Volume 16, Number 3—March 2010
Volume 16, Number 3—March 2010 PDF Version [PDF - 5.47 MB - 219 pages]
Preparing a Community Hospital to Manage Work-related Exposures to Infectious Agents in BioSafety Level 3 and 4 Laboratories
PDF Version [PDF - 178 KB - 6 pages]
G. F. Risi et al.View Abstract
Construction of new BioSafety Level (BSL) 3 and 4 laboratories has raised concerns regarding provision of care to exposed workers because of healthcare worker (HCW) unfamiliarity with precautions required. When the National Institutes of Health began construction of a new BSL-4 laboratory in Hamilton, Montana, USA, in 2005, they contracted with St. Patrick Hospital in Missoula, Montana, for care of those exposed. A care and isolation unit is described. We developed a training program for HCWs that emphasized the optimal use of barrier precautions and used pathogen-specific modules and simulations with mannequins and fluorescent liquids that represented infectious body fluids. The facility and training led to increased willingness among HCWs to care for patients with all types of communicable diseases. This model may be useful for other hospitals, whether they support a BSL-4 facility, are in the proximity of a BSL-3 facility, or are interested in upgrading their facilities to prepare for exotic and novel infectious diseases.
Bartonella spp. Transmission by Ticks Not Established
PDF Version [PDF - 211 KB - 6 pages]
S. R. Telford and G. P. WormserView Abstract
Bartonella spp. infect humans and many animal species. Mainly because PCR studies have demonstrated Bartonella DNA in ticks, some healthcare providers believe that these microorganisms are transmitted by ticks. B. henselae, in particular, is regarded as being present in and transmissible by the Ixodes scapularis tick. The presence of a microbial agent within a tick, however, does not imply that the tick might transmit it during the course of blood feeding and does not confer epidemiologic importance. After a critical review of the evidence for and against tick transmission, we conclude that transmission of any Bartonella spp. by ticks, to animals or humans, has not been established. We are unaware of any well-documented case of B. henselae transmission by I. scapularis ticks.
Potential for Tick-borne Bartonelloses
PDF Version [PDF - 184 KB - 7 pages]
E. Angelakis et al.View Abstract
As worldwide vectors of human infectious diseases, ticks are considered to be second only to mosquitoes. Each tick species has preferred environmental conditions and biotopes that determine its geographic distribution, the pathogens it vectors, and the areas that pose risk for tick-borne diseases. Researchers have identified an increasing number of bacterial pathogens that are transmitted by ticks, including Anaplasma, Borrelia, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia spp. Recent reports involving humans and canines suggest that ticks should be considered as potential vectors of Bartonella spp. To strengthen this suggestion, numerous molecular surveys to detect Bartonella DNA in ticks have been conducted. However, there is little evidence that Bartonella spp. can replicate within ticks and no definitive evidence of transmission by a tick to a vertebrate host.
Serologic Markers for Detecting Malaria in Areas of Low Endemicity, Somalia, 2008
PDF Version [PDF - 260 KB - 8 pages]
T. Bousema et al.View Abstract
Areas in which malaria is not highly endemic are suitable for malaria elimination, but assessing transmission is difficult because of lack of sensitivity of commonly used methods. We evaluated serologic markers for detecting variation in malaria exposure in Somalia. Plasmodium falciparum or P. vivax was not detected by microscopy in cross-sectional surveys of samples from persons during the dry (0/1,178) and wet (0/1,128) seasons. Antibody responses against P. falciparum or P. vivax were detected in 17.9% (179/1,001) and 19.3% (202/1,044) of persons tested. Reactivity against P. falciparum was significantly different between 3 villages (p<0.001); clusters of seroreactivity were present. Distance to the nearest seasonal river was negatively associated with P. falciparum (p = 0.028) and P. vivax seroreactivity (p = 0.016). Serologic markers are a promising tool for detecting spatial variation in malaria exposure and evaluating malaria control efforts in areas where transmission has decreased to levels below the detection limit of microscopy.
