Toxinotype V Clostridium difficile in Humans and Food Animals
Michael A. Jhung* , Angela D. Thompson*, George E. Killgore*, Walter E. Zukowski†, Glenn Songer‡, Michael Warny§, Stuart Johnson†¶, Dale N. Gerding†¶, L. Clifford McDonald*, and Brandi M. Limbago*
Author affiliations: *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; †Hines Veterans Affairs Hospital, Chicago, Illinois, USA; ‡University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA; §Acambis, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA; ¶Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Chicago;
Figure 2. In vitro toxin production of toxinotype V Clostridium difficile isolates compared with epidemic toxinotype III and nonepidemic toxinotype 0 strains. Toxin A and Toxin B concentrations in micrograms per milliliter at 24, 48, and 72 h are shown for 25 toxinotype 0 isolates, 21 toxinotype V isolates (7 human; 14 animal), and 15 toxinotype III isolates. Horizontal lines indicate median values for each group and the p values are shown for comparison of the median toxin levels of toxinotype V isolates with toxinotype 0 and toxinotype III isolates.
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