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Volume 16, Number 12—December 2010

Volume 16, Number 12—December 2010   PDF Version [PDF - 6.55 MB - 219 pages]


  • Surveillance of Wild Birds for Avian Influenza Virus PDF Version [PDF - 227 KB - 8 pages]
    B. J. Hoye et al.
        View Abstract

    Recent demand for increased understanding of avian influenza virus in its natural hosts, together with the development of high-throughput diagnostics, has heralded a new era in wildlife disease surveillance. However, survey design, sampling, and interpretation in the context of host populations still present major challenges. We critically reviewed current surveillance to distill a series of considerations pertinent to avian influenza virus surveillance in wild birds, including consideration of what, when, where, and how many to sample in the context of survey objectives. Recognizing that wildlife disease surveillance is logistically and financially constrained, we discuss pragmatic alternatives for achieving probability-based sampling schemes that capture this host–pathogen system. We recommend hypothesis-driven surveillance through standardized, local surveys that are, in turn, strategically compiled over broad geographic areas. Rethinking the use of existing surveillance infrastructure can thereby greatly enhance our global understanding of avian influenza and other zoonotic diseases.


  • Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 PDF Version [PDF - 519 KB - 9 pages]
    B. Michel et al.
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    The recently designated cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is an emerging agent that causes fatal disease in common and koi carp. Since its emergence in the late 1990s, this highly contagious pathogen has caused severe financial losses in common and koi carp culture industries worldwide. In addition to its economic role, recent studies suggest that CyHV-3 may have a role in fundamental research. CyHV-3 has the largest genome among viruses in the order Herpesvirales and serves as a model for mutagenesis of large DNA viruses. Other studies suggest that the skin of teleost fish represents an efficient portal of entry for certain viruses. The effect of temperature on viral replication suggests that the body temperature of its poikilotherm host could regulate the outcome of the infection (replicative vs. nonreplicative). Recent advances with regard to CyHV-3 provide a role for this virus in fundamental and applied research.


  • Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Argentina, 1995–2008 PDF Version [PDF - 331 KB - 8 pages]
    V. P. Martinez et al.
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    We report a large case series of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in Argentina that was confirmed by laboratory restuls from 1995 through 2008. The geographic and temporal distribution of cases by age, sex, fatality rate, and risk factors for HPS was analyzed. A total of 710 cases were unequally distributed among 4 of the 5 Argentine regions. Different case-fatality rates were observed for each affected region, with a maximum rate of 40.5%. The male-to-female ratio for HPS case-patients was 3.7:1.0; the case-fatality rate was significantly higher for women. Agriculture-associated activities were most commonly reported as potential risk factors, especially among men of working age. Although HPS cases occurred predominantly in isolation, we identified 15 clusters in which strong relationships were observed between members, which suggests ongoing but limited person-to-person transmission.

  • Environmental Sampling for Avian Influenza Virus A (H5N1) in Live-Bird Markets, Indonesia PDF Version [PDF - 213 KB - 7 pages]
    R. Indriani et al.
    View Summary

    This method is time and labor efficient and minimizes potential risk for virus aerosolization.

        View Abstract

    To identify environmental sites commonly contaminated by avian influenza virus A (H5N1) in live-bird markets in Indonesia, we investigated 83 markets in 3 provinces in Indonesia. At each market, samples were collected from up to 27 poultry-related sites to assess the extent of contamination. Samples were tested by using real-time reverse transcription–PCR and virus isolation. A questionnaire was used to ascertain types of birds in the market, general infrastructure, and work practices. Thirty-nine (47%) markets showed contamination with avian influenza virus in >1 of the sites sampled. Risk factors were slaughtering birds in the market and being located in West Java province. Protective factors included daily removal of waste and zoning that segregated poultry-related work flow areas. These results can aid in the design of evidence-based programs concerning environmental sanitation, food safety, and surveillance to reduce the risk for avian influenza virus A (H5N1) transmission in live-bird markets.