Infection of Kissing Bugs with Trypanosoma cruzi, Tucson, Arizona, USA
PDF Version [PDF - 205 KB - 6 pages]
C. E. Reisenman et al.View Abstract
Triatomine insects (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), commonly known as kissing bugs, are a potential health problem in the southwestern United States as possible vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. Although this disease has been traditionally restricted to Latin America, a small number of vector-transmitted autochthonous US cases have been reported. Because triatomine bugs and infected mammalian reservoirs are plentiful in southern Arizona, we collected triatomines inside or around human houses in Tucson and analyzed the insects using molecular techniques to determine whether they were infected with T. cruzi. We found that 41.5% of collected bugs (n = 164) were infected with T. cruzi, and that 63% of the collection sites (n = 22) yielded >1 infected specimens. Although many factors may contribute to the lack of reported cases in Arizona, these results indicate that the risk for infection in this region may be higher than previously thought.
Surveillance for West Nile Virus in American White Pelicans, Montana, USA, 2006–2007
PDF Version [PDF - 147 KB - 6 pages]
G. P. Johnson et al.View Abstract
West Nile virus (WNV)–associated deaths of American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks have been recognized at various nesting colonies in the United States since 2002. We evaluated American white pelican nesting colonies in Sheridan County, Montana, USA, for an association between WNV-positive pelican carcasses and human West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Persons in counties hosting affected colonies had a 5× higher risk for disease than those in counties with unaffected colonies. We also investigated WNV infection and blood meal source among mosquitoes and pelican tissue type for greatest WNV detection efficacy in carcasses. WNV-infected Culex tarsalis mosquitoes were detected and blood-engorged Cx. tarsalis contained pelican DNA. Viral loads and detection consistency among pelican tissues were greatest in feather pulp, brain, heart, and skin. Given the risks posed to wildlife and human health, coordinated efforts among wildlife and public health authorities to monitor these pelican colonies for WNV activity are potentially useful.
Murine Typhus in Austin, Texas, USA, 2008
PDF Version [PDF - 215 KB - 6 pages]
J. Adjemian et al.View Abstract
In August 2008, Texas authorities and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated reports of increased numbers of febrile rash illnesses in Austin to confirm the causative agent as Rickettsia typhi, to assess the outbreak magnitude and illness severity, and to identify potential animal reservoirs and peridomestic factors that may have contributed to disease emergence. Thirty-three human cases of confirmed murine typhus were identified. Illness onset was reported from March to October. No patients died, but 23 (70%) were hospitalized. The case-patients clustered geographically in central Austin; 12 (36%) resided in a single ZIP code area. Specimens from wildlife and domestic animals near case-patient homes were assessed; 18% of cats, 44% of dogs, and 71% of opossums had antibodies reactive to R. typhi. No evidence of R. typhi was detected in the whole blood, tissue, or arthropod specimens tested. These findings suggest that an R. typhi cycle involving opossums and domestic animals may be present in Austin.
Chikungunya Virus Infection during Pregnancy, Réunion, France, 2006
PDF Version [PDF - 180 KB - 8 pages]
X. Fritel et al.View Abstract
Mother-to-child transmission of chikungunya virus was reported during the 2005–2006 outbreak on Réunion Island, France. To determine the effects of this virus on pregnancy outcomes, we conducted a study of pregnant women in Réunion in 2006. The study population was composed of 1,400 pregnant women (628 uninfected, 658 infected during pregnancy, 27 infected before pregnancy, and 87 infected on unknown dates). We compared pregnancy outcomes for 655 (628 + 27) women not infected during pregnancy with 658 who were infected during pregnancy. Infection occurred during the first trimester for 15% of the infected women, the second for 59%, and the third for 26%. Only hospital admission during pregnancy differed between infected and uninfected women (40% vs. 29%). Other outcomes (cesarean deliveries, obstetric hemorrhaging, preterm births, stillbirths after 22 weeks, birthweight, congenital malformations, and newborn admissions) were similar. This virus had no observable effect on pregnancy outcomes.
