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Volume 14, Number 4—April 2008

Research

Wild Ducks as Long-Distance Vectors of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1)

Juthatip Keawcharoen*, Debby van Riel*, Geert van Amerongen*, Theo Bestebroer*, Walter E. Beyer*, Rob van Lavieren*, Albert D.M.E. Osterhaus*, Ron A.M. Fouchier*, and Thijs Kuiken*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands;

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Figure 2

Mean pharyngeal excretion of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) of wild ducks by A) virus isolation and C) reverse transcription–PCR (RT-PCR). Pochard (red, closed circle), tufted duck (orange, open circle), mallard (dark blue, closed triangle), teal (light blue, open triangle), wigeon (dark green, closed square), gadwall (light green, open square); TCID50, median tissue culture infectious dose; Ct, cycle threshold. Area under the curve in the first 4 days postinoculation (mean ± 95% confidence interval) for B) virus isolation and D) RT-PCR. TU, tufted duck; PO, pochard; MA, mallard; TE, teal; WI, wigeon; GA, gadwall; red triangles, birds with severe clinical signs; black triangles, birds with mild or no clinical signs. E) Influenza virus antigen expression in epithelial cells in bronchus, parabronchus, atrium, and air capillaries of a tufted duck. F) Bronchointerstitial pneumonia, characterized by flooding of parabronchi (PB), atria (AT), and air capillaries (AC) with proteinaceous fluid and inflammatory cells in a tufted duck. G) Influenza virus antigen expression in epithelial cells lining the air sac wall and H) epithelial necrosis and lymphocytic infiltration in a gadwall. E–H original magnification ×100. Tissues were stained either by immunohistochemistry that used a monoclonal antibody against the nucleoprotein of influenza A virus as a primary antibody (E, G) or with hematoxylin and eosin (F, H).

Figure 2. Mean pharyngeal excretion of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) of wild ducks by A) virus isolation and C) reverse transcription–PCR (RT-PCR). Pochard (red, closed circle), tufted duck (orange, open circle), mallard (dark blue, closed triangle), teal (light blue, open triangle), wigeon (dark green, closed square), gadwall (light green, open square); TCID50, median tissue culture infectious dose; Ct, cycle threshold. Area under the curve in the first 4 days postinoculation (mean ± 95% confidence interval) for B) virus isolation and D) RT-PCR. TU, tufted duck; PO, pochard; MA, mallard; TE, teal; WI, wigeon; GA, gadwall; red triangles, birds with severe clinical signs; black triangles, birds with mild or no clinical signs. E) Influenza virus antigen expression in epithelial cells in bronchus, parabronchus, atrium, and air capillaries of a tufted duck. F) Bronchointerstitial pneumonia, characterized by flooding of parabronchi (PB), atria (AT), and air capillaries (AC) with proteinaceous fluid and inflammatory cells in a tufted duck. G) Influenza virus antigen expression in epithelial cells lining the air sac wall and H) epithelial necrosis and lymphocytic infiltration in a gadwall. E–H original magnification ×100. Tissues were stained either by immunohistochemistry that used a monoclonal antibody against the nucleoprotein of influenza A virus as a primary antibody (E, G) or with hematoxylin and eosin (F, H).

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