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Volume 14, Number 3—March 2008

Research

Exposure to Novel Parainfluenza Virus and Clinical Relevance in 2 Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Populations

Stephanie Venn-Watson*Comments to Author , Rebecca Rivera‡, Cynthia R. Smith*, Jeremiah T. Saliki§, Shannon Caseltine§1, Judy St. Leger¶, Pam Yochem‡, Randall S. Wells#, and Hendrik Nollens‡**
Author affiliations: *US Navy Marine Mammal Program, San Diego, California, USA; ‡G2 Software Systems, Inc., San Diego, California, USA; ‡Hubbs-SeaWorld Research Institute, San Diego, California, USA; §Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA; ¶SeaWorld, San Diego, California, USA; #Chicago Zoological Society c/o Mote Marine Laboratory, Sarasota, Florida, USA; **University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA;

Main Article

Table 3

Clinical signs noted in selected bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) within 60 d before and 30 d after PIV antibody seroconversion and an abnormal hemogram (n = 22)*†

Animal Clinical signs Decreased appetite Lethargy Respiratory signs Ocular signs Epidermal signs GI signs
A
B X X X
C
D X X
E X X X X
F X X
G X X X
H X X X X X
I X X X X
J X X X X
K X X X X
L
M
N X X X X
O
P X X X
Q X
R X X
S X X X X
T X X X
U X X X X
V
X
X

X



Total 17 (77.3%) 12 (54.5%) 10 (45.5%) 7 (31.8%) 5 (22.7%) 2 (9.1%) 2 (9.1%)

*PIV, parainfluenza virus; GI, gastrointestinal.
†No viruses were cultured from clinical samples collected from these animals, with the exception of the positive control dolphin, and 2 dolphins had culture-confirmed bacterial pneumonia concurrent with PIV seroconversion.

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1Current affiliation: University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA.

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