Effects of Mumps Outbreak in Hospital, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 2006
PDF Version [PDF - 178 KB - 7 pages]
A. L. Bonebrake et al.View Abstract
In 2006, nearly 6,000 mumps cases were reported in the United States, 795 of which occurred in Illinois. In Chicago, 1 healthcare institution experienced ongoing transmission for 4 weeks. This study examines the outbreak epidemiology and quantifies the financial affect on this organization. This retrospective cohort study was conducted through case and exposure identification, interviews, medical record reviews, and immunologic testing of blood specimens. Nine mumps cases resulted in 339 exposures, 325 (98%) among employees. During initial investigation, 186 (57%) of the exposed employees had evidence of mumps immunity. Physicians made up the largest group of noncompliers (55%) with mumps immunity testing. The cost to the institution was $262,788 or $29,199 per mumps case. The outbreak resulted in substantial staffing and financial challenges for the institution that may have been minimized with readily accessible electronic employee vaccination records and adherence to infection control recommendations.
Blood Meal Analysis to Identify Reservoir Hosts for Amblyomma americanum Ticks
PDF Version [PDF - 173 KB - 8 pages]
B. F. Allan et al.View Abstract
Efforts to identify wildlife reservoirs for tick-borne pathogens are frequently limited by poor understanding of tick–host interactions and potentially transient infectivity of hosts under natural conditions. To identify reservoir hosts for lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum)–associated pathogens, we used a novel technology. In field-collected ticks, we used PCR to amplify a portion of the 18S rRNA gene in remnant blood meal DNA. Reverse line blot hybridization with host-specific probes was then used to subsequently detect and identify amplified DNA. Although several other taxa of wildlife hosts contribute to tick infection rates, our results confirm that the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a reservoir host for several A. americanum–associated pathogens. Identification of host blood meal frequency and reservoir competence can help in determining human infection rates caused by these pathogens.
Borrelia, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia spp. in Ticks Removed from Persons, Texas, USA
PDF Version [PDF - 129 KB - 6 pages]
P. C. Williamson et al.View Abstract
Data regarding the type, frequency, and distribution of tick-borne pathogens and bacterial agents are not widely available for many tick species that parasitize persons in the southern United States. We therefore analyzed the frequency and identity of pathogens and bacterial agents in ticks removed from humans and subsequently submitted to the Texas Department of State Health Services, Zoonosis Control Program, from October 1, 2004, through September 30, 2008. The data showed associations of bacterial agents and potential vectors. Tick-related illnesses may pose unidentified health risks in areas such as Texas, where incidence of human disease related to tick bites is low but well above zero and where ticks are not routinely suspected as the cause of disease. Cause, treatment, and prevention strategies can be better addressed through collecting sufficient data to establish baseline assessments of risk.
New Endemic Legionella pneumophila Serogroup I Clones, Ontario, Canada
PDF Version [PDF - 266 KB - 8 pages]
N. Tijet et al.View Abstract
The water-borne pathogen Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1) is the most commonly reported etiologic agent of legionellosis. To examine the genetic diversity, the long-term epidemiology, and the molecular evolution of Lp1 clinical isolates, we conducted sequence-based typing on a collection of clinical isolates representing 3 decades of culture-confirmed legionellosis in Ontario, Canada. Analysis showed that the population of Lp1 in Ontario is highly diverse and combines lineages identified worldwide with local strains. Identical types were identified in sporadic and outbreak-associated strains. In the past 15 years, the incidence of some lineages distributed worldwide has tended to decrease, and local endemic clones and lineages have emerged. Comparative geographic distribution analysis suggests that some lineages are specific to eastern North America. These findings have general clinical implications for the study of Lp1 molecular evolution and for the identification of Lp1 circulating strains in North America.