  • Anatomy of Bluetongue virus Serotype 8 Epizootic Wave, France, 2007-2008 PDF Version [PDF - 319 KB - 8 pages]
    B. Durand et al.
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    Environmental seropositivity risk factors indicate natural ecosystems may have affected spread of the disease.

        View Abstract

    The introduction of bluetongue virus serotype 8 into northern Europe at the end of summer 2006 initiated one of the most widespread epizootics of bluetongue infection ever to occur. In winter 2007–2008, a cross-sectional serologic study was conducted in France along a transect perpendicular to the epizootic wave. Cattle herd-level seroprevalence varied from 4% to 100%, and animal-level seroprevalence from <1% to 40%. Only a low proportion of seropositive herds reported clinical cases in 2007. Sheep flocks were less frequently affected than cattle herds. The local occurrence of clinical cases and environmental indicators linked to forests were seropositivity risk factors, whereas the local density of cows had a protective effect. Overall results suggest that amplification of virus circulation in affected herds played a limited role in the epizootic wave diffusion and that bluetongue virus serotype 8 circulation in natural ecosystems could have played a substantial role in this progression.

  • Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Humans, Najran, Saudi Arabia PDF Version [PDF - 293 KB - 7 pages]
    A. G. Alzahrani et al.
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    Alkhurma virus is a flavivirus, discovered in 1994 in a person who died of hemorrhagic fever after slaughtering a sheep from the city of Alkhurma, Saudi Arabia. Since then, several cases of Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever (ALKHF), with fatality rates up to 25%, have been documented. From January 1, 2006, through April 1, 2009, active disease surveillance and serologic testing of household contacts identified ALKHF in 28 persons in Najran, Saudi Arabia. For epidemiologic comparison, serologic testing of household and neighborhood controls identified 65 serologically negative persons. Among ALKHF patients, 11 were hospitalized and 17 had subclinical infection. Univariate analysis indicated that the following were associated with Alkhurma virus infection: contact with domestic animals, feeding and slaughtering animals, handling raw meat products, drinking unpasteurized milk, and being bitten by a tick. After multivariate modeling, the following associations remained significant: animal contact, neighboring farms, and tick bites.

  • Freshwater Aquaculture Nurseries and Infection of Fish with Zoonotic Trematodes, Vietnam PDF Version [PDF - 137 KB - 5 pages]
    V. T. Phan et al.
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    Residents of the Red River Delta region of northern Vietnam have a long tradition of eating raw fish. Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZTs) are estimated to infect ≈1 million persons in Vietnam. It remains uncertain at what stages in the aquaculture production cycle fish become infected with FZTs. Newly hatched fish (fry) from 8 hatcheries and juveniles from 27 nurseries were therefore examined for FZT infection. No FZTs were found in fry from hatcheries. In nurseries, FZT prevalence in juveniles was 14.1%, 48.6%, and 57.8% after 1 week, 4 weeks, and when overwintered in ponds, respectively. FZT prevalence was higher in grass carp (p<0.001) than in other carp species. Results show that nurseries are hot spots for FZT infections in fish. Thus, sustainable FZT prevention strategies must address aquaculture management practices, particularly in nurseries, to minimize the risk of distributing infected juveniles to grow-out ponds and, subsequently, to markets for human consumption.

  • Bartonella spp. in Bats, Kenya PDF Version [PDF - 262 KB - 7 pages]
    M. Y. Kosoy et al.
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    We report the presence and diversity of Bartonella spp. in bats of 13 insectivorous and frugivorous species collected from various locations across Kenya. Bartonella isolates were obtained from 23 Eidolon helvum, 22 Rousettus aegyptiacus, 4 Coleura afra, 7 Triaenops persicus, 1 Hipposideros commersoni, and 49 Miniopterus spp. bats. Sequence analysis of the citrate synthase gene from the obtained isolates showed a wide assortment of Bartonella strains. Phylogenetically, isolates clustered in specific host bat species. All isolates from R. aegyptiacus, C. afra, and T. persicus bats clustered in separate monophyletic groups. In contrast, E. helvum and Miniopterus spp. bats harbored strains that clustered in several groups. Further investigation is needed to determine whether these agents are responsible for human illnesses in the region.

