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Volume 16, Number 12—December 2010

Research

Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Humans, Najran, Saudi Arabia

Abdullah G. Alzahrani, Hassan M. Al Shaiban, Mohammad A. Al Mazroa, Osama Al-Hayani, Adam MacNeil, Pierre E. Rollin, and Ziad A. MemishComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (A.G. Alzahrani, H.M. Al Shaiban, M.A. Al Mazroa, O. Al-Hayani, Z.A. Memish); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (A. MacNeil, P.E. Rollin)

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Table 3

Risk factors for Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus, Najran, Saudi Arabia, 2006–2009*

Risk factor Case-patients, no. (%), n = 28 Controls, no. (%), n = 65 Total, no. (%), n = 93 OR (95% CI)
Owning or raising domestic animals
Yes 14 (50) 17 (26) 31 (33) 2.82 (1.02–7.91)
No
14 (50)
48 (74)
62 (67)
Reference
Owning the following animals
Sheep 14 (50) 17 (26) 31 (33) 2.82 (1.02–7.91)
Cows 4 (14) 10 (15) 14 (18) 1.37 (0.30–5.86)
Camels 3 (11) 1 (2) 4 (4) 10.29 (0.84–279.20)
None
14 (50)
48 (74)
62 (67)
Reference
Owning animal with abnormalities
Yes 5 (36) 7 (41) 12 (39) 0.79 (0.14–4.31)
No
9 (64)
10 (59)
19 (61)
Reference
Owning animals with the following type of abnormality
Sudden death 2 (14) 5 (29) 7 (23) 0.44 (0.04–3.78)
Recurrent abortion 1 (7) 1 (6) 2 (7) 1.11 (0.00–49.10)
Weakness 2 (14) 1 (6) 3 (10) 2.22 (0.12–74.91)
None
9 (64)
10 (59)
19( 61)
Reference
Living how far from farm, meters
<100 20 (71) 25 (39) 45 (48) 4.00 (1.40–11.75)
>100
8 (29)
40 (62)
48 (52)
Reference
Contact with domestic animals
Yes 13 (46) 9 (14) 22 (24) 5.39 (1.74–17.30)
No
15 (54)
56 (86)
71 (76)
Reference
Feeding animals
Yes 9 (32) 3 (5) 12 (13) 9.79 (2.11–51.48)
No
19 (68)
62 (95)
81 (87)
Reference
Milking animals
Yes 7 (25) 5 (8) 12 (13) 4.00 (0.99–16.64)
No
21 (75)
60 (92)
81 (87)
Reference
Slaughtering animals
Yes 10 (36) 6 (9) 16 (17) 5.46 (1.54–20.02)
No
18 (64)
59 (91)
77 (83)
Reference
Handling raw meat products
Yes 9 (32) 7 (11) 16 (17) 3.92 (1.14–13.84)
No
19 (68)
58 (89)
77 (83)
Reference
Drinking unpasteurized milk
Yes 8 (29) 6 (9) 14 (15) 3.93 (1.06–14.88)
No
20 (71)
59 (91)
79 (85)
Reference
Being bitten by tick
Yes 10 (36) 3 (5) 13 (14) 11.48 (2.51–59.73)
No
18 (64)
62 (95)
80 (86)
Reference
Being bitten by mosquito
Yes 25 (89) 49 (75) 74 (80) 2.72 (0.65–13.03)
No 3 (11) 16 (25) 19 (20) Reference

*OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.

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