Invasive Haemophilus influenzae Disease, Europe, 1996–2006
PDF Version [PDF - 162 KB - 9 pages]
S. N. Ladhani et al.View Abstract
An international collaboration was established in 1996 to monitor the impact of routine Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccination on invasive H. influenzae disease; 14 countries routinely serotype all clinical isolates. Of the 10,081 invasive H. influenzae infections reported during 1996–2006, 4,466 (44%, incidence 0.28 infections/100,000 population) were due to noncapsulated H. influenzae (ncHi); 2,836 (28%, 0.15/100,000), to Hib; and 690 (7%, 0.036/100,000), to non–b encapsulated H. influenzae. Invasive ncHi infections occurred in older persons more often than Hib (median age 58 years vs. 5 years, p<0.0001) and were associated with higher case-fatality ratios (12% vs. 4%, p<0.0001), particularly in infants (17% vs. 3%, p<0.0001). Among non-b encapsulated H. influenzae, types f (72%) and e (21%) were responsible for almost all cases; the overall case-fatality rate was 9%. Thus, the incidence of invasive non–type b H. influenzae is now higher than that of Hib and is associated with higher case fatality.
Vaccine Preventability of Meningococcal Clone, Greater Aachen Region, Germany
PDF Version [PDF - 614 KB - 9 pages]
J. Elias et al.View Abstract
Emergence of serogroup B meningococci of clonal complex sequence type (ST) 41/44 can cause high levels of disease, as exemplified by a recent epidemic in New Zealand. Multiplication of annual incidence rates (3.1 cases/100,000 population) of meningococcal disease in a defined German region, the city of Aachen and 3 neighboring countries (Greater Aachen) prompted us to investigate and determine the source and nature of this outbreak. Using molecular typing and geographic mapping, we analyzed 1,143 strains belonging to ST41/44 complex, isolated from persons with invasive meningococcal disease over 6 years (2001–2006) from 2 German federal states (total population 26 million) and the Netherlands. A spatially slowly moving clone with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis type 19, ST42, and antigenic profile B:P1.7–2,4:F1–5 was responsible for the outbreak. Bactericidal activity in serum samples from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccination campaign confirmed vaccine preventability. Because this globally distributed epidemic strain spreads slowly, vaccination efforts could possibly eliminate meningococcal disease in this area.
Use of Avian Bornavirus Isolates to Induce Proventricular Dilatation Disease in Conures
PDF Version [PDF - 282 KB - 7 pages]
P. Gray et al.View Abstract
Avian bornavirus (ABV) is a newly discovered member of the family Bornaviridae that has been associated with the development of a lethal neurologic syndrome in birds, termed proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). We successfully isolated and characterized ABV from the brains of 8 birds with confirmed PDD. One isolate was passed 6 times in duck embryo fibroblasts, and the infected cells were then injected intramuscularly into 2 healthy Patagonian conures (Cyanoliseus patagonis). Clinical PDD developed in both birds by 66 days postinfection. PDD was confirmed by necropsy and histopathologic examination. Reverse transcription–PCR showed that the inoculated ABV was in the brains of the 2 infected birds. A control bird that received uninfected tissue culture cells remained healthy until it was euthanized at 77 days. Necropsy and histopathologic examinations showed no abnormalities; PCR did not indicate ABV in its brain tissues.
Economic Cost Analysis of West Nile Virus Outbreak, Sacramento County, California, USA, 2005
PDF Version [PDF - 237 KB - 7 pages]
L. M. Barber et al.View Abstract
In 2005, an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) disease occurred in Sacramento County, California; 163 human cases were reported. In response to WNV surveillance indicating increased WNV activity, the Sacramento-Yolo Mosquito and Vector Control District conducted an emergency aerial spray. We determined the economic impact of the outbreak, including the vector control event and the medical cost to treat WNV disease. WNV disease in Sacramento County cost ≈$2.28 million for medical treatment and patients’ productivity loss for both West Nile fever and West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Vector control cost ≈$701,790, including spray procedures and overtime hours. The total economic impact of WNV was $2.98 million. A cost-benefit analysis indicated that only 15 cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease would need to be prevented to make the emergency spray cost-effective.