  • Yellow Fever Virus in Haemagogus leucocelaenus and Aedes serratus Mosquitoes, Southern Brazil, 2008 PDF Version [PDF - 257 KB - 7 pages]
    J. d. Cardoso et al.
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    Yellow fever virus (YFV) was isolated from Haemagogus leucocelaenus mosquitoes during an epizootic in 2001 in the Rio Grande do Sul State in southern Brazil. In October 2008, a yellow fever outbreak was reported there, with nonhuman primate deaths and human cases. This latter outbreak led to intensification of surveillance measures for early detection of YFV and support for vaccination programs. We report entomologic surveillance in 2 municipalities that recorded nonhuman primate deaths. Mosquitoes were collected at ground level, identified, and processed for virus isolation and molecular analyses. Eight YFV strains were isolated (7 from pools of Hg. leucocelaenus mosquitoes and another from Aedes serratus mosquitoes); 6 were sequenced, and they grouped in the YFV South American genotype I. The results confirmed the role of Hg. leucocelaenus mosquitoes as the main YFV vector in southern Brazil and suggest that Ae. serratus mosquitoes may have a potential role as a secondary vector.

  • Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus in Mosquitoes and Their Role as Bridge Vectors PDF Version [PDF - 159 KB - 6 pages]
    P. M. Armstrong and T. G. Andreadis
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    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is maintained in an enzootic cycle involving Culiseta melanura mosquitoes and avian hosts. Other mosquito species that feed opportunistically on mammals have been incriminated as bridge vectors to humans and horses. To evaluate the capacity of these mosquitoes to acquire, replicate, and potentially transmit EEEV, we estimated the infection prevalence and virus titers in mosquitoes collected in Connecticut, USA, by cell culture, plaque titration, and quantitative reverse transcription–PCR. Cs. melanura mosquitoes were the predominant source of EEEV (83 [68%] of 122 virus isolations) and the only species to support consistently high virus titers required for efficient transmission. Our findings suggest that Cs. melanura mosquitoes are primary enzootic and epidemic vectors of EEEV in this region, which may explain the relative paucity of human cases. This study emphasizes the need for evaluating virus titers from field-collected mosquitoes to help assess their role as vectors.

  • Medscape CME Activity
    Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Infection in Patients with Hematologic Malignancy PDF Version [PDF - 236 KB - 8 pages]
    C. Liu et al.
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    To assess outcomes of patients with hematologic malignancy and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection, we reviewed cases during June–December 2009 at the University of California San Francisco Medical Center. Seventeen (63%) and 10 (37%) patients had upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), respectively. Cough (85%) and fever (70%) were the most common signs; 19% of patients had nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. Sixty-five percent of URTI patients were outpatients; 35% recovered without antiviral therapy. All LRTI patients were hospitalized; half required intensive care unit admission. Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumomediastinum, myocarditis, and development of oseltamivir-resistant virus; 3 patients died. Of the 3 patients with nosocomial pandemic (H1N1) 2009, 2 died. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 may cause serious illness in patients with hematologic malignancy, primarily those with LRTI. Rigorous infection control, improved techniques for diagnosing respiratory disease, and early antiviral therapy can prevent nosocomial transmission and optimize patient care.

