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Volume 16, Number 3—March 2010

Research

Invasive Haemophilus influenzae Disease, Europe, 1996–2006

Shamez N. LadhaniComments to Author , Mary P.E. Slack, Paul T. Heath, Anne von Gottberg, Manosree Chandra, Mary E. Ramsay, and European Union Invasive Bacterial Infection Surveillance participants1
Author affiliations: Health Protection Agency, London, UK (S. Ladhani, M.P.E. Slack, M. Chandra, M.E. Ramsay); National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa (A. von Gottberg); St. George’s University of London, London (P.T. Heath)

Main Article

Table 2

Hib and ncHi cases, by diagnosis and age group, Europe 1996–2006*

Diagnosis Age group
NR Total Median age, y
<1 mo 1–5 mo 6–11 mo <1 y 1–4 y 5–14 y 15–44 y 45–64 y >65 y
Hib
Meningitis 6 
(31.6) 93 (60.4) 98 
(57.6) 197 (57.4) 282 (41.2) 45 (23.0) 26 (10.0) 17 
(7.1) 12 
(4.4) 1 
(12.5) 580 (28.9) 1.6
Epiglottitis 0 1 
(0.6) 4 
(2.4) 5
(1.5) 110 (16.1) 29 (14.8) 45 (17.4) 37 (15.4) 22 
(8.0) 0 248 (12.4) 6.7
Cellulitis 0 7 
(4.5) 18 
(10.6) 25 
(7.3) 15 
(2.2) 3 
(1.5) 0 1 
(0.4) 4 
(1.5) 0 48 
(2.4) 1.0
OM/SA 0 4 
(2.6) 5 
(2.9) 9 
(2.6) 24 
(3.5) 4 
(2.0) 4 
(1.5) 6 
(2.5) 1 
(0.4) 0 48 
(2.4) 2.1
Pneumonia 0 3 
(1.9) 5 
(2.9) 8 
(2.3) 20
(2.9) 15 
(7.7) 35 (13.5) 36 (14.9) 47 (17.2) 1 
(12.5) 162 (8.1) 46.7
Bacteremia 11 (57.9) 33 (21.4) 30 
(17.6) 74 (21.6) 193 (28.2) 73 (37.2) 102 (39.4) 96 (39.8) 134 (48.9) 2 
(25.0) 674 (33.6) 13.6
Other 0 1 
(0.6) 2 
(1.2) 3 
(0.9) 10 
(1.5) 6
(3.1) 10
(3.9) 11 
(4.6) 7
(2.6) 0 47 
(2.3) 34.6
NR 2 
(10.5) 12 
(7.8) 8 
(4.7) 22 
(6.4) 30 
(4.4) 21 (10.7) 37 (14.3) 37 (15.4) 47 (17.2) 4 
(50.0) 198 (9.9) 39.0
All cases
19 (100.0)
154 (100.0)
170 (100.0)
343 (100.0)
684 (100.0)
196 (100.0)
259 (100.0)
241 (100.0)
274 (100.0)
8 (100.0)
2005 (100.0)
4.5
ncHi
Meningitis 8 
(4.4) 15 (13.6) 19 
(19.4) 42 (10.8) 76 (22.6) 37 (24.2) 65 (14.3) 63 (13.6) 45 
(3.3) 4 
(20.0) 332 (10.5) 19.7
Epiglottitis 2 
(1.1) 0 0 2 
(0.5) 2 
(0.6) 1 
(0.7) 5 
(1.1) 5 
(1.1) 3 
(0.2) 0 18 
(0.6) 42.1
Cellulitis 0 0 1 
(1.0) 1 
(0.3) 4 
(1.2) 5 
(3.3) 0 0 4 
(0.3) 0 14 
(0.4) 11.6
OM/SA 0 0 0 0 2 
(0.6) 1 
(0.7) 2 
(0.4) 2 
(0.4) 4 
(0.3) 0 11 
(0.3) 56.6
Pneumonia 10 
(5.5) 14 (12.7) 11 
(11.2) 35 
(9.0) 39 (11.6) 11 
(7.2) 34 
(7.5) 56 (12.1) 226 (16.7) 0 401 (12.6) 70.0
Bacteremia 129 (70.9) 53 (48.2) 46 
(46.9) 228 (58.5) 151 (44.8) 74 (48.4) 236 (52.0) 218 (47.0) 759 (56.1) 10 (50.0) 1,676 (52.8) 59.6
Other 3 
(1.6) 8 
(7.3) 8 
(8.2) 19 
(4.9) 21
(6.2) 5 
(3.3) 20 
(4.4) 9 
(1.9) 38
(2.8) 2 
(10.0) 114 (3.6) 31.2
NR 30 (16.5) 20 (18.2) 13 
(13.3) 63 (16.2) 42 (12.5) 19 (12.4) 92 (20.3) 111 (23.9) 275 (20.3) 4 
(20.0) 606 (19.1) 61.3
All cases 182 (100.0) 110 (100.0) 98 (100.0) 390 (100.0) 337 (100.0) 153 (100.0) 454 (100.0) 464 (100.0) 1354 (100.0) 20 (100.0) 3,172 (100.0) 58.2

*Pediatric cases only for Attiki, Greece (1996–2002); Germany (1998 onward); and Israel (1996 onward). Values are no. (%) cases except as indicated. Hib, Haemophilus influenzae type b; ncHi, noncapsulated H. influenzae; NR, not recorded; OM/SA, osteomyelitis/septic arthritis.

Main Article

1European Union Invasive Bacterial Infection Surveillance participants: Peter McIntyre, Lyn Gilbert, Geoff Hogg (Australia); Reinhild Strauss, Sigrid Heuberger (Austria); Germaine Hanquet, Francoise Crokaert (Belgium); Pavla Krizova, Vera Lebedova (Czech Republic); Kåre Mølbak, Jens Jørgen Christensen (Denmark); Kuulo Kutsar, Unna Joks (Estonia); Elja Herva, Tarja Kaijalainen, Maija Leinonen, Petri Ruutu (Finland); Agnes Lepoutre, Henri Dabernat (France); Anette Siedler, Heinz-J. Schmitt (Germany); Marie Theodoridou, Anastasia Pangalis, Georgina Tzanakaki (Greece); Miklos Fuzi, Katalin Krisztalovics (Hungary); Thorolfur Gudnason, Hjordis Hardardottir (Iceland); Mary Cafferkey, Suzanne Cotter, Darina O'Flanagan (Republic of Ireland); Ron Dagan (Israel); Marina Cerquetti, Marta Ciofi degli Atti (Italy); Irina Lucenko (Latvia); Grazina Rimseliene, Snieguole Dauksiene (Lithuania); Pierette Huberty-Krau, Francois Schneider (Luxembourg); Jackie Maistre Melillo (Malta); Sabine de Greeff, Hester de Melker, Lodewijk Spanjaard (Netherlands); Hans Blystad, E. Arne Hoiby, Øistein Løvoll (Norway); Andrzej Zielinski, Waleria Hryniewicz, Anna Skoczynska, Marcin Kadlubowski (Poland); Laurinda Queirós, Paula Lavado (Portugal); Claire Cameron, Barbara Denham, Fiona Johnston (Scotland); Margareta Slacikova, Elena Novakova (Slovak Republic); Alenka Kraigher, Metka Paragi (Slovenia); Jose Campos, Javier Diez-Domingo (Spain); Rose-Marie Carlsson, Birgitta Henriques Normark (Sweden); Hans-Peter Zimmermann (Switzerland).

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