Paenibacillus larvae Bacteremia in Injection Drug Users
PDF Version [PDF - 280 KB - 3 pages]
S. Rieg et al.View Abstract
Paenibacillus larvae causes American foulbrood in honey bees. We describe P. larvae bacteremia in 5 injection drug users who had self-injected honey-prepared methadone proven to contain P. larvae spores. That such preparations may be contaminated with spores of this organism is not well known among pharmacists, physicians, and addicts.
Rickettsia helvetica in Patient with Meningitis, Sweden, 2006
PDF Version [PDF - 209 KB - 3 pages]
K. Nilsson et al.View Abstract
Pathogenicity of Rickettsia helvetica is relatively unknown. We isolated a spotted fever group rickettsial organism from a patient with subacute meningitis. Nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA, ompB, and 17kDa genes identified the isolate as R. helvetica. This organism may be associated with serious infections such as central nervous system disorders.
Rare Influenza A (H3N2) Variants with Reduced Sensitivity to Antiviral Drugs
PDF Version [PDF - 200 KB - 4 pages]
C. Dapat et al.View Abstract
In 2007 and 2008 in Myanmar, we detected influenza viruses A (H3N2) that exhibited reduced sensitivity to both zanamivir and amantadine. These rare and naturally occurring viruses harbored a novel Q136K mutation in neuraminidase and S31N mutation in M2.
Sarcocystis Species Lethal for Domestic Pigeons
PDF Version [PDF - 325 KB - 3 pages]
P. Olias et al.View Abstract
A large number of Sarcocystis spp. infect birds as intermediate hosts, but pigeons are rarely affected. We identified a novel Sarcocystis sp. that causes lethal neurologic disease in domestic pigeons in Germany. Experimental infections indicated transmission by northern goshawks, and sequence analyses indicated transnational distribution. Worldwide spread is possible.
Candidatus Bartonella mayotimonensis and Endocarditis
PDF Version [PDF - 383 KB - 4 pages]
E. Y. Lin et al.View Abstract
We describe a new Bartonella species for which we propose the name Candidatus Bartonella mayotimonensis. It was isolated from native aortic valve tissue of a person with infective endocarditis. The new species was identified by using PCR amplification and sequencing of 5 genes (16S rRNA gene, ftsZ, rpoB, gltA, and internal transcribed spacer region).
Surveillance Lessons from First-wave Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Northern California, USA
PDF Version [PDF - 282 KB - 3 pages]
R. BaxterView Abstract
After the appearance of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in April 2009, influenza activity was monitored within the Kaiser Permanente Northern California division by using laboratory, pharmacy, telephone calls, and utilization (services patients received) data. A combination of testing and utilization data showed a pattern of disease activity, but this pattern may have been affected by public perception of the epidemic.
Experimental Infection of Squirrel Monkeys with Nipah Virus
PDF Version [PDF - 302 KB - 4 pages]
P. Marianneau et al.View Abstract
We infected squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) with Nipah virus to determine the monkeys’ suitability for use as primate models in preclinical testing of preventive and therapeutic treatments. Infection of squirrel monkeys through intravenous injection was followed by high death rates associated with acute neurologic and respiratory illness and viral RNA and antigen production.
Q Fever in Greenland
PDF Version [PDF - 226 KB - 3 pages]
A. Koch et al.View Abstract
We report a patient with Q fever endocarditis in a settlement in eastern Greenland (Isortoq, Ammassalik area). Likely animal sources include sled dogs and seals. Q fever may be underdiagnosed in Arctic areas but may also represent an emerging infection.
Banna Virus, China, 1987–2007
PDF Version [PDF - 234 KB - 4 pages]
H. Liu et al.View Abstract
Banna viruses (BAVs) have been isolated from pigs, cattle, ticks, mosquitoes, and human encephalitis patients. We isolated and analyzed 20 BAVs newly isolated in China; this finding extends the distribution of BAVs from tropical zone to north temperate climates and demonstrate regional variations in BAV phylogeny and mosquito species possibly involved in BAV transmission.
