoit, A., Kosoy, M. Y., Massung, R., Eremeeva, M. E., Karpathy, S. E....Zeidner, N. S. (2008). Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia felis in Fleas, Democratic Republic of Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1972-1974. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080610.
  • Antibodies to Nipah or Nipah-like Viruses in Bats, China PDF Version [PDF - 184 KB - 3 pages]
    Y. Li et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Li Y, Wang J, Hickey AC, Zhang Y, Li Y, Wu Y, et al. Antibodies to Nipah or Nipah-like Viruses in Bats, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1974-1976. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080359
    AMA Li Y, Wang J, Hickey AC, et al. Antibodies to Nipah or Nipah-like Viruses in Bats, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1974-1976. doi:10.3201/eid1412.080359.
    APA Li, Y., Wang, J., Hickey, A. C., Zhang, Y., Li, Y., Wu, Y....Shi, Z. (2008). Antibodies to Nipah or Nipah-like Viruses in Bats, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1974-1976. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080359.

Books and Media

  • Campylobacter, 3rd edition PDF Version [PDF - 172 KB - 1 page]
    S. F. Altekruse
            Cite This Article
    EID Altekruse SF. Campylobacter, 3rd edition. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1977. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.081165
    AMA Altekruse SF. Campylobacter, 3rd edition. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1977. doi:10.3201/eid1412.081165.
    APA Altekruse, S. F. (2008). Campylobacter, 3rd edition. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1977. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.081165.

About the Cover

  • Eye to Eye in the Village PDF Version [PDF - 366 KB - 3 pages]
    P. Potter
            Cite This Article
    EID Potter P. Eye to Eye in the Village. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1978-1980. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.AC1412
    AMA Potter P. Eye to Eye in the Village. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1978-1980. doi:10.3201/eid1412.AC1412.
    APA Potter, P. (2008). Eye to Eye in the Village. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1978-1980. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.AC1412.

Conference Summaries

Corrections

  • Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9 PDF Version [PDF - 114 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(12):1975. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.E11412
    AMA Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(12):1975. doi:10.3201/eid1412.E11412.
    APA (2008). Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1975. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.E11412.
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