  • Surveillance and Analysis of Avian Influenza Viruses, Australia PDF Version [PDF - 489 KB - 9 pages]
    P. M. Hansbro et al.
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    We investigated carriage of avian influenza viruses by wild birds in Australia, 2005–2008, to assess the risks to poultry industries and human health. We collected 21,858 (7,357 cloacal, 14,501 fecal) samples and detected 300 viruses, representing a detection rate of ≈1.4%. Rates were highest in autumn (March–May) and differed substantially between bird types, areas, and years. We typed 107 avian influenza viruses and identified 19 H5, 8 H7, and 16 H9 (40% of typed viruses). All were of low pathogenicity. These viruses formed clearly different phylogenetic clades to lineages from Eurasia or North America, suggesting the potential existence of Australian lineages. H7 viruses were similar to highly pathogenic H7 strains that caused outbreaks in poultry in Australia. Several periods of increased detection rates (numbers or subtypes of viruses) were identified. This study demonstrates the need for ongoing surveillance to detect emerging pathogenic strains and facilitate prevention of outbreaks.

  • Reemergence of Rabies in Chhukha District, Bhutan, 2008 PDF Version [PDF - 477 KB - 6 pages]
    B. Sharma et al.
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    From January through July 2008, rabies reemerged in the Chhukha district of southwestern Bhutan. To clarify the distribution and direction of spread of this outbreak, we mapped reported cases and conducted directional tests (mean center and standard deviational ellipse). The outbreak resulted in the death of 97 animals (42 cattle, 52 dogs, and 3 horses). Antirabies vaccine was given free of charge to ≈674 persons suspected to have been exposed. The outbreak spread south to north and appeared to follow road networks, towns, and areas of high human density associated with a large, free-roaming, dog population. The outbreak was controlled by culling free-roaming dogs. To prevent spread into the interior of Bhutan, a well-coordinated national rabies control program should be implemented in disease-endemic areas.

  • Reassortant Group A Rotavirus from Straw-colored Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum) PDF Version [PDF - 537 KB - 9 pages]
    M. D. Esona et al.
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    Bats are known reservoirs of viral zoonoses. We report genetic characterization of a bat rotavirus (Bat/KE4852/07) detected in the feces of a straw-colored fruit bat (Eidolon helvum). Six bat rotavirus genes (viral protein [VP] 2, VP6, VP7, nonstructural protein [NSP] 2, NSP3, and NSP5) shared ancestry with other mammalian rotaviruses but were distantly related. The VP4 gene was nearly identical to that of human P[6] rotavirus strains, and the NSP4 gene was closely related to those of previously described mammalian rotaviruses, including human strains. Analysis of partial sequence of the VP1 gene indicated that it was distinct from cognate genes of other rotaviruses. No sequences were obtained for the VP3 and NSP1 genes of the bat rotavirus. This rotavirus was designated G25-P[6]-I15-R8(provisional)-C8-Mx-Ax-N8-T11-E2-H10. Results suggest that several reassortment events have occurred between human, animal, and bat rotaviruses. Several additional rotavirus strains were detected in bats.

Historical Review

  • Mortality Risk Factors for Pandemic Influenza on New Zealand Troop Ship, 1918 PDF Version [PDF - 305 KB - 7 pages]
    J. A. Summers et al.
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    We describe the epidemiology and risk factors for death in an outbreak of pandemic influenza on a troop ship. Mortality and descriptive data for military personnel on His Majesty’s New Zealand Transport troop ship Tahiti in July 1918 were analyzed, along with archival information. Mortality risk was increased among persons 25–34 years of age. Accommodations in cabins rather than sleeping in hammocks in other areas were also associated with increased mortality risk (rate ratio 4.28, 95% confidence interval 2.69–6.81). Assignment to a particular military unit, the field artillery (probably housed in cabins), also made a significant difference (adjusted odds ratio in logistic regression 3.04, 95% confidence interval 1.59–5.82). There were no significant differences by assigned rurality (rural residence) or socioeconomic status. Results suggest that the virulent nature of the 1918 influenza strain, a crowded environment, and inadequate isolation measures contributed to the high influenza mortality rate onboard this ship.



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