Bluetongue Virus Serotypes 1 and 4 in Red Deer, Spain
PDF Version [PDF - 252 KB - 3 pages]
B. Rodríguez-Sánchez et al.View Abstract
We studied the potential of red deer as bluetongue maintenance hosts and sentinels. Deer maintained detectable bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 4 RNA for 1 year after the virus was cleared from livestock. However, the virus was not transmitted to yearlings. BTV serotype 1 RNA was detected in red deer immediately after its first detection in cattle.
Novel Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiosis, Brazil
PDF Version [PDF - 215 KB - 3 pages]
M. G. Spolidorio et al.View Abstract
We report a clinical case of spotted fever group rickettsiosis acquired in São Paulo, Brazil. Definitive diagnosis was supported by seroconversion between acute-phase and convalescent-phase serum samples. Molecular analysis of skin samples indicated the agent was a novel spotted fever group strain closely related to Rickettsia africae, R. parkeri, and R. sibirica.
Climate Warming and Tick-borne Encephalitis, Slovakia
PDF Version [PDF - 233 KB - 3 pages]
M. Lukan et al.View Abstract
Increased tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) cases have been reported in central Europe. To investigate temporal trends in the altitude at which TBE cases occur in Slovakia, we analyzed the number of TBE cases during 1961–2004. Since 1980, TBE cases moved from lowlands to submountainous areas, most likely because of rising temperature.
Terrestrial Rabies and Human Postexposure Prophylaxis, New York, USA
PDF Version [PDF - 127 KB - 3 pages]
M. Eidson and A. K. BingmanView Abstract
During 1993–2002, cats accounted for 2.7% of rabid terrestrial animals in New York but for one third of human exposure incidents and treatments. Nonbite exposures and animals of undetermined rabies status accounted for 54% and 56%, respectively, of persons receiving rabies treatments.
Increasing Skin Infections and Staphylococcus aureus Complications in Children, England, 1997–2006
PDF Version [PDF - 215 KB - 4 pages]
S. Saxena et al.View Abstract
During 1997–2006, general practitioner consultations for skin conditions for children <18 years of age in England increased 19%, from 128.5 to 152.9/1,000 child-years, and antistaphylococcal drug prescription rates increased 64%, from 17.8 to 29.1/1,000 child-years. During the same time period, hospital admissions for Staphylococcus aureus infections rose 49% from 53.4 to 79.3/100,000 child-years.
Influenza A Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infection in Domestic Cat
PDF Version [PDF - 289 KB - 4 pages]
B. A. Sponseller et al.View Abstract
Influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus continues to rapidly spread worldwide. In 2009, pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection in a domestic cat from Iowa was diagnosed by a novel PCR assay that distinguishes between Eurasian and North American pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus matrix genes. Human-to-cat transmission is presumed.
School Closure and Mitigation of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Hong Kong
PDF Version [PDF - 227 KB - 4 pages]
J. T. Wu et al.View Abstract
In Hong Kong, kindergartens and primary schools were closed when local transmission of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 was identified. Secondary schools closed for summer vacation shortly afterwards. By fitting a model of reporting and transmission to case data, we estimated that transmission was reduced ≈25% when secondary schools closed.
Global Origin of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the Midlands, UK
PDF Version [PDF - 290 KB - 4 pages]
J. T. Evans et al.View Abstract
DNA fingerprinting data for 4,207 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were combined with data from a computer program (Origins). Largest population groups were from England (n = 1,031) and India (n = 912), and most prevalent strains were the Euro-American (45%) and East African–Indian (34%) lineages. Combining geographic and molecular data can enhance cluster investigation.
Quinine-Resistant Malaria in Traveler Returning from Senegal, 2007
PDF Version [PDF - 226 KB - 3 pages]
B. Pradines et al.View Abstract
We describe clinical and parasitologic features of in vivo and in vitro Plasmodium falciparum resistance to quinine in a nonimmune traveler who returned to France from Senegal in 2007 with severe imported malaria. Clinical quinine failure was associated with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 829 nmol/L. Increased vigilance is required during treatment follow-up.
Putative New Lineage of West Nile Virus, Spain
PDF Version [PDF - 312 KB - 4 pages]
A. Vázquez et al.View Abstract
To ascertain the presence of West Nile virus (WNV), we sampled mosquitoes in 2006 in locations in southern Spain where humans had been infected. WNV genomic RNA was detected in 1 pool from unfed female Culex pipiens mosquitoes. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this sequence cannot be assigned to previously described lineages of WNV.
Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis and 2 Human Deaths, Peru
PDF Version [PDF - 161 KB - 4 pages]
S. Vilcarromero et al.View Abstract
Studies have suggested that enzootic strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) subtype ID in the Amazon region, Peru, may be less pathogenic to humans than are epizootic variants. Deaths of 2 persons with evidence of acute VEE virus infection indicate that fatal VEEV infection in Peru is likely. Cases may remain underreported.
Medscape CME Activity
Extensively Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Aspirates, Rural South Africa PDF Version [PDF - 252 KB - 5 pages]S. K. Heysell et al.View Abstract
The yield from aspirating lymph nodes and pleural fluid for diagnosing extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis is unknown. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured from lymph node or pleural fluid aspirates of 21 patients; 7 (33%) cultures grew XDR M. tuberculosis. Additive diagnostic yield for XDR M. tuberculosis was found in parallel culture of sputum and fluid aspirate.
Parvovirus 4–like Virus in Blood Products
PDF Version [PDF - 261 KB - 4 pages]
J. Szelei et al.View Abstract
Porcine plasma and factor VIII preparations were screened for parvovirus 4 (PARV)–like viruses. Although the prevalence of PARV4-like viruses in plasma samples was relatively low, viruses appeared to be concentrated during manufacture of factor VIII. PARV4-like viruses from human and porcine origins coevolved likewise with their hosts.
Rhabdomyolysis and Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Pneumonia in Adult
PDF Version [PDF - 79 KB - 1 page]
R. L. Gutierrez et al.
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica Infections, FoodNet, 1996–2007
PDF Version [PDF - 90 KB - 2 pages]
C. Long et al.
Measles Outbreak, the Netherlands, 2008
PDF Version [PDF - 94 KB - 3 pages]
S. Hahné et al.
Neurologic Manifestations of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infection
PDF Version [PDF - 105 KB - 2 pages]
S. Kitcharoen et al.
Rickettsia felis, West Indies
PDF Version [PDF - 101 KB - 2 pages]
P. J. Kelly et al.
Rickettsia africae, Western Africa
PDF Version [PDF - 104 KB - 3 pages]
O. Mediannikov et al.
Transmission of West Nile Virus during Horse Autopsy
PDF Version [PDF - 102 KB - 3 pages]
M. Venter et al.
Breeding Sites of Bluetongue Virus Vectors, Belgium
PDF Version [PDF - 95 KB - 2 pages]
J. Zimmer et al.
Two Lineages of Dengue Virus Type 2, Brazil
PDF Version [PDF - 89 KB - 3 pages]
M. F. Oliveira et al.
Yersinia Species Isolated from Bats, Germany
PDF Version [PDF - 86 KB - 3 pages]
K. Mühldorfer et al.
Human Herpesvirus 8, Southern Siberia
PDF Version [PDF - 94 KB - 3 pages]
O. Cassar et al.
About the Cover
…a flea Has smaller fleas that on him prey; And these have smaller still to bite ’em, And so proceed ad infinitum
PDF Version [PDF - 114 KB - 2 pages]
- Page created: August 28, 2012
- Page last updated: August 28, 2012
- Page last reviewed: August 28, 2